原标题: 福州治输卵管不畅专业医院久久大全
The EU’s top environmental official alerted his colleagues that motor manufacturers were gaming European emissions tests more than two years before US authorities uncovered widesp cheating by Volkswagen, according to internal European Commission documents obtained by the Financial Times.据英国《金融时报》得到的欧盟委员会(European Commission)内部文件,欧盟最高环境官员早就曾提醒他的同僚,汽车制造商们在操纵欧洲尾气排放检测,他发出这番警告的时间比美国监管机构发现大众汽车(Volkswagen)存在普遍作弊行为早了两年多。Despite the warning sounded by Janez Potocnik, the then EU environment commissioner, Brussels did not take swift action to crack down on the practice but instead left in place an earlier plan that allowed the emissions loopholes exploited by Volkswagen to remain through to 2017.尽管时任欧盟环境专员的乔纳兹珀多尼克(Janez Potocnik)发出了警告,但欧盟并没有迅速采取措施打击汽车制造商的这种做法,而是继续实施一项到2017年截止的计划,该计划使大众得以利用排放检测的漏洞。Volkswagen has now suspended about 10 senior executives as part of its inquiry into the crippling emissions scandal that has rocked Europe’s biggest carmaker. VW last month admitted, in response to the US investigation, to using an illegal piece of software in its diesel engines to cheat in tests for dangerous nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.在对排放造假丑闻进行调查的过程中,大众已暂停了大约10名高管的职务。丑闻已使这家欧洲最大汽车制造商元气大伤。作为对美国方面的调查的回应,大众上月承认在柴油发动机中使用了非法软件,在氮氧化物(NOx)排放检测中作弊。In a letter to Antonio Tajani, the European commissioner in charge of industrial policy, written in February 2013, Mr Potocnik said ministers from several EU countries believed the “significant discrepancy” between how cars performed in the real world compared with in the testing laboratory was the “primary reason” air quality standards were not falling to levels required by EU law.在2013年2月写给负责工业政策的欧盟专员安东尼奥吠贾尼(Antonio Tajani)的一封信中,珀多尼克表示,几个欧盟国家的部长们认为,汽车在实际上路驾驶中的表现与在检测实验室中的表现存在“巨大差异”,是空气质量标准没有降至欧盟法律规定水平的“主要原因”。“There are widesp concerns that performance [of cars] has been tailored tightly to compliance with the test cycle in disregard of the dramatic increase in emissions outside that narrow scope,” Mr Potocnik wrote. Cars are required to comply with EU emissions limits “in normal driving conditions”, he wrote.珀多尼克写道:“人们普遍担心,(汽车的)表现严格遵照检测周期进行调整,而不顾在这一狭窄周期以外排放量的大幅增加。”他写道,汽车在“正常驾驶状况”下应遵守欧盟排放限制。He urged Mr Tajani to quickly propose new measures to strike back at carmakers, such as withdrawing emissions approvals for entire model lines and requiring “remedial action” from manufacturers.他敦促塔贾尼迅速提出新的措施打击汽车制造商,例如取消全部汽车型号的排放许可,要求制造商采取“补救措施”。People involved in the talks said concerns at the time centred on legal techniques used by manufacturers to improve their results, rather than on the possibility carmakers might be breaking a 2007 EU law using software, known as “defeat devices”, that VW has admitted using.参与讨论的人士表示,当时主要担忧的是汽车制造商利用合法技术改善排放结果,而非汽车制造商可能利用被称为“欺诈装置”的软件,触犯欧盟2007年出台的一项法律。大众汽车承认利用了这种欺诈软件。At the centre of the internal commission wrangling was the discrepancy between NOx emissions recorded in laboratory tests conducted by regulatory authorities and the much higher levels detected during road tests.欧盟委员会内部争议的核心是监管部门的实验室检测中所记录的氮氧化物排放水平与实际道路检测出的排放水平存在差异,后者要高得多。The discrepancies were highlighted as early as 2011 by the commission’s joint research centre . Those same irregularities, when uncovered by US investigators earlier this year, led the US Environmental Protection Agency to confront VW directly, leading to the admission it had been cheating.欧盟委员会的合作研究中心早在2011年就强调了这一差异。今年早些时候,美国调查人员发现了这些不法行为,致使美国环保署(Environmental Protection Agency)与大众汽车正面对抗,促使大众汽车承认存在欺诈行为。 /201510/406155

