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Microsoft#39;s secret weapons to get back to the top of the tech mountain: machine learning and artificial intelligence, some of the company#39;s top Ramp;D brains said Monday. 微软(Microsoft)的一些高层研发人员周一表示,微软拥有一些能让该公司重返科技高峰顶端的秘密武器:机器学习和人工智能。Harry Shum, head of technology and research at Microsoft, said the big trends that his team is working on involves how a person interacts with a computer. #39;We are now moving from the personal computer to personal computing,#39; he said at Microsoft#39;s Think Next 2014 conference in Tel Aviv. 微软技术和研究负责人Harry Shum称,他的团队正在研发的一些大趋势涉及人与电脑如何互动。他在微软于特拉维夫举行的Think Next 2014会议上表示,目前微软正从个人电脑向个人运算转变。 Microsoft is investing heavily in #39;invisible user interface#39; technology, said Yoram Yaakobi, who heads up Microsoft#39;s research and development center in Israel. Yaakobi said people in the future won#39;t need to touch, type or speak to their devices -- the devices will #39;know#39; what we want them to do before we ask. He called it #39;UI.Next.#39; 微软以色列研发中心负责人Yoram Yaakobi称,微软对“无形用户界面”技术进行了巨大投资。Yaakobi表示,未来人们将无需通过触碰、打字或是说话的方式运行自己的设备,设备在用户发出请求之前就“知道”用户想让它们干什么。他把这种技术称为“UI.Next”。#39;User interface started with the command prompt, moved to graphics, then touch, and then gestures,#39; Yaakobi said. #39;It#39;s now moving to invisible UI, where there is nothing to operate. The tech around you understands you and what you want to do#39; -- and that#39;s what people expect, he said. #39;We#39;re putting this at the forefront of our efforts.#39; Yaakobi称,用户界面一开始是命令提示符,后来变成图形界面,然后是触摸界面,在接下来是手势界面,现在开始向无形用户界面转变了,在这种界面下用户将没有什么可以操作。周围的技术会了解用户以及用户想要做什么,这也正是人们所期待的。他表示,微软正把这种技术的开发当作其首要任务。Cortana, the virtual personal assistant Microsoft announced last week, is part of the company#39;s push into machine learning, Yaakobi and Shum said. Microsoft has positioned Cortana as a challenger to Apple#39;s Siri and Google Now. Yaakobi和Shum表示,微软上周发布的虚拟个人助理Cortana是该公司大力发展机器学习举措的一部分。微软对Cortana的定位是,这是一款挑战苹果(Apple)的Siri和Google Now的产品。Microsoft is pretty high on Cortana. Jeannette Wing, a vice president for research and one of Microsoft#39;s experts in #39;computational thinking#39; (: machine learning) , said interacting with Cortana is more like a conversation than a response to a question. 微软对Cortana的期望非常高。Jeannette Wing是主管研发的副总裁,也是微软在“计算思维”(也就是机器学习)方面的专家之一,她表示,与Cortana互动更像是一次谈话,而不是对某一个问题做出回答。#39;I speak to Cortana, Cortana responds. I speak back to it, and it understands that we#39;re still in the same conversation. It knows from the first sentence I said what I#39;m referring to,#39; she said at the conference. #39;That seems like such a small thing for human beings, but it#39;s huge.#39; Wing在Think Next 2014会议上表示,她跟Cortana说话,Cortana做出回答,她再跟它说话,Cortana就知道双方仍然在进行同一次谈话。Wing称,Cortana从她说的第一个句子就知道她指的是什么。她还表示,对人类而言,这似乎是很小的一件事,但它的意义非常重大。Most major technology companies in the world are looking into machine learning, she said, and Microsoft is making major strides. #39;We were in an AI winter, and now we#39;re in an AI spring,#39; Wing said. Wing称,世界上大多数大型科技公司都在研究机器学习,微软正在这方面取得长足的进步。Wing表示,微软过去处于AI(人工智能)的冬天,现在则处于AI的春天。 /201404/285487

