时间:2020年01月30日 06:00:56

As top American swimmers compete for a spot in the Beijing Olympics, another fight is threatening to overshadow the action in the water. N’s Leanne Gregg reports. (more) It’s been said that clothes make the man, but can a suit make the swimmer? That’s the question at the US Olympic swimming trials today in Omaha, Nebraska. A revolutionary new swimsuit has been getting as much attention as the athletes wearing them. N`s Leanne Gregg has our story.At the US swimming trials in Omaha, more than the athletes are making a splash, it’s all about what they are wearing.“When I put that suit on, I had all best thumbs".That suit is a LZR, Speedo's new racer that took more than 3 years and millions of dollars to develop.“You know, it’s faster, the swimmers love it.”Tested by NASA, the suits designed to reduce drag with bounded seams and fabric that compresses the body.“Speedo claims its suit is working, so far this year, from swimmers wearing the LZR, at least 38 world records are counted.”Prompting some international competitors to compare the LZR with technological doping.“Clearlessly, we'd like to think it's Speedo. We are working as hard to make a suit faster, as the swimmers and coaches are in the pool to make the swimmer faster.”“we start pulling the back and come down to major…… ” Another swimsuit maker claims its suits are breaking records too.“I broke the American record in the 200 butterfly in this suit.”TYR says it has one of the best hi-tech racers in the market.“You can take in two different path to the same stop, and we have both achieved a lot of success so far.”So many athletes are wearing the LZR that TYR filed a lawsuit claiming Speedo with help from USA Swimming has an unfair advantage over other swimsuit makers, something the sports governing body and Speedo denies. It’s a new era of swimsuits, that began with Australian Ian Thorpe, who won five medals at the Sydney Games while wearing a full body suit. He wore one again for more Olympic glory in Athens, so did Michael Phelps, who plans to wear a LZR during the trials.“I have a nonsuit question, sorry.”“You are now my favorite.”But for many swimmers, it's not about the suit.“I might just reach to my backpack, and whatever I grab out, that’s what I might wear.”And most are hoping the attention on swimsuits will not overshadow those winning in the water.Leanne Gregg, N News, Omaha, Nebraska.200812/58522

A class act佼佼者Freedom and discipline go together in an innovative school在一所革新的学校,自由和纪律同行Innovation in schools学校改革 THE scene is enough to appal those teachers steeped in ideas about child-centred education and learning through play. At the Durand Academy, a large primary school set amid tough housing estates in south London, a class of four-year-olds files into the corridor. Dressed in navy blue uniforms, the children silently divide, boys lining up against one wall, girls by the other. Following rules laid down by the watching boss of the school, Greg Martin—a man of firm convictions, once compared to Stalin by trade-union activists—the children stand with one finger to their lips, as a reminder to be quiet. 这个场景足以让那些整日浸淫于“教育要以孩子为中心”和“寓教于乐”等思想的教师们感到震惊。杜兰德专科学校坐落于南伦敦贫困居民区中,是一家大型小学,一个4岁班的同学们依次来到走廊里,他们穿着深蓝色的校,默无声息地分成两组,男生靠一边的墙排成一队,女生靠另一边墙排成一队。根据监事校董格雷格?马汀(他具有坚定的信念,曾被工会活动分子比作斯大林)的规定,孩子们站在那里,用手指指着嘴唇,提醒自己保持安静。 Durand pupils are trained to move about the school in hushed crocodiles. Their work is marked strictly, with low scores carefully explained. Teachers'lesson plans must be approved by senior staff. Classes are filmed for use in training. 