Last October, Lisa Su became the first female leader of a major semiconductor company. As Advanced Micro Devices AMD 1.16% new CEO, the long-time technologist also became one of the 25 women CEOs in the Fortune 500. She has since spent the past few months trying to get the company—which, like larger rival Intel, has suffered from slumping PC sales—back on a path of profitable growth. To explain how she plans to do that (and to share her thoughts on breaking the glass ceiling at AMD and her passion for gaming), Su sat down for an exclusive interview with Fortune this week at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.去年十月,苏姿丰成为一家大型半导体公司的首位女性掌门人。作为超威半导体(AMD)的新CEO,这位经验丰富的技术专家也由此成为《财富》500强企业中仅有的25名女性CEO之一。过去几个月,她一直试图令超威重返盈利轨道,因为超威像英特尔一样,近来也遭受了PC销量下滑的冲击。上周,苏姿丰在的CES展上接受了《财富》的独家专访,详解了她的公司复兴计划,她对自己在超威打破女性职业晋升瓶颈的看法,以及她对游戏的热情。Edited excerpts:以下是经过编辑的采访摘要:FORTUNE: You’re a few months in to the job now. What do you hope to do, and what’s the plan?《财富》:你上任已经几个月了。你打算做些什么?你的计划是什么?Lisa Su:It’s been just about 90 days, and it’s been fabulous. I have been with the company for a couple of years and in the semiconductor industry for over 20 years. It is incredibly fun to run a company like AMD. I’ve spent most of the last quarter on the road. So that’s a lot of time with customers and partners and employees. The most interesting thing is just talking about the technology and why it’s exciting and important and we’re going with it. I grew up as a technology geek, and now I get to live the part for real.苏姿丰:差不多90天了,感觉非常好。我已经在这家公司工作几年了,在半导体行业也已经摸爬滚打了20多年。运营像超威这样一家公司是非常有意思的。上个季度的大部分时间,我都在路上,花了很多时间见客户、合作伙伴和员工。最有意思的事就是讨论技术,它为什么令人兴奋,为什么重要,我们为什么要做它。我从小就是个“极客”,而现在它成了我的生活。Semiconductors have always been my background, so building chips and seeing the product of our designs go into devices is really cool for me. I think the vision that I’m trying to establish for AMD is that we are a company with technology that’s really, really leading edge, and we’re going into the most important applications over the next five years. So 50 billion devices will be connected together and there will be all different types of devices. You’ll have PCs and cars and more, and all of them need computing and visualization. That’s what we do.我的背景一直是半导体,所以我觉得,生产芯片、看着我们设计的产品进入电子设备,是一件很酷的事。我认为我想为超威建立的愿景就是,我们是一家技术非常先进的公司,而且我们要做的正是未来五年里应用最广的东西。未来联网的设备将达到500亿台,而且也将会有各种不同的设备。比如说,你的PC和汽车都需要计算和虚拟化。那就是我们要做的事情。How can you differentiate the company going forward?展望未来,你如何让这家公司实现差异化?Diversifying the business is definitely a good thing. But for me, it’s really about product applications and what we can enable and inspire. I think AMD is at our best when we’re working with a customer and allowing them to do something they couldn’t do before. That is not the history of the company—the history of the company is that we’ve been second source to other people. I think we really need to change that, that’s the nugget I’d like to change. Two years from now if we’re sitting here, you should be thinking, “Hey, these are all the cool things that AMD is in”—not that AMD is a second source to somebody else.让业务多样化绝对是一件好事。但在我看来,更重要的是产品的应用,以及我们能够促成什么、启发什么。我认为超威正处于最好的时期,因为我们能让客户做一些以前做不了的事情。那并不是公司的历史——我们过去一直被很多人视为第二选择。我认为我们确实需要改变这一点。两年后如果我再坐在这里,你应该会想:“嘿,这么多非常酷的东西都有超威参与。”到那时,超威将不再是位于其它公司之后的第二选择。So what kind of cool things, for example?你们正在参与开发哪些非常酷的产品,能举个例子吗?Like the iMac 5K display. It has all of the technology that we can pack and graphics and visualization in a beautiful form factor. Also game consoles—that’s really a product that enables so much. I happen to have lots of game consoles in my house, and for our holiday party we did Just Dance [a “rhythm game” developed and published by Ubisoft]. It’s not a fighter game, but it’s a different way of socializing and bringing technology to the forefront. I think that’s what I’d like AMD to be known for—you know, we bring cool applications to the market.比如iMac 5K显示器。它集成了我们现有的全部技术,还有图形和虚拟化等等,而且外形也很漂亮。此外还有游戏机,它是一个具有很大潜能的产品。我家里就有很多游戏机,在家里开假日派对的时候,我们就会玩《舞力全开》(一款由Ubisoft公司开发的“旋律游戏”)。