When it comes to bugs like bacteria and parasites, we#39;ve been trained to think that less is better. But there are some good guys in the microbial world — bugs that do the unglamorous work of keeping us regular and helping to relieve a range of disorders from diarrhea to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Now, a new study suggests that the same microbes may even help us stay slim.当谈到细菌和寄生虫的时候,我们习惯性的都认为越少越好。 实际上在微生物界中有一些好虫子的,它们做着枯燥无聊的工作来维持我们的身体正常运转,还能预防从腹泻到肠道紊乱综合症的病症。 现在新的研究发现这些微生物甚至帮助我们保持苗条。In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers at the University of Arizona and the Mayo Clinic in Arizona report a very small study of nine individuals — three of normal weight, three who were morbidly obese and three who underwent gastric bypass surgery. The team found that each group harbored a different intestinal zoo of microbes, and that following their surgery, the gastric bypass patients#39; gut bugs ended up looking much more similar to those of the normal weight patients.在一项美国国家科学院亚利桑那州大学和马奥诊所的研究者们进行的小范围试验中,有9个被观测者,三个正常体重,三个肥胖症,还有三个要做胃旁路手术的病人。 研究团队发现不同组的人体肠道中的菌群是完全不同的。在手术后,那三个有胃病的人最后的肠道菌群变的和正常体重的病人相近了。While these results are only preliminary, they do point to an entirely new way that doctors and patients might be able to tackle the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. ;This study suggests that the differences in the organisms may play at least some role in why people lose the weight they do, ; says Dr. John DiBaise, a gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic and one of study#39;s authors. ;Ultimately, we may not only be able to manipulate the microbes of obese individuals to look like those of normal weight people, but we might also potentially be able to predict a person#39;s susceptibility to obesity.;虽然这些结论只是初级的,但它确实为医生和病人降低美国日益增长的肥胖症比率打开了一扇新的大门。作为这项研究的主要研究员,马奥诊所的胃肠病学家约翰.迪拜瑟医生说:“这项研究说明这些微生物肯定在在人们的减肥过程中扮演了什么角色。如果弄得好,我们可能不仅让胖子们的肠道菌群和正常人的一样,还可以预测一个人会不会变胖。”What might be happening, suspects DiBaise, is that each person#39;s ability to extract energy and store fat from food changes depending on which combination of bugs are living in the gut. Those who are morbidly obese, it seems, tend to nurture bugs that promote the fat storage process, which might be a factor in their excessive weight gain. The bypass patients appeared to follow a similar pattern but in the opposite direction, eating less first and then developing bugs appropriate to that diet. It#39;s not clear how the physical act of reducing food intake drives that change, nor how long-lasting the possible slimming effects of the new bug population will be.拜瑟医生怀疑,每个人吸收营养、存储脂肪的能力和自己的肠道菌群的种类组合息息相关。胖子们的似乎在肠道内饲养了一群会提高脂肪存储的微生物才造成了他们的肥胖。而那些胃旁路患者也走了相同的路,不过方向刚好相反,吃的少,也就养成了适合节食的菌群。对于运动和减少食物摄入如何影响这种变化和这些减肥效果能减肥的新菌群能坚持多久还不是很清楚。But none of this means that downing the latest probiotic yogurts, which contain certain strains of good gut bacteria, should be the next weight loss craze. For one, says DiBaise, the strains that were dominant in the normal weight people are not the same as those promoted in the popular probiotic yogurts. Second, there is no evidence that probiotic products can do anything about weight loss; the latest scientific studies have shown only that probiotics can relieve antibiotic-related diarrhea, as well as alleviating IBS and aiding regularity. ;It is interesting to look at microbial flora, ; says Lynne McFarland, an epidemiologist at the Puget Sound Veterans Administration Medical Center, who was not affiliated with the study. ;But I would not run out and eat a lot of yogurt because of this.;但是这些结果不意味着喝含有一些良性菌的最新酸牛乳会成为下一个减肥风潮。拜瑟医生说,首先,人体肠道中的菌群和算牛乳的菌群是不一样的。其次,这些产品和能不能减肥基本没啥关系。最新的研究也只是发现这些饮料可以缓解抗生素相关的腹泻,减轻肠道综合症和稳定肠道。没有参与本研究的皮热老兵健康管理医疗中心的流行病学家林恩.