杜兰德学校的学生们要接受这样的训练,排成纵队在校园中静静地走动。他们的表现要进行严格的打分,如果分数低的话,还要认真地说明原因。普通教师的授课计划必须征得高级教师的批准。课堂要拍下来以备训练使用。 Mr Martin is one of a vanguard of senior teachers endeavouring—with support from Michael Gove, the education secretary—to put discipline at the heart of teaching. But this does not involve a lurch back to past ferocities. His school feels secure and calm rather than strict. “I'm four today,” a small girl whispers in the corridor, before popping her finger back on her lips, eyes agleam with birthday excitement. Her classmates wriggle happily as their teacher praises them for “lining up so beautifully”. 马汀先生是高级教师先锋之一,在教育大臣迈克尔?戈夫的持下,他努力把纪律摆在教学的中心位置,但这并不是说又一下子回到过去的简单粗暴。在这个学校天,能感受到的是安全、宁静,而不是严格。“我今天4岁了。”走廊里,一个小女孩低声说道,然后迅速把手指重新放在嘴唇上,眼睛里闪着过生日才会有的兴奋。老师表扬同学们 “队列排得真整齐”,他们愉快地缓缓前行。 At a recent seminar on school discipline, Mr Gove and a clutch of star head teachers who have turned around failing (indeed out-of-control) schools discussed how firm, consistent rules are a tool for social mobility, enabling children from deprived backgrounds to escape the effects of often chaotic home lives. Mr Martin noted how many new pupils arrive unprepared for learning: unable to sit still and listen, or not toilet-trained. Half his 968 pupils receive free school meals (a marker for family poverty). Most are from black African or Caribbean backgrounds. Before the formal skills, all are taught something simpler: that they are constantly making choices, which have consequences. 在最近一次的学校纪律研讨会上,戈夫先生和一些曾使差校(实际上处于失控状态)发生改观的明星校长们展开讨论:怎样才能使严格的、一贯的纪律成为社会流动的工具,使贫穷的孩子们能够摆脱那些常常是乱糟糟的家庭生活的影响?马汀先生记下了入学但没有为学习做好准备的学生数量:他们不能静静地坐下来听课,甚至连用卫生间都不会用。他的968名学生,有一半得到了免费的校餐(这是家庭贫困的标志),他们大多是非洲或加勒比地区的移民后代。在学习正式的技能之前,首先要学习那些更简单的事情:他们常常做出选择,这也产生了一定效果。 Mr Martin's approach combines the traditional virtue of discipline with the extended freedoms offered to ambitious heads by the coalition government. He has been innovating on the same site for 25 years, taking advantage of each new reform that offered greater autonomy. Last year Durand secured academy status, gaining new powers to shape its curriculum and to recruit and pay staff on its own terms. Mr Martin shows off two smart, indoor swimming pools. Swimming lessons, he explains, teach the very smallest to undress and dress themselves, which many have never tried. The larger pool is open to the paying public after midday, and forms part of a private enterprise (also including a gym and a block of flats) that subsidises organic lunches, smaller than average classes and after-school care. 马汀先生的方法,既注重遵守纪律的传统美德,又充分利用联合政府给予他们这些胸怀改革雄心的校长们扩展了的自由。25年来他一直致力于这一学校的改革,利用每一次新改革所赋予的更大自主权。去年,杜兰德获得了专科学校的身份,使他们有新的力量制定自己的课程,按照自己的条件招聘员工并付报酬。马汀向我们展示了两个整洁的室内游泳池。他解释说,游泳课程教给那些最小的孩子如何穿衣脱衣这些很多学生从未尝试的事情。大游泳池午后对公众有偿开放,就像一个私营企业的一部分(还有一个体育馆和一片公寓),可以资助有机午餐,比一般的班级和课外看护机构的规模要小。 The experiments seem to be working. Durand is rated “outstanding” by Ofsted, the schools inspectorate. When they arrive, its three-year-olds, chosen non-selectively by catchment area, are well behind the national average. By final tests at 11, the children are in the top 2% in the country. Achievement and calmness follow each other says Mr Martin. Disruptive behaviour is “usually about fear”, triggered when children (especially boys) do not know how to do something. 实验似乎正在发生作用,学校的监察机构“英国教育标准局” 将杜兰德学校的工作评定为“杰出”级。实验开始时,学校接收的是本学区三岁的孩子,这无可选择,他们的入学水平远远落后于全国的平均水平。到11岁毕业测试时,他们的成绩已跃居全国的前2%。马汀先生说,成绩与平静相互促进,捣乱性的行为通常和害怕有关,多在孩子们(特别是男孩)不知道一件事如何做时发生。 