它不是一个对战游戏,而是一种全新的社交方式,而且把科技推到了前沿。我想这就是我希望超威能够享有的声誉——你知道,我们会把很酷的应用推向市场。You’ve been in the industry for a long time. How has it changed? There seems to be a changing of the guard at a lot of companies at the moment and rapid technology changes.你进入这个行业已经很长时间了,它有什么变化吗?目前似乎有许多公司都更换了掌门人,而且技术变革的速度也非常快。The pace of change has increased. It’s not measured on years anymore; you can actually see it in a shorter time scale. Putting management changes aside—because every company has management changes and that’s not necessarily the primary factor—the market is changing and it’s because the technology is changing so fast. If you think about the period of time between when we went from PCs being the center of the universe to smartphones to tablets to now, where it’s not any one of those things but really a collection of hundreds of devices that have become important, I think it’s really because those changes have accelerated that it causes us as technology people to be much smarter or more predictive of what has to happen. Because when we make an investment in technology today it will take us three years to see if it will pay off. So we have to be predicting what will happen three years from now.变革的速度已经加快了。它不再是按年来计算,你可以在更短的时间周期看到变革。先把管理层更换放在一边——因为每家公司都有管理层变革,那未必是一个主要因素。市场也在发生变化,因为技术的变革实在太快了。想想我们从PC过渡到智能手机和平板电脑再到现在所用的时间,特别是现在这些东西中没有任何一项占统治地位,而是几百种设备都变得很重要,我想这的确是因为这些变化已经加速,它使我们这些搞科技的人变得更聪明了,或者更能预见到下一步会发生什么。因为如果我们今天做出一项技术投资,三年就可以见到效果。所以我们必须能够预测三年后会发生什么。I joke about this but a lot of people ask me why AMD isn’t in smartphones. I say, “That’s an interesting question but you should have asked me that three years ago.” What you should be asking me today is what’s going to be important three years from now. That’s the part of our industry that I think makes it so interesting to be in, because the important money is what are we investing in in the future.我曾开玩笑地说起这一点,但很多人问我,为什么超威没有进入智能手机行业。我说:“这是一个很有意思的问题,但你应该在三年前问我。”你今天问我的问题应该是三年以后什么最重要。这正是为什么我觉得这个行业非常有意思,因为重要的是我们未来要投资什么。But there’s still a lot of money in mobile. Was the decision not to be there a mistake?但目前还是有很多资金投在了移动上,没有进入移动领域是不是一个错误?I think the decision was one that was made three years ago. And I view it as, you have to play to your strengths. There are a lot of phones that are going to be sold and that’s good. But our strengths are in computing and visualization. So playing to our strengths is key.我想这个决定是三年前做出来的。我认为我们必须扬长避短。虽然卖出去的手机的确很多,这也很好,但我们的优势在于计算和虚拟化,所以发挥优势很关键。AMD is in two very large markets [PCs and gaming] but not dominant in either. Is that a problem?超威同时在两个非常大的市场里弈(PC和游戏),但没有主宰其中任何一个。这是不是一个问题?The way I think about it is that I would probably define the markets differently as we go forward. The market is going to be defined by those 50 billion connected devices. So the question is does it end up being that there’s a set of applications where different technologies are satisfying different applications. I think AMD has a set of technologies that can service a broad number of those applications. It’s different than if we’re talking about microscopic changes on a quarterly basis. There you tend to get into who lost and gained a percentage point of market share.我对这个问题的看法是,随着公司的进一步发展,我可能会对市场做不同的定义。未来市场将由那500亿台联网设备来定义。所以问题是,未来会不会演变成有很多的应用,需要各种不同的技术满足不同的应用。我认为超威就有一系列不同的技术,可以满足大量应用。它与那种按季度衡量的“小步快走”的变革是不同的。在后者的语境中,你可能会更关注谁赢谁输,或者占了多少市场份额。So you’re saying that who’s going to be dominant could be different because the market categories could be different?所以你是说,市场的主宰者可能会变,因为市场类别本身可能会变?Yes. I firmly believe that the innovation in computing is still really in its infancy. As good as our phone is today, the speech recognition and the face recognition isn’t very good today. So there’s still plenty of innovation to be had.是的。我坚信计算领域的创新仍然处于早期阶段。虽然现在你的手机已经挺不错了,但语音识别和面部识别功能仍然不是很好。