楼主:管生活 时间:2019年08月23日 17:18:41 点击:0 回复:0
Gossip is healthy because it helps calm you down and is important in maintaining social order, a new study claims.一项新研究称,散播流言有益健康,因为散播流言能让人平静下来,对于维持社会秩序也很重要。Idle chatter in the workplace or over a coffee is often viewed as a damaging habit which sps salacious rumours and harms people#39;s reputations.在工作场所闲聊或边喝咖啡边聊天常被视为有害的习惯,因为它会传播下流的谣言,损害人们的名誉。But new research suggests gossip could actually lower stress and help people overcome the frustration of seeing someone doing something wrong and getting away with it.然而新研究显示,散播流言其实能减轻压力,帮助人们克看到有人做错事却没受惩罚的挫败感。Psychologists from the University of California, Berkeley, found that volunteers#39; heart rates rose when they observed someone misbehaving, but that this stopped when they were allowed to discuss what they had seen with others.来自加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的心理学家发现,当参加研究的志愿者看到某些人行为不端时心跳会加速,但当他们可以和别人谈论自己所看到的事情时心跳又会恢复正常。The study, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, focused on ;prosocial; gossip which helps sp information about dishonest people rather than voyeuristic chatter about celebrities#39; love lives, the researchers said.该研究发表在《个性与社会心理学杂志》上。研究者称,这一研究关注的是帮助散播有关不正直的人的信息的;亲社会;流言,而非谈论名人感情生活的窥淫狂式的流言。In a trial designed to determine how strong our urge is to sp gossip, some participants even said they would spend money in order to send a note warning others about people they had seen cheating in a trust exercise.为了明确了解我们散播流言的欲望有多强烈,研究人员开展了一个试验,试验中有些参与者甚至表示,会花钱寄信警告别人要提防那个自己发现在信任练习中作弊的人。Prof Robb Willer, one of the researchers, said: ;Sping information about the person whom they had seen behave badly tended to make people feel better, quieting the frustration that drove their gossip.;其中一位研究人员罗伯bull;维勒教授说:;散播有关行为不端的人的信息会让人们感觉好一些,抚平那种促使他们去散播流言的挫败感。;The study also showed that passing on rumours could help us monitor people who behave badly and prevent each other from being exploited by malicious individuals, Prof Willer added.维勒教授补充说,研究还显示,散播流言能帮助人们监督那些行为不端的人,并防止大家受到恶人的利用。In an online trust game where players could lower their chances of winning by warning others about cheaters, the threat of being the subject of bad gossip encouraged people to play more fairly.在一个网上信任游戏中,如果玩家向他人告发作弊者,作弊者获胜的机会就会降低,害怕成为不利流言的主角的威胁鼓励人们更公平地玩游戏。Prof Willer said: ;Gossip gets a bad rap, but we#39;re finding evidence that it plays a critical role in the maintenance of social order.;维勒教授说:;尽管人们对流言怨声很多,但我们找到了据明它在维持社会秩序方面也发挥着重要的作用。; /201201/168867A Foreigner By Any Other Name In China, mi gao is a popular type of rice cake. It's also my name. It translates to Tall Rice and Chinese people find it hilarious. Tall Rice was born on a business card, a name given to me by my cubicle neighbor at China Daily, the state-owned newspaper where I worked when I first arrived here in 2007. I had an interview lined up and I needed business cards -- essential for any formal greeting in China. Since I needed business cards, I needed a Chinese name. My colleague tackled my request for a new name with vigor, spending the better part of an hour scribbling down different combinations of characters on a piece of paper. She slipped the paper on my keyboard as I edited a story. There were two characters written on it. "That means rice. That means tall, or high. It's Mi Gao," she said. "Rice Tall?" "Tall Rice is better." The reporter behind me peaked his head over the cubicle wall. "Ha, that's a stupid name!" "No it's not!" she insisted. "Mi, because your name's Mitch. And Gao, because you're tall. And the characters are beautiful." I held up the paper. They were beautiful characters indeed. I liked the name right away, but I had no idea then how much it would eventually mean to me. Over the course of four-and-a-half years living in China, my adopted name has become more than just a name: It is a mask, a character, an identity. Peter Hessler, the great American writer on China, discusses his China identity in his first book, River Town. By slipping into his alter ego, Ho Wei, Hessler finds it easier to navigate Chinese life and make connections with the people around him. "Ho Wei was completely different from my American self: He was friendlier, he was eager to talk with anybody," Hessler writes. "Also Ho Wei was stupid, which was what I liked most about him... People were comfortable with somebody that stupid, and they found it easy to talk to Ho Wei, even though they often had to say things twice or write new words in his notebook. Ho Wei always carried his notebook... and when Ho Wei returned home he left the notebook on the desk of Peter Hessler, who typed everything into his computer." Like Hessler, I find it easier to approach and connect with Chinese people as Mi Gao. But I also find that it allows me to be whomever I want. Under a different name, I can re-invent myself. Living abroad is all about new experiences and through my alter ego I've tried to say "yes" to experiences I would never have (or want to have) back home. As Tall Rice, I've appeared in a movie, a humiliating