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时间:2020年02月24日 04:12:53

Mata Hari was the stage name of Margaretha Geertruida "Grietje" Zelle (7 August 1876, Leeuwarden – 15 October 1917, Vincennes), a Frisian (Dutch) exotic dancer and courtesan who was executed by firing squad for espionage during World War.玛塔·哈里(Mata Hari,1876年8月7日-1917年10月15日),是荷兰人玛格丽莎·赫特雷达·泽莱(Margaretha Geertruida Zelle)的艺名,是20世纪初知名交际花,一战期间与欧洲多国军政要人、社会名流都有关联,最终在巴黎以德国间谍罪名被法军毙。玛塔·哈里传奇式的人生在西方世界有着很高的知名度,后世许多学者也致力于研究她的间谍身份,对当时的判决提出许多置疑。玛塔·哈里的形象也经常出现在各种书籍、电影等文化作品之中,在西方文化中有一定的影响。 /200910/86746

China#39;s elderly are poor, sick and depressed in alarming numbers, according to the first large-scale survey of those over 60, an immense challenge for Beijing and one of the greatest long-term vulnerabilities of the Chinese economy.针对中国60岁以上人口的首次大规模调查显示,中国贫穷、多病且精神抑郁的老年人数量多得惊人,这既是对中国政府的巨大挑战,也是中国经济最大的长期性弱点之一。The survey of living conditions for China#39;s 185 million elderly paints a bleak picture that defies the efforts of the government to build what it calls a #39;harmonious society,#39; one dedicated to human welfare rather than simply economic growth. Of the generation that built China#39;s economic boom, 22.9%─or 42.4 million─live in poverty with consumption of less than 3,200 yuan a year (2).对中国1.85亿老年人生存状况的这一调查勾勒出了一幅黯淡的画面,这使中国政府构建所谓“和谐社会”的努力受到了挑战。中国政府的这一努力致力于实现民生幸福,而不仅仅是经济增长。在创造了中国的经济繁荣的那一代人中,有22.9%(4,240万)的人生活贫困,年消费额不足人民币3,200元。The fear of being old and poor, which prompts many Chinese to stash away their earnings, also cuts against another of Beijing#39;s priorities: to rebalance the economy toward stronger consumption.出于对老来贫的担心,许多中国人都将自己相当一部分收入储存起来,这使中国政府实现其另一项优先目标的努力受到了挑战。这一目标就是提高消费对经济增长的贡献率,从而使中国经济逐步实现再平衡。The survey, led by Chinese and international academics, covered 17,708 individuals across 28 of China#39;s 31 provinces and was partly funded by the Chinese government through a science foundation. While careful to credit the government with progress on expanding pension and health-care coverage, it also showed that physical disability and mental-health problems are widesp: Of those surveyed, 38.1% reported difficulty with daily activities and 40% showed high symptoms of depression.这项由中国和国际学者牵头进行的调查访问了中国31个省份中28个省份的17,708人,其部分资金由中国政府通过一个科学基金提供。调查报告虽然没忘提及中国政府在扩大养老和医疗保险覆盖面方面所取得的进展,但它还是显示,中国老年人中普遍存在身体残疾和精神健康问题。在接受调查的人中,38.1%的人说自己在日常行动方面存在困难,40%的人表现出高度的抑郁症症状。International comparisons are made difficult by definitional issues. But rates of poverty, disability and depression in China all appear relatively high. The poverty rate for Americans aged over 65 is 8.7% according to the Census Bureau. The U.S. Health and Retirement Study found that 26% to 27% of elderly Americans had a disability, and depression rates are also markedly lower than in China.由于定义方面的问题,难以将中国的上述调查结果与其他国家的情况做横向比较。但中国老龄人口的贫困率、残疾率和精神抑郁率似乎都处于相对较高的水平。美国人口普查局(Census Bureau)的数据显示,美国65岁以上老年人口的贫困率为8.7%。美国健康与退休研究项目(Health and Retirement Study)发现,美国26%至27%的老年人存在残疾,美国老年人的精神抑郁率也明显低于中国的水平。John Strauss, a professor at the University of Southern California and one of the leaders of the project, pointed to China#39;s relatively low level of development as part of the explanation for higher poverty levels there. #39;We need to remember that China is still a developing economy, it is not yet a high-income country,#39; he said.美国南加州大学(University of Southern California)教授施特劳斯(John Strauss)是中国上述调查项目的牵头人之一,他认为中国相对低的发达程度是造成中国老年人贫困率较高的原因之一。他说,我们需要记住,中国依然是一个发展中国家,它还不是一个高收入国家。