The school's boldest experiment lies ahead. Tired of watching Durand’s high-achieving, happy 11-year-olds sink or fall prey to bad influences at their next schools, Mr Martin is opening a middle school and, in 2014, a weekly boarding school for 600 pupils from 13 to 18, on land Durand has bought in West Sussex. The education department has promised up to £17.3m for the new buildings. Existing state boarding schools charge for food and lodging. This one will be entirely free. 学校最大胆的实验还在后面。马汀先生不想看到那些得了高分、快快乐乐的11岁的孩子们今后堕落成学习中不良影响的牺牲品,他开办了一所中学。2014年,一所面向13到18岁孩子、可以容纳600名学生的寄宿制学校将在西埃塞克斯郡开办。教育部门许诺将为新校舍提供1730万英镑的资金。现在的寄宿制学校食宿是收费的,而这所学校却是完全免费的。 Nothing quite like it has been tried before; Whitehall officials cannot guarantee that it will succeed. But to Mr Gove's team, experimental risk is not the downside of setting schools free (more than 1,000 have gained academy status since 2010): it is the point. Parents will choose those schools that work. Durand, currently a remarkable exception, may be just the start. 此前还没有过类似的实验,白厅官员并不能保它一定会成功。但对于戈夫先生的团队来说,实验的风险不是学校自由度的缩小(2010年以来,1000多所学校获得专科资格):这才是问题的关键所在。家长将选择那些运转良好的学校。杜兰德专科学校,现在已是一个非凡的另类,也许这只是开始。201111/160923

Egypt has eased restrictions on border crossings for pedestrians from the Gaza Strip. Palestinians see it as a big step toward ending a four-year-old blockade that Israel and Egypt have imposed on the enclave.  埃及放宽行人从加沙地带进入埃及的边境管制,结束了以色列和埃及对这块飞地实施的长达四年的封锁,巴勒斯坦人将此视为重大的一步。A Palestinian border policeman puts a stamp on the passport of Mahmoud al-Hams, a Gaza resident who says he has not left the enclave for years. He is among the first of hundreds who arrived at the Rafah border terminal Saturday before boarding a shuttle bus that would take him past a gate into Egypt.一名巴勒斯坦边境警察将穆罕默德.汉斯的护照盖了章。汉斯是加沙居民,他说他已经有四年没离开过这块飞地了。他是星期六首先抵达拉法边境站的几百人中之一,之后他搭上接驳车,接驳车将他载过边境大门进入埃及。He says he is very happy that he can finally go out and see the world. 他说,他非常高兴终于能出来看看世界了。Egypt began easing restrictions on this border crossing earlier this year following the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, opening this crossing sporadically for those with special permits that were granted on the basis of medical and other needs. 埃及今年早些时候在埃及总统穆巴拉克被赶下台后开始放宽边境管制,不定时开放边境给那些因为医疗或其他需要而获得特殊许可的民众。Now, the crossing is supposed to have regular hours and be open generally to anyone other than men between the ages of 18 and 40. 现在,过境将会有固定时段,将开放给除了18岁到40岁男子的一般大众。201105/138389

Bacteria and behaviour细菌和行为学Gut instinct肠道反应 Tantalising evidence that intestinal bacteria can influence mood逗引的据表明,肠道细菌可以影响人的情绪Sep 3rd 2011 | from the print edition A GOOD way to make yourself unpopular at dinner parties is to point out that a typical person is, from a microbiologist’s perspective, a walking, talking Petri dish. An extraordinary profusion of microscopic critters inhabit every crack and crevice of the typical human, so many that they probably outnumber the cells of the body upon and within which they dwell.一个让你自己在晚宴上不受欢迎的好方式就是,从微生物学家的角度指出,一位有代表性的人就是一个会走动并会说话的皮氏培养皿。每位有代表性的人的裂纹和缝隙里生活着无数的微小生物,它们的数目如此之多可能超过它们所依靠并栖息的人体细胞。Happily, these microbes are mostly harmless. Some of them, particularly those that live in the gut, are positively beneficial, helping with digestion and keeping the intestines in good working order. That is no surprise—bacteria as much as people have an interest in keeping their homes in sound condition. What is surprising is the small but growing body of evidence which suggests that bacteria dwelling in the gut can affect the brain, too, and thereby influence an individual’s mood and behaviour. The most recent paper on the topic, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reports (like much of the research in this field) on results in mice.