所以还有很多的创新要做。Is running this company something you always aspired to do?执掌这家公司是不是你一直渴望做的事情?It’s definitely something I aspired to do. I went to school at MIT with a whole bunch of engineers. And then I started work one day and asked myself, “why do all of these MIT Ph.D.s work for Harvard MBAs?” Why should it be like that? I was one of those engineers who thought, “Why are these people making those dumb decisions?” So it’s fun to be the person making them. This is a fantastic opportunity.当然这是我一直渴望的。我在麻省理工学院的很多同学都是工程师。然后有一天我开始工作了,我问自己:“为什么这么多麻省理工的士要给哈佛的MBA打工?”为什么会是这样?另外很多工程师包括我自己都会想:“为什么这些人做的决策这么蠢?”所以自己去当决策人是挺有意思的,这是一个非常美妙的机会。You’re also the first woman to run a major semiconductor company.你也是第一个执掌一家大型半导体公司的女性。I’ve heard that.我听说了。Is that a significant milestone to you?这对你是一个重大的里程碑吗?I think I’m honored by it. I’m honored more by the fact that if you had asked me what I want to be when I grew up, it would have been pretty much here. Just 90 days into a job it’s hard to talk about legacy, but what’s more important to me is that when you grade AMD, whether it’s three years from now or five years from now, you grade it on that this was a fantastic set of assets that she turned into something special. That would be a phenomenal grade to have. So that’s more important than do I happen to be the first [woman] today.我觉得很光荣。这是因为如果你在我小时候问我,长大了想当什么,我的很可能就是这样一份工作。现在我上任刚刚90天,还谈不上能带给这家公司多大的影响。但当你在三年或五年以后评价超威时,如果你觉得这位CEO带来了一些特别的东西,留下了一笔很出色的资产,我就会觉得那是一个很不寻常的评价。那比我现在是不是第一位女性CEO要重要得多。(财富中文网) /201501/354389

Anyone in the art market who was not aly paying attention to the social media platform Instagram had to sit up and take notice in late April after the actor Pierce Brosnan visited the showroom of Phillips auction house in London. Mr. Brosnan snapped a selfie in front of a work he admired: the “Lockheed Lounge” a space-age aluminum chaise longue by the industrial designer Marc Newson. Then he added the words “let the bidding commence,” and posted it to the 164,000 followers of his Instagram feed.在艺术市场上,如果还有人不曾注意过Instagram,那么四月的事得让他们对这个社交媒体平台刮目相看了——演员皮尔斯·布鲁斯南(Pierce Brosnan)去了菲利普斯(Phillips)拍卖行在伦敦的展示厅,在自己喜欢的作品“洛克希德椅”(Lockheed Lounge)前面拍了一张自拍——这是工业设计师马可·纽森(Marc Newson)设计的一款太空时代感的铝制躺椅。之后他把这张照片贴在了自己拥有16.4万名关注者的Instagram账户上,还加了一句,“拍卖快开始吧。”And commence it did. Later that week, Phillips broke the world auction record for a design object, selling “Lockheed Lounge” for 2.4 million, or about .7 million.拍卖确实发生了。当周晚些时候,“洛克希德椅”在菲利普斯拍出了240万英镑,合370万美元,创下了设计品拍卖的世界纪录。“It’s hard to make a direct correlation between Pierce Instagramming us and the world record, but certainly it made the lounger more desirable,” Megan Newcome, director of digital strategy for Phillips and based in New York, said in a telephone interview. “It was a very exciting sale; we had phone bidders, people bidding online, and there was a lot of excitement around that piece in the auction room. Thanks, Pierce, for the shout out.”“很难说创世界纪录和皮尔斯在Instgram上发了我们的照片这两件事之间有什么直接关系,但他的照片肯定让这张躺椅更令人觊觎了,”梅根·纽康姆(Megan Newcom) 现居纽约,是菲利普斯的数字战略主管,她通过电话接受了采访。“那场拍卖令人兴奋;有很多电话拍卖者和网络拍卖者参加,拍那件张长椅时非常刺激。多谢了,皮尔斯,谢谢你替我们大声宣传。”It was not the first time the art market had been influenced by images on Instagram. In the past few years, it has emerged as the social media platform of choice for many contemporary artists, galleries, auction houses and art collectors, who use it to promote art that they are selling and to offer a behind-the-scenes look in art studios, auction houses and art fairs. How much that actually translates into sales like the “Lockheed Lounge,” however, is still up for debate.艺术市场受Instragram影响已经不是第一次了。过去几年来,Instagram成了许多当代艺术家、画廊、拍卖公司和艺术品收藏者们青睐的社交媒体平台,他们使用它来推广自己想要贩卖的东西,提供物品在工作室、拍卖室和艺术节上的幕后状态。至于这种推广在多大程度上能像这次的“洛克希德椅”一样转化为销售,目前仍然存在争议。