An aging population means the problems are compounded. The number of old people for every hundred working-age members of the population─known as the dependency ratio─will rise from 11 in 2010 to 42 in 2050, according to projections from the ed Nations.中国人口的老龄化程度不断提高使中国的老年人贫困问题变得更加复杂。据联合国预测,中国的赡养比率(即每100名工作年龄人口需要赡养的老人数)将从2010年的11上升至2050年的42。Other countries will also see a rise in the dependency ratio. But the pace of aging in China is particularly marked─a consequence of the one-child policy.虽然其他国家的赡养比率也会不断提高,但中国由于独生子女政策的影响,其人口老龄化的速度尤其快。The survey finds that 88.7% of the elderly who require assistance with daily activities receive it from family members. But the one-child policy and the migration of many young people to China#39;s cities for work threaten to erode the traditional approach of children caring for elderly parents.此次调查发现,在中国日常行动需要人帮助的老年人中,88.7%的人是从家人处获得帮助的。但由于中国的独生子女政策以及许多中国年轻人离开家乡前往城市寻找工作,有可能使中国由子女照顾年迈父母的传统养老方式受到威胁。China is also unique in encountering a serious problem with aging while still a poor country. #39;Other countries are old and rich,#39; said Albert Park, a professor at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and another survey leader. #39;China will be old at a relatively early stage in its development.#39;中国还面临着独特的未富先老问题。此项调查的另一位牵头人、香港科技大学教授朴之水(Albert Park)说,其他国家是老而且富,而中国则将在尚未成为发达国家时就进入老龄化社会。Yu Baihui is one of many who have fallen through the cracks. Aged 73, Ms. Yu lives with her husband in a dilapidated house in Rensha, a town of 31,000 on the edges of Chongqing in western China. Like many of China#39;s impoverished elderly, she is a former farmer, too old to benefit from the booming economythat has swept the younger generation into China#39;s factories,and passed over by a benefit system that is skewed in favor of urbanites.于百惠(音)就是众多未富先老者中的一员。她今年73岁,与丈夫住在重庆郊区仁沙乡一个破破烂烂的房子里。这个乡有人口3.1万。跟中国很多穷困的老年人一样,于百惠以前也是农民,现在因年迈体衰,无法受益于蓬勃的经济发展。年轻一代纷纷被这股经济浪潮裹挟着进入厂矿企业打工,而老年人则被向城镇人群倾斜的福利制度所忽略。#39;My parents don#39;t have any pension or other allowance,#39; said Luo Zhengfeng─Ms. Yu#39;s son, who works selling umbrellas and tour maps in Chongqing to support his wife, child and aging parents.于百惠的儿子罗正峰(音)说,我父母没有养老金,也没有别的津贴。他在重庆卖雨伞和旅游地图,以此来养活妻儿和年迈的父母。China#39;s turbulent history also appears to have had an impact on the generation that lived through it. #39;China#39;s elderly experienced famine in the 1950s, and the disturbance of the Cultural Revolution,#39; said Mr. Park. #39;Those early experiences leave a marked impact on physical and mental health.#39;中国动荡的历史也好像对经历了这段时期的人们产生了影响。朴之水说,中国老一代人经历过上世纪50年代的饥荒和后来文化大革命的骚乱,那些早年的经历给他们身心都留下了印记。In theory, respect for elders is deeply ingrained in China#39;s culture. Confucius, China#39;s cultural lodestone who has enjoyed a revival in popularity as leaders search for new sources of legitimacy, advocated the honoring of all old people.按理说,“尊老”是中国文化中根深蒂固的东西。中国文化先师孔子就主张要“上敬老”。在中国领导人寻求新的合法性之际,孔子再度受到追捧。On a visit to an old people#39;s home in Tianjin in 2009, former President Hu Jintao echoed those sentiments and set the tone for government pronouncements on China#39;s aged. #39;Respecting and caring for the elderly is not only a Chinese tradition, but also a symbol of national civilization and progress,#39; he said.2009年,时任中国国家主席的胡锦涛到天津某敬老院看望老人时,也对这一传统表示肯定,并且为中国政府在这方面的表态定了基调。他说,尊敬和爱护老人是中华民族的优良传统,也是一个国家文明进步的标志。Mr. Hu advocated a more inclusive form of development, with expansion of public pension and health-care coverage. The results of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study suggest those efforts haven#39;t so far been sufficient.