幸运地是,这些微生物大部分都是无害的。其中一些,特别是那些生活在消化道里的微生物,实际上是有益的,不仅有助于消化还保持肠道良好的工作秩序。这毫不奇怪——细菌和人一样也喜欢保持家园状态完好。奇怪的是,虽然数量不多,但越来越多的据表明,生活在肠道的细菌也可能影响大脑,继而影响个人的情绪和行为。本周有关该主题的论文刊登在《美国国家科学院院刊》的一篇文章报道(像这个领域的许多研究一样)了应用小鼠的实验结果。The researchers, led by Javier Bravo of University College, Cork, split their rodent subjects into two groups. One lot were fed a special broth containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a gut-dwelling bacterium often found in yogurt and other dairy products. The others were fed an ordinary diet, not fortified with microbes.科克大学学院的哈维尔#8226;布拉沃(Javier Bravo)带领下的研究人员将这些啮齿目动物分成两组。一组以一种在酸奶和其它乳制品中经常发现的含乳酸杆菌属鼠李糖乳杆菌(学名为Lactobacillus rhamnosus)的特别液体培养基喂食。另一组则以不用微生物强化的一般食物喂食。The team then subjected the mice to a battery of tests that are used routinely to measure the emotional states of rodents. Most (though not all) of these tests showed significant differences between the two groups of animals.然后,研究组人员对小鼠进行了一套测试。这套测试经常用于衡量啮齿类动物的情感状态。大部分(虽然不是所有的)测试表明,两组动物之间有着显著的不同。201109/152865

Arsonists Blamed for 'Mass Murder' in Australia澳总理谴责纵火者犯下群体谋杀罪  At least 140 people have died in Australia's worst-ever bushfire disaster. Arsonists, who are thought to have been responsible for some of the devastating outbreaks in the southern state, Victoria, have been accused of mass murder by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. Queen Elizabeth has sent a message of condolence to families of the victims. 至少有140人在澳大利亚有史以来最为惨重的森林大火中丧生。在澳大利亚南部维多利亚州爆发的多处森林大火据信是由纵火者引发的。澳大利亚总理陆克文指责说,纵火者是群体谋杀犯。伊丽莎白女王致信向遇难者家庭表示哀悼。Cooler weather is helping the emergency effort, as about 30 fires continue to torment communities across Victoria.  大约30处大火继续摧残着遍及维多利亚州各地的社区。而转凉的天气则有助于紧急救援工作。However, there is a warning that dangerous days still lie ahead. 但是,官方警告说,危险的日子还没有到头。Victoria County Fire chief Stewart Kreltszheim says the military will provide much-needed support... 维多利亚郡消防长官斯图亚特.克雷尔茨海姆说,军队将会提供急需的援助。"We've also got the army moving in today and the army are going to provide us with some grunt [muscle-power], with some bulldozers and our tractors," he said.  “军队今天到了这里。他们会给我们提供一些人力、掘土机和拖拉机。”Towering walls of flame, several storeys high, have destroyed entire communities, reduced to barely more than piles of ash. To add to the loss of life, homes, churches, supermarkets and police stations have been obliterated. 高达几层楼的火焰已经把许多社区完全摧毁,剩下来的只有成堆的灰烬。大火吞噬了生命,也令家园、教堂、超市和警察局化为乌有。Dozens of people are still missing. Survivor Wade Horton describes terrifying ordeal as the flames raced towards him... 目前仍然有几十个人失踪。幸存者韦德.霍顿描述了他在火焰迅速向他逼近时的可怕遭遇。"The smoke was coming over all day, but from what we could tell it was miles away and then walked up the front and I saw it hit the top of the mountain and within a minute it was down to the bottom of the valley and that whole valley across the other side was a wall of fire,' he said. “烟雾一整天都在往这里飘。但是我们那会儿知道它离我们有几英哩远。后来朝这个方向推进。我看到火烧到山顶,而不到一分钟的时间就蔓延到山谷。山谷的另一侧整个成了火墙。”New Zealand has offered to send fire fighters to relieve exhausted crews in Victoria. 新西兰已经派出消防人员前往维多利亚,帮助那里精疲力尽的灭火队员。Britain's Queen Elizabeth, who is Australia's head of state, has sent a message of condolence to families of the victims and has also praised the extraordinary efforts of firefighters. The British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has spoken to his Australian counterpart, Kevin Rudd, and says that his government is y to help, if needed.  英国女王伊丽莎白是澳大利亚的国家元首。