Instagram, which started in 2010, is an online mobile app that allows users to share square, Polaroid-style images and 15-second s, with a network of more than 300 million users worldwide. Users build up their own social networks of followers, and can follow other users, or just “like” images by users they do not follow. Most important for the art world, users are introduced to artists they might like through a “discover” function. Elizabeth Bourgeois, a company spokeswoman, said that globally, users share about 70 million photos each day via the app.Instagram自2010年创立,是一款在线移动应用,供使用者分享正方形的宝丽来式图片或15秒钟的视频,目前全世界使用者超过三亿。用户可以在上面建立自己的社交网络关注群体,也可以关注他人,对于没有关注的用户,只点“喜欢”也可以。对于艺术界而言,最重要的是它的“发现”功能,可以向用户介绍新的艺术家。公司发言人伊丽莎白·布尔乔亚(Elizabeth Bourgeois)说,来自全世界的用户每天要通过这款应用分享7000万张照片。Simon de Pury, an international auctioneer who has 131,000 followers on his Instagram feed, @simondepury, said in a telephone interview: “So many people are either artists, collectors or gallery owners or photographers who are using it very actively, so it allows you to preview exhibitions happening everywhere in the world, and to see the works the minute the exhibitions open, rather than waiting to about it in a review. That’s what makes it exciting.”西蒙·德·普利(Simon de Pury)是一位国际拍卖商,他的Instagram账户@simondepury有13.1万个关注者,他在电话采访中说:“很多艺术家、收藏家、画廊老板和摄影师在积极使用这款应用,所以你可以通过它观看世界各地的展览,展览刚一开始就能看到作品,而不是等着看回顾。所以它才那么让人兴奋。”The world’s biggest auction houses, Christie’s and Sotheby’s, also use their official Instagram feeds (with 96,700 and 120,000 followers, respectively) to post preview images of select items from coming sales.全世界最大的两家拍卖行佳士得和苏富比也拥有自己的官方Instagram账号(分别有9.67万名和12万名关注者)贴的是即将举行的拍卖会上精选拍品的照片。Celebrity collectors and artists are in on the action, too. The pop star couple Jay-Z and Beyoncé Instagrammed their way through Art Basel in Miami Beach a few years ago, posting selfies in front of art they bought or were thinking of buying. Instagram adopters like the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei (with 127,000 followers), the American artist and toy designer Gary Baseman (84,700) and the French “photograffeur” JR (627,000) all keep fans up to date with regularly shared images of new work.名人收藏家和艺术家们也会参加拍卖会。比如几年前,流行歌星夫妇Jay-Z和碧昂斯(Beyoncé)就曾经在Instragram上直播他们参加迈阿密海滩巴塞尔艺术节的情形,是他们在已经买下或打算买下的东西前面拍的自拍。还有中国艺术家艾未未(12.7万名关注者)、美国艺术家与玩具设计师加里·贝斯曼(Gary Baseman,8.47万名关注者)和法国“照片涂鸦者”JR(6.27万名关注者)都经常分享自己的新作,让粉丝能随时了解自己的动态。Posting or discovering art is one thing, but the central question circulating around the art world is how many actual art sales are generated by the app. Instagram has no functionality that could make it useful as a direct sales platform, and no plans to add one, Ms. Bourgeois said. But quite often, art aficionados are using the app to preview works of art before they buy.贴出自己的艺术创作或发现他人的艺术创作是一回事,但艺术界的核心问题是,这款应用到底能够促成多少真正的艺术品交易。Instagram不提供直接销售平台,布尔乔亚说,公司也没有计划增加这项功能。但是艺术狂热爱好者在购买艺术品之前经常使用这款应用浏览想买的物品。“When you see something on Instagram that’s hanging in a gallery somewhere and you want to acquire it, you can instantly call up the gallery,” Mr. de Pury said, adding that he had made many purchases this way. “I’m sure that a number of transactions are taking place as a result of works being shown on Instagram. I’m sure it’s quite common by now.”“你在Instagram上看到什么东西挂在画廊之类的地方,然后又想买,就可以直接给画廊打电话,”德·普利说,他补充说,自己已经通过这个方式卖出了不少艺术品。“我相信,自从许多艺术品被放在Instagram上展示,有很多交易发生了。我相信这种现象如今非常普遍。”Just how common it is, however, and who is using the platform in this way is matter of much art world fascination. That is perhaps why, this year, art news websites like artnet.com and hyperallergic.com were abuzz when it was reported that the actor Leonardo DiCaprio, an avid art collector, had bought a painting called “Nachlass” for ,000 by Jean-Pierre Roy, an emerging artist, over the phone, after supposedly seeing it on Instagram.