music , a commercial, a Peking Opera television special and, soon, a Chinese dating show. At home, I would have said no to all of it. I didn't really want to live out these experiences, but I did want the stories to tell friends over beers. Because of Tall Rice, I could do it all. I used to wonder why Chinese so often gave themselves such strange English names (I've encountered a Lucifer, a Math and a couple Apples, Angels and Princesses) and why they insisted on being called those names long after their foreign friends memorized their Chinese names-- their real names. I don't wonder about it anymore. I get it. Living in a foreign country or being among foreigners can be difficult and sometimes putting on a disguise makes it just a little easier. Besides, some foreigners here have Chinese names that see and raise any English names locals have chosen for themselves. I know a Graceful Dragon (Aaron), a Big Dragon (Nick), a Dangerous Pig (Julian) and a Horse Cubes (Martin). Language is a big part of a China identity. In that respect, you have to earn your Chinese name. I came to China armed with an arsenal of one Chinese word, ni hao, my silver bullet. It wasn't until I started to make headway (albeit incremental) in Chinese that I started to feel truly comfortable here, to begin becoming Tall Rice. Like Hessler, I enjoy slipping into my second identity. I can be goofy and ridiculous. I can be totally at ease behind the mask. It's around my Chinese teacher and good friend Guo Li, who knows me only as Mi Gao, that I feel most comfortable. I talk to her about anything and everything, because I feel like it's not really me talking. I feel like I can be completely open with her. She's like my therapist. She knows everything except my name. Four years ago, it would have been hard to figure that these two funny little characters, 米高, would end up meaning so much to me. Now that they do, I can't imagine friends like Guo Li calling me by anything else. To her, I'm an easy-going, dim-witted foreigner. To her, I'm Tall Rice. /201111/160333

Researchers at the University of Kansas say that people can accurately judge 90 percent of a stranger#39;s personality simply by looking at the person#39;s shoes.堪萨斯大学的研究人员称,只需看看一个人穿的鞋,就能准确地判断陌生人的90%的性格。;Shoes convey a thin but useful slice of information about their wearers,; the authors wrote in the new study published in the Journal of Research in Personality. ;Shoes serve a practical purpose, and also serve as nonverbal cues with symbolic messages. People tend to pay attention to the shoes they and others wear.;这项新研究发表在《个性研究杂志》上,作者写道:“鞋子可传达其主人的细微但有用的信息。鞋子有其实际用途,但也作为非言语信号传递着象征性信息。人们一般都会注意自己和他人穿的鞋。”Medical Daily notes that the number of detailed personality traits detected in the study include a person#39;s general age, their gender, income, political affiliation, and other personality traits, including someone#39;s emotional stability.《医学日报》指出,研究发现鞋子可透露的个性特征细节包括一个人的大概年龄、这个人的性别、收入、政治立场,还有包括情绪稳定性在内的其他个性特征。Lead researcher Omri Gillath said the judgments were based on the style, cost, color and condition of someone#39;s shoes. In the study, 63 University of Kansas students looked at pictures showing 208 different pairs of shoes worn by the study#39;s participants. Volunteers in the study were photographed in their most commonly worn shoes, and then filled out a personality questionnaire.首席研究员欧姆瑞#8226;吉拉斯说,这些判断是基于所穿的鞋的样式、价格、颜色和新旧程度做出的。在研究过程中,63名堪萨斯大学的学生观看了研究参与者穿的208双不同的鞋的图片。参加该研究的志愿者都是穿着自己平日里最常穿的鞋拍的照,然后他们填写了一份性格调查问卷。So, what do your shoes say about your personality?那么,你的鞋反映了你的什么性格特点呢?Some of the results were expected: People with higher incomes most commonly wore expensive shoes, and flashier footwear was typically worn by extroverts.部分研究结果是在意料之中的:收入高的人大多穿价格昂贵的鞋子,而颜色鲜亮的鞋子通常是性格外向的人穿的。However, some of the more specific results are intriguing. For example, ;practical and functional; shoes were generally worn by more ;agreeable; people, while ankle boots were more closely aligned with ;aggressive; personalities.不过,一些更具体的研究结果则十分有趣。例如,“功能性的”鞋子通常是性格“随和”的人穿的,而短靴的主人则大多是性格“强势”的人。The strangest of all may be that those who wore ;uncomfortable looking; shoes tend to have ;calm; personalities.最奇怪的也许是那些爱穿“看起来不舒的”鞋子的人竟然性格一般比较“沉着冷静”。And if you have several pairs of new shoes or take exceptional care of them, you may suffer from ;attachment anxiety,; spending an inordinate amount of time worrying about what other people think of your appearance.此外,如果你有好几双新鞋子或者格外爱惜保养这些新鞋,那么你可能患上了“依恋焦虑症”,你花了过多的时间来担心其他人对你外表的看法。There was even a political calculation in the mix with more liberal types wearing ;shabbier and less expensive; shoes.研究甚至还发现了鞋子和政治立场之间的关系,那些穿“比较破旧和廉价”的鞋子的人更可能是自由党派。The researchers noted that some people will choose shoe styles to mask their actual personality traits, but researchers noted that volunteers were also likely to be unaware that their footwear choices were revealing deep insights into their personalities.研究人员指出,有些人会通过选择鞋子的样式来掩饰他们真实的性格特征,不过研究人员也指出,志愿者们一般都不会意识到自己对鞋的选择会让人窥见性格深处。 /201206/186961

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