胡锦涛主张的是一种更加广泛的发展形式,扩大公共养老金和医疗保险的覆盖面。中国健康与养老追踪调查(China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study)结果显示,这些努力到目前为止都还不够。Widesp poverty in old age also undermines China#39;s attempt to put the economy on an even keel, with lower saving and investment and higher consumption. Despite rapid increases in wages─which rose 14% last year for workers in the private sector according to official data─ households remain unwilling to spend. One reason: the need to guard against poverty in old age. #39;I hope the government is stung by conscience and puts more money into pensions,#39; said Cecilia Wang, a 30-year-old translator at a business magazine in Beijing, #39;but as they don#39;t we have to save ourselves.#39;中国老年人到了晚年普遍贫困,这一现象也破坏了中国试图以低存款、低投资和高消费来让经济保持平稳的努力。尽管工资收入迅速上涨(官方数据显示民营部门员工去年涨薪幅度达14%),但中国家庭仍不愿花钱,理由之一是要防止老来贫。北京某商业杂志30岁的翻译Cecilia Wang说,我希望政府发发善心,给养老金多拨点款;但因为他们不这么做,我们就得自己攒钱。China has enjoyed some success in expanding the welfare system. Pension coverage for urban residents has expanded from 155 million in 2003, when Mr. Hu took over, to 304 million in 2012, according to data from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security. Pension coverage for rural residents has grown even more rapidly. But the benefits provided by the expanded schemes remain inadequate in many cases. The survey shows that on average, recipients of the government#39;s basic rural pension receive just 720 yuan a year.中国在扩大福利体系方面已经取得了一定的成功。中国人力资源和社会保障部的数据显示,城镇居民的养老金覆盖面从2003年胡锦涛上台时的1.55亿增至2012年的3.04亿。针对农村人口的养老金覆盖范围扩展速度就更为迅速。但扩大的养老计划所提供的养老金在很多地方仍显不足。那项调查显示,农村老人平均每年只能领取到政府提供的720元基础养老金。More than 90% of the elderly population is now covered by health insurance, but out-of-pocket costs remain high. #39;Mom had a stroke last year, and the hospital charged 18,000 yuan, but we could claim back only 1,000 yuan from insurance,#39; said Mr. Luo, the Chongqing umbrella seller. The 17,000 yuan in out-of-pocket costs equaled almost half of his annual income.如今,90%以上的中国老年人都有医疗保险,但需要自己实际付的费用仍很高。在重庆靠卖伞为生的罗正峰说,我母亲去年中风,医药费花了1.8万元,但保险只能报1,000元。这自掏腰包的1.7万元几乎相当于他半年的收入。#39;China#39;s government is aware of the problem and addressing it aggressively,#39; said Mr. Park. But there are few easy answers. With a growing number of elderly relying on a shrinking workforce, the existing system of care inside the family appears untenable. But more generous pension and health-care benefits risks putting a sharply increased strain on the public finances.朴之水说,中国政府意识到了这个问题,正在积极应对。但这个问题几乎没有轻松的解决之道。中国现在有越来越多的老年人依靠不断萎缩的劳动力来赡养,这种靠家人养老的模式似乎看上去已经为继。然而,扩大养老和医疗出又会让政府面临公共财政压力剧增的风险。 /201306/242403

The Hundred Days' Reform (simplified Chinese: 戊戌变法; traditional Chinese: 戊戌變法; pinyin: wùxū biànfǎ, or simplified Chinese: 百日维新; traditional Chinese: 百日維新; pinyin: bǎirì wéixīn) was a failed 104-day national cultural, political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898, undertaken by the young Guangxu Emperor and his reform-minded supporters led by Kang Youwei. The movement proved to be short-lived, ending in a coup d'état (戊戌政變 "The Coup of 1898") by powerful conservative opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi. 在戊戌变法(简体中文:戊戌变法,繁体中文:戊戌變法;拼音:wùxū biànfǎ,或简体中文:百日维新,传统中文:百日維新;拼音:bǎirì wéixīn)是一次针对国家文化,政治和教育的改革运动,6月11日至1898年9月21日,历经104天最终失败,由年轻的光绪皇帝和具有改革意识的光绪持者康有为领导。这场运动是短暂的,最终在以慈禧太后为首的保守派强大压力下结束。 /200909/84644