这种现象到底有多普遍呢,而且是什么人使用这个平台购买艺术品呢?艺术界对此非常着迷。今年,热衷收藏艺术品的演员莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCarprio)通过电话交易,以15000美元的价格买下了新晋艺术家让-皮埃尔·罗伊(Jean-Pierre Roy)的作品《未发表的遗作》(Nachlass),很可能是因为他在Instagram上看到了这幅作品。无怪乎artnet.com和hyperallergic.com等艺术网站对此大惊小怪了一阵。Mr. Roy’s dealer, Morten Poulsen in Copenhagen, confirmed that the artist “had posted a detail image of the painting on Instagram.” After that, Mr. Roy received a message from Mr. DiCaprio, “asking us to keep the painting on hold until he saw high-res quality images of the work,” Mr. Poulsen said by email. “I sent him that, the deal was finalized and the painting went into Mr. DiCaprio’s collection.”罗伊的经纪人莫腾·普尔森(Morten Poulsen)在哥本哈根确认这位艺术家“把这幅作品的细节图贴在了Instagram上”。之后,罗伊收到迪卡普里奥的信息,“他让我们别卖那幅画,让他先看看这幅作品的高分辨率图片,”普尔森在电子邮件中写道。“我给他发去了,交易完成,那幅画成了迪卡普里奥的藏品。”Lisa Schiff, an art adviser in New York for Mr. DiCaprio, said he had denied that the sale was based on an Instagram sighting, but she confirmed that Mr. DiCaprio did buy Mr. Roy’s painting through her office just before the Pulse Contemporary Art Fair in March in New York, where it was to go on sale the next day.丽莎·希夫(Lisa Schiff)现居纽约,是迪卡普里奥的艺术顾问,她说他否认交易是因为看了Instagram上的照片后才发生的,但她确认,迪卡普里奥在3月份那幅画在纽约帕尔斯当代艺术节(Pulse Contemporary Art Fair)正式展出前一天,就通过她的办公室购买了罗伊的画。Whether or not the Instagram connection was accurate, the report, originally published on the Creators Project, a Vice.com blog, was republished on many top art news websites and blogs as an example of Instagram’s growing market influence. A small survey by Artsy.net, an online platform that both promotes and sells art, bears this influence out, with caveats. In April, the company surveyed 35 known collectors who each had more than 100 pieces of art in their collections and reported that just over half of them had purchased artworks from artists they had discovered on Instagram .这篇报道最初由“Creators Project”网站(它是Vice.com旗下的一个客)发布,不管双方的联系是否真的通过Instagram建立起来,这篇文章被许多顶级艺术网站和客转载,作为Instagram日益对市场产生影响的据。Artsy.net 是一个既可以推广艺术品,也可以销售艺术品的在线平台,它搞的一项小型调查明了网络平台的影响,但也提出了警示。4月,这家公司调查了35位至少拥有100件艺术藏品的知名收藏家,发现他们当中仅有约一半的人曾经购买过从Instagram上发现的艺术家作品。Christine Kuan, chief curator and director of strategic partnerships at Artsy, qualifies those numbers, saying that the platform’s audience is “young collectors and emerging collectors,” who are tech savvy and active on social media.Artsy网站的主策展人和战略合作伙伴负责人克里斯汀·关(Christine Kuan)核实了这些数据,她说,Instagram平台的使用者们是“年轻的收藏家和正在崛起的收藏家,”他们懂技术,在社交媒体上非常活跃。“A lot of seasoned collectors in the art world don’t use it as much,” Ms. Kuan said in a telephone interview. “They aly have their own contacts in the gallery world and they go to art fairs, and may not be using Instagram that way.”“很多艺术界资深藏家就不怎么会用它,”关女士在接受电话采访时说。“他们在画廊圈有自己的联系人,也去艺术节,所以可能不会这样使用Instagram。”Hearing the results, Ms. Schiff, whose clients also include leading contemporary art collectors like Candace Barasch and Anne Anka, agreed with Ms. Kuan’s qualifications. “No way, no how — seasoned collectors aren’t using it like that,” Ms. Schiff said. “Maybe people in the 20-30 age range, but not over 40.”希夫的客户中不乏当代艺术的顶级收藏者,如坎达斯·巴拉什(Candace Barasch)和安妮·安卡(Anne Anka)等,听到这个调查结果,她同意关女士的观点。“不会的,资深藏家绝不会这么做,”希夫说。“可能二三十岁的人会这么干,40岁以上的人就不会了。”Most of her clients are over 40, she added, and in her experience, “online sales for art tend to have a price limit on them of about ,000, maybe ,000.”她补充说,自己的客户大都年过40,根据她的经验,“网络艺术品销售的价格大都限制在两万美元以内,也许五万吧。”Anita Zabludowicz, an art collector and arts patron who with her husband, Chaim “Poju,” co-founded the Zabludowicz Collection, which consists about 5,000 works of art by more than 500 artists in London, New York and Finland, the couple’s native country, is an active Instagrammer, with a total of more than 65,000 followers for her three accounts.