她致信遇难者家庭表示哀悼。她还就灭火人员所做出的非同寻常的努力加以称赞。英国首相布朗和澳大利亚总理陆克文通话时说,如果有需要,英国政府随时可以提供帮助。Mr. Rudd says that arsonists suspected of starting some of Victoria's fires are guilty of "mass murder."  陆克文说,那些被怀疑在维多利亚一些地方引火的纵火者犯下了“群体谋杀”罪。As the Australian army joins the search for those missing in the fires, investigators have grave concerns about what they might find in the charred remains of homes and cars. 澳大利亚军队开始参与寻找大火中的失踪者。调查人员则极度担心会在烧焦的房屋和汽车中找到什么。It has been an excruciating wait for survivors, desperate for news of relatives and friends they have not been able to contact. Doctors treating burns victims have said that some have been so badly injured they will probably die, as Australia continues to count the heartbreaking cost of its most savage bushfire disaster. 幸存者在煎熬中等待,急切地想知道无法联系上的亲友们的下落。给烧伤者治疗的医生们说,一些人受伤非常严重,恐怕会死去。而澳大利亚仍然在计算着这场最残酷的森林大火带来的令人心碎的损失。02/62105

科学家曾对蜜蜂离奇死亡或消失的原因进行多番推论,包括全球气候暖化、疾病或杀虫药等。科学家和业界称这个蜜蜂消失现象为"蜂群衰竭失调"(Colony Collapse Disorder,简称CCD)。爱因斯坦的"蜜蜂预言"真是所言不假,他曾经说过"没有蜜蜂,就没有授粉,就没有植物,就没有动物,就没有人类。"蜜蜂在大自然食物链中扮演非常重要的角色,依靠蜜蜂传播花粉的行业。在美国,每年经蜜蜂授粉而生产的水果、蔬菜及核果种子总值数以百亿美元计。现时大量蜜蜂失踪或死亡,也将威胁全球农作物收成。Honey bees add billions of dollars in value to around one hundred thirty crops in the ed States. But since the nineteen eighties, researchers have been concerned about the health of these valuable pollinators.Worries grew after the winter of two thousand six. Some pollination services reported losses of anywhere from thirty to ninety percent of their hives. The beekeepers did not find dead adult bees as they often do after winter. Instead, the bees were gone. Experts gave a name to this mysterious situation: colony collapse disorder. A report in Agricultural Research magazine, from the Department of Agriculture, takes a fresh look at C.C.D. It says the disorder is truly a serious problem. But it says there were enough honey bees to provide all the agricultural pollination needed last year.Still, beekeepers reported losing about thirty-five percent of their hives in the fall and winter of two thousand seven. It two thousand six, it was thirty-one percent.The ed States has almost two and one-half million managed beehives. Experts from the Agriculture Department and the Apiary Inspectors of America did a study involving about one-fifth of them.One finding was that beekeepers who found no dead adult bees were more likely to have the most severe losses. Also, a virus called I.A.P.V., for Israeli acute paralysis virus, was present in almost half the colonies studied. But researchers say they do not know if this virus causes a colony to collapse. They say the lack of affected bees to examine makes it difficult to know exactly what the new disorder is. Losses in honey bee populations can result from a number of causes. A big problem, for example, is the varroa mite, a deadly parasite. And experts keep looking for other answers for the current situation.Scientists at the University of Virginia recently reported that air pollution may prevent bees from finding flowers to pollinate. They think ozone in the air is keeping bees and other pollinators from smelling the flowers. Bees feed on nectar and pollen from flowers. Jose Fuentes and his team at Virginia studied how far the scent of flowers travels with the wind. Before the eighteen hundreds, they say, it was more than one thousand two hundred meters. Now, they say, the scent can travel only about three hundred meters at best. Their study is in the journal Atmospheric Environment.03/65616

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