ON APRIL 8th a court in Bali confirmed that Lindsay Sandiford, a British grandmother convicted of smuggling cocaine into Indonesia, had lost an appeal against the deathsentence handed to her in January. Ms Sandiford, who may face a firing squad, remains one of the 23,000 or so condemned prisoners around the world. But the number of new death sentences decreased a little in 2012, according to a report which Amnesty International, a human-rights group, released on April 10th. Last year judges issued about 1,700 capital sentences, 10% less than the year before.4月8日,巴厘的一家法院实LindsaySandiford的上诉已被驳回。Sandiford是一名英国奶奶,因非法携带可卡因进入印尼在1月被判处死刑。可能面对行刑队的Sandiford现在仍是全球约23,000个等待执行死刑的犯人之一。但根据人权组织大赦国际4月10日公布的报告显示,2012年全球新的死刑判决略有下降。去年,法官判了约1,700人死刑,比前年少了10%。Those figures exclude China, which Amnesty removed from its reporting in 2009, for lack of information. Though China has reduced the number of capital crimes, more prisoners are executed there than in all other countries combined. Apart from China (and Syria’s battlefields), the charity recorded 682 executions in 21 countries. Three-quarters took place in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In Iraq the number of executions roughly doubled, to 129, of which 34 were carried outin one day.上述数据不包括中国。由于资料匮乏,2009年起中国被排除在报告之外。虽然中国已经减少了死刑罪名的数量,在中国处死的犯人比其他国家的总和还要多。除中国(和叙利亚的战场)外,该慈善组织记录了21个国家的682起处决。四分之三发生在伊朗、伊拉克和沙特阿拉伯。在伊拉克,处决数几乎翻了一番,达到129起,其中34起是在同一天执行的。America killed 43 criminals in 2012. That makes its executioners the world’s fifth busiest.The number is a lot lower than the 98 executions that took place in 1999, when American capital punishment peaked. Last April Connecticut became the 17th state to abolish the death penalty, and the fifth in six years. Several more are mulling the change.美国在2012年处决了43个罪犯,处决人数排在世界第五。这一数字远低于1999年的98人的峰值 。去年4月康涅狄格州成为第17个废除死刑的州,也是最近6年中的第5个。更多的州正在考虑废除死刑。The decline in American executions reflects a broader global trend. Last year Latvia became the latest of 97 countries to wipe the death penalty from its justice system. In a few recalcitrant places, capital punishment is holding steady or picking up. In most of the world politicians are smothering it.美国处决数的下降反映出全球的趋势。去年,拉脱维亚成为第97个从其司法系统中去除死刑的国家。在少数几个顽固不化的地方,死刑数和以往持平或有所增加。在世界的大多数地方,政治家们正在废除死刑。 /201304/234752

Help! My boss is driving me nutsWhen a control-freak boss is in charge, you and your co-workers may be tempted to rebel. Here's a better strategy. Dear Annie: We used to have a great team here, until our boss was replaced by a manager brought in from another part of the company who is now trying to control our every move. He insists on telling everyone what to do and how to do it in minute detail (even though we've all been excelling at our jobs for years). No detail is too ridiculously tiny to escape his scrutiny, and he's constantly issuing new rules and guidelines, some of which contradict each other. As a result, some of us are just taking the passive-aggressive approach and ignoring him, which means he bears down harder on the whole group. I could give you examples that would curl your hair, but the point is, it's driving us nuts. Is there anything we can do to change his behavior, or do we just grin and bear it until the next boss comes along? -Gritting My Teeth Dear GMT: Ah, the control-freak boss. We've all had one, at one time or other. "Overly controlling managers are one of the main types who make employees rebel," says Albert J. Bernstein, Ph.D. (www.albernstein.com), a clinical psychologist for 35 years and author of a terrific new book called Am I The Only Sane One Working