艺术品收藏家与艺术赞助人安妮塔·扎布卢多维奇(Anita Zabludowicz)与丈夫柴姆·“普约”(Chaim “Poju”)联合创立了“扎布卢多维奇收藏”,其中包括5000件左右的艺术品,分别由伦敦、纽约与芬兰(两人的故乡)的500多位艺术家创作。她是Instagram的活跃用户,拥有三个账户,65000名关注者。Ms. Zabludowicz said she had purchased work based on Instagrammed images, especially from the Brazilian installation artist Adriano Costa and the New York conceptual artist Brad Troemel, which she added to her trove of works by artists such as Damien Hirst, Richard Prince and Nam June Paik.扎布卢多维奇女士说,她曾经从Instagrams上购买作品,特别是从巴西装置艺术家阿德里亚诺·科斯塔(Adriano Costa)和纽约概念艺术家布拉德·特奥伊美尔(Brad Troemel)手中。如今,他俩的作品和达米安·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)、理查德·普林斯(Damien Hirst)与白南淮等名家的作品一样,也成了她的宝藏。“Instagram for me is one of the most important social media channels as it is the quickest way to absorb visual information, however shallow,” Ms. Zabludowicz said by email.“对于我来说,Instagram是最重要的社交媒体渠道,也是吸收视觉信息最快的途径,虽说有点像狼吞虎咽,” 扎布卢多维奇在电子邮件中说。She added, however, that she rarely did any actual commerce directly on the app: “If I am working with a gallery, prices would normally be discussed by email or telephone, not via Instagram.”她还说,她很少直接通过这个应用谈生意:“如果我和画廊合作,价格一般可以通过电子邮件或电话谈,而不是通过Instagram。”Ms. Newcome, the Phillips executive, agreed that at least for now, Instagram seemed to be used mostly as a promotional tool, rather than part of “a sales-driven strategy.”菲利普斯的执行官纽康姆同意,至少到现在为止,Instagram似乎主要是一种推广工具,而不是“销售战略”的一部分。“If one of our specialists has a favorite work in an upcoming sale, they’ll certainly ask for us to ‘give it a little love on Instagram,”’ she said. It’s “a way to create some buzz around a piece. And you never know: you can literally post something on Instagram and a few minutes later have someone ask to buy it. These are the legends that have been developing around Instagram aly.”“如果在即将到来的拍卖上,我们的某位专家特别青睐某个作品,他们肯定会让我们‘在Instagram上对它多关照’,”她说。“这是给作品造势的方法。你永远说不清楚:你确实可以在Instagram上贴点东西,过几分钟就会有人要买。现在关于Instagram,已经有不少传说了。” /201508/392302Engineering Students Use Sound Waves To Extinguish Fires工科男利用声波灭火Water, foam, sand, blankets, and even baking soda are well-known solutions to putting out flames. But sound waves? That has to be a first. But that is exactly what two young engineers from George Mason University are using to douse small fires.洒水、泡沫、沙土、毛毯甚至发酵粉都是常见的灭火方法,但声波灭火也许你是头回听说。Electrical and computer engineering students Viet Tran and Seth Robertson were looking for an interesting idea for their senior research project. That#39;s when they stumbled upon an experiment conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA ) in 2012. 电子工程专业学生Viet Tran和Seth Roberson当时正在为他们大四毕业设计找一个炫酷的方向,随后就偶然间发现了DARPA2012年做过的这个实验。Tran and Robertson decided to challenge themselves and see if they could take the research to the next level and build a fire extinguisher that could be used commercially. As with any radical idea, they faced a lot of skepticism even from faculty members many of whom declined to serve as advisors. Tran和Roberson打算挑战自我,看看能否进一步推进这个实验,制造出一款可以创造商业价值的灭火器。这个不切实际的想法让他们面对很对质疑,甚至还有许多学院成员拒绝做他们的导师。The young engineers first tried to extinguish the fire by placing a subwoofer near a flame created using rubbing alcohol. But they soon realized that #39;music#39; is not such a good idea since it is inconsistent and unpredictable. The next option was exposing the fire to 20,000 to 30,000 hertz frequencies. However with the high frequencies, the flames only vibrated. The duo hit a home run when they reduced the frequency to about 30 to 60 hertz. Turns out that at these low frequencies, the sound vibrates the oxygen away from the flames. With no fuel to keep them going, the fire suffocates and dies.两位年轻的工程师首先尝试了用低音炮熄灭酒精火源。很快,他们认识到,用音乐来灭火并不是一个好主意,因为音乐不连贯也不规则。另一个方案是把火置于2万到3万赫兹的频率中,但是无论音频有多高,火焰都只是震颤了几下。但当他们把频率降到了30-60赫兹的时候,就开始有效果了。实验明,在低音频下,声波把氧气从火焰中震颤出去,没了燃料,火很快就减小熄灭了。Tran and Robertson are not letting naysayers stray them from their goal. They are forging ahead with their idea, this time with the full support of the University who is even helping them apply for a provisional patent. If they do succeed, there may be soon be a time when fire trucks will be extinguishing flames with some sweet music, instead of messy toxic chemicals!这时的Tran和Roberson并没有让唱反调的人阻挡他们前进的步伐,他们正在不断推进自己的想法,也获得了来自校方的全力持。校方甚至要帮助他们申请为临时专利。如果发明成功的话,救火车以后就会不用脏脏的有毒化学物品灭火了,放些甜美的音乐就能搞定一切。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/385821

Xu Xiake and The Travel Diaries of Xu Xiake徐霞客与《徐霞客游记》A traveler and geographer of the late Ming Dynasty(1368一1644) Xu Xiake, also named Hongzu(1587一1641)was born in today’s Jiangyin of East China’s Jiangsu Province. He studied the ancient classics as a small boy and teamed to write the eight-part essay prescribed for the imperial civil service examination,but refused to take part in the imperial examination. Instead,he de-veloped an interest in historical books,especially such books on different places,and devoted himself to traveling all over the country.徐霞客(1587-1641),原名弘祖,字振之,别号霞客,江苏江阴人,明代杰出的地理学家、旅行家。童年上私塾时,即听背经书,作八股文。但徐霞客偏偏没兴趣,有兴趣的是看古今史书,尤其是地方志并遍游名山大川。From the age of 21,Xu Xiake began to travel around and for thirty years he conducted surveys in 16 provinces,leaving his footsteps in virtually every part of the country. In conducting his surveys and investigations,he would never blindly embrace the conclusions recorded in previous documents. Instead,he discovered that the documentations made by his predecessors in their geographical studies were quite unreliable in many aspects.21岁开始出游,30年间足迹遍及现在江苏、浙江、安徽、山东、河北、山西、陕西、河南、湖北、湖南、福建、广东、广西、江西、贵州、云南等16个省区。在他的调查研究中,他从不盲目轻信前人留下的文献总结。相反,他发现了前人在文献中记述的地理研究有很多谬误偏差。To ensure that his reconnaissance were real and detailed,he seldom traveled by ship or by wagon. He climbed over mountains and hills and traveled long dis-lances almost entirely on foot.为了使自己的勘察具体准确,他几乎舍弃了乘车或乘船,而是不畏艰险,徒步跋涉。Xu’s main contributions to geography include:他在地理学上的重要贡献主要有:-A detailed scientific study of the karst landform. Xu visited over 270 caves in the(South China) Guangxi Autonomous Region and in(Southwest) Guizhou and (Southwest)Yunnan provinces,kept records of their directions, height, and depth,and elaborated on the cause of the formation. He was a pioneer in system-alit karst studies in both China and the world.对喀斯特地貌类型分布和差异,有详细的考察和科学的记述。仅在广西、贵州、云南三省,他亲自探察270多个洞穴,且有方向、高宽、深度之具体记载并初步论述成因,他是中国和世界广泛考察喀斯特地貌的卓越先驱;-Correcting some mistakes of the records on the source and waterways of Chinese rivers.纠正了文献记载的关于中国水道源流的一些错误;-Observing and recording the species of many plants,explicitly putting for-ward the influences that landform,temperature,and wind speed might have on the distribution and blooming of plants.观察记述了很多植物的生态品种,明确提出了地形、气温、风速对植物分布和开花早晚的各种影响;-Conducting survey on the vol-cano relics of Tengchong Mountain in South China’s Yunnan Province.Xu kept records of the shape and quality of the red pumice expelled from the volcano,and provided sci-entific explanation on the phenome-non.调查了云南腾冲山的火山遗迹,科学记录与解释了喷发出来的红色浮石的形状、质地或成因;-A detailed depiction of the phenomenon of terrestrial heat, the earliest of its kind in China.对地热现象的详细描述在中国也是最早的;-An excellent account of the people and places he had traveled.对所到之处的人文地理情况作了不少精的记述。Xu Xiake contribution to the ancient Chinese geography was unprecedented,especially his detailed narration of the karst landform. His travel journal was tom-piled by the later generations into a book called The Travel Diaries of Xu Xiake,which is of high scientific and literary value.他在中国古代地理学史上作出了超越前人的贡献,特别关于喀斯特地貌的详细记述。经后人编辑的《徐霞客游记》,不但具有极高的科学价值,而且具有很高的文学价值,被誉为“千古奇书”。 /201512/410694

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