Here?: 101 Solutions for Surviving Office Insanity (McGraw-Hill, .95). A big chunk of Bernstein's consulting practice comes from senior managers, urged by teams like yours to get rid of a control freak, who just don't know whom to believe. So they call Bernstein in to sort out the situation. "Even the worst micromanagers usually don't realize they're overly controlling," he says. "They think they're just controlling enough." The cause of their delusion? "These are very frightened people. They are terrified of making a mistake, or of having someone else's mistake reflect badly on them," says Bernstein. "Consciously or not, how they view the world is, 'If I don't control every little thing, something terrible is going to happen.' " Recognizing that fear is the key to taming it, Bernstein says. He recommends that you and your colleagues try these steps: 1. Don't let your annoyance show. "Calling someone a control freak, or getting visibly irritated when he leans on you, will only make him think he needs to keep an even closer eye on you," Bernstein says. And don't even think about trying to discuss the problem: "Forget trying to talk a micromanager out of being one. Even seasoned therapists have trouble convincing the control-obsessed that their behavior might be causing more problems than it's solving." 2. Use reassurance, not recrimination. Take the time before a project begins to get a clear and concrete outline of what your boss wants, when he wants it, and how he wants it done. "Take copious notes," Bernstein says. "There are two reasons for doing this. First, if you look as if you're taking his instructions seriously, he'll worry less about you making 'mistakes.' " And second, if you establish - in writing - a specific, measurable result to be delivered at a specific time, it will come in handy later on when your boss tries to control the process - which of course he will. 3. Give progress reports before he asks for them. "Nothing allays a control freak's fears like excess information," says Bernstein. "Remind him that you are taking the project as seriously as he does." 4. When your boss tries to control your work, ask if this means the end product has changed. This is where you whip out your notes from that initial meeting. "Treat attempts to control the process as requests to change the end product," says Bernstein. "If the ultimate goal isn't affected, why change the process?" "Needless to say, for this strategy to be effective, you need some history of delivering the goods," he adds. You and your teammates have such a history, right? 5. Keep up the good work. According to Bernstein, if you follow these steps several times - once is not enough - and actually do what you say you're going to do when you say you will do it, your boss will become less worried about your performance and go off to fuss over somebody less responsible. Meantime, try not to overreact to your wacky boss, Bernstein cautions. "People often respond so viscerally to an over-controlling boss because of their own inner teenager - you know, that voice inside that reacts to overbearing authority with, 'You're not the boss of me,' " he observes. "It's a sort of knee-jerk resistance to arbitrary or unreasonable control." That voice is louder in some folks than in others, he notes, but "I always counsel people not to let their inner teenager make career decisions for them." Noted. /200909/83046


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