马克弗兰说:“观察微生物菌从是很有意思的,那我也不能因此跑出去吃一大堆酸乳酪啊!”At least, not yet. More studies are needed to follow the same people as they lose weight through diet and exercise, to see if the composition of their gut flora changes — as it did with the gastric bypass patients. What#39;s more, notwithstanding the seemingly cause-and-effect link between gut flora and weight, that relationship can be deceiving; a third factor entirely may be causing both — a diet of highly processed foods, for instance, suggests Dr. David Katz, director of the Yale Prevention Research Center. What#39;s more, says Katz: ;Regardless of the variation of gut flora in the population, the entire population is getting heavy. So probiotics might tweak one#39;s personal vulnerability to obesity, but they would not much move the big dial [on the obesity epidemic], ; he says. Still, as anyone fighting the numbers on the scale knows, every little bit helps — even something a little as a bacterium.至少,现在还不行。还需要做更多的试验。观察同一些人在节食和锻炼后他们的肠道菌群组合变化是否和那些胃旁路手术的病人的一样。 还有,尽管肠道菌群和减肥之间看似有因果关系,但这种关系也许具有欺骗性。耶鲁预防研究中心的大卫.卡茨说,可能有第三种因素同时导致了前二者,比如一份对都是高杀菌处理食物的食谱。他还说,“无视人们肠道菌群的种类变化,人们还是在变重,就算它们能减弱人对肥胖趋势,还是改变不了大趋势。”但那些和秤上表针战斗的胖子们还是要抓紧最后的稻草-哪怕这稻草只有细菌那么小。 /201307/247392In July 2012, the Presidential election was kicking into high gear, the Olympics were about to begin, and most people thought it was a matter of time before shares of Apple hit ,000.2012年7月份,美国总统选举步入高潮,伦敦奥运会即将开幕,而大多数人都认为苹果(Apple)股价涨到1,000美元只是一个时间问题。Google (GOOG), meanwhile, was just muddling along. After doubling during 2009, its stock had been ting water around 0 a share for three and a half years. Apple (AAPL), too was trading around 0 a share, but the iPhone 5 was coming and the company Steve Jobs built seemed to have the wind at its back.与此同时,谷歌(Google)股票可谓“虚度光阴”。在2009年股价翻倍之后,谷歌股票在随后三年半的时间里一直徘徊在600美元上下。去年7月份,苹果股价也处于600美元左右,但iPhone 5即将推出,而乔布斯缔造的苹果公司似乎正一帆风顺。Oh, how things have changed since then. Apple#39;s stock has fallen 29% since mid-July. And Google? It#39;s gained 46%, pushing past the 0 milestone while Apple languishes near 4 a share. Apple is tussling with investors over whether to pay more dividends, while Google rallies merrily on.哦,自那以后,情势发生了多大的变化啊。 自去年7月中旬以来,苹果股价已经下跌了29%。而谷歌呢?它的股价上涨了46%,突破了800美元大关,而苹果却趴在424美元附近。苹果正在与投资者就是否增加派发股息的问题进行争斗,而谷歌股票则在欢快上涨。There has been a lot of discussion over Apple#39;s decline in recent months, and comparatively less about Google#39;s corresponding rise. But the difference in between the two boils down to this: Apple is increasingly seen as coming off one of the greatest runs in the history of Silicon Valley. And Google may just be at the start of one.近几个月以来,人们对于苹果股价下跌展开了许多讨论,而相对而言,对于谷歌相应的上涨却较少讨论。但两者之间的这个差异可归结为这点:苹果创造了硅谷历史上科技公司业绩增长最辉煌的一个阶段,但现在人们越来越倾向于认为,这个阶段已经结束,而谷歌可能正处于这样一个阶段的开始。That is the new image of Google after two quarters of impressive earnings and more signs that the company is laying plans for long-term growth. ;Looking at the consumer technology world over the next 10 to 20 years, we believe Google is far and away the best-positioned company,; wrote Gene Munster, an influential tech analyst at Piper Jaffray.这就是谷歌在连续两个季度获得不俗业绩——而且有更多迹象表明该公司正在制定长期发展计划——之后给人留下的新形象。“展望未来一二十年的消费科技领域,我们认为谷歌无疑是占据最佳优势的公司,”投资派杰(Piper Jaffray)颇具影响力的科技产业分析师吉恩?蒙斯特写道。Munster pointed not to search or other advertising, which still accounts for 87% of the company#39;s revenue, but to new ventures that have yet to hit the market, like Google Glass and self-driving cars, which he called one of Google#39;s ;biggest opportunities in the next 10 years.;蒙斯特话中指的并不是搜索或其他广告业务(这部分业务在谷歌的营收中仍占据87%的份额),而是指那些还没有投入市场的新开发项目,比如谷歌眼镜和无人驾驶汽车——他称后者为谷歌“未来十年最大的机遇之一。”Compare that with Apple, which is seeing its share of the smartphone and tablet market erode over time as lower-margin, lower-cost Android rivals sell more products, and as Apple responds with its own lower-margin products like the iPad Mini.与此相比,苹果看到自己在智能手机和平板电脑领域的市场份额正在随着时间的推移而逐渐缩水,同时那些低利润、低成本、采用安卓移动操作系统的竞争对手则提高了产品的销量,而且苹果也在推出迷你iPad等自己的低利润产品予以反击。Although Apple infamously holds its cards close to its vest, it#39;s working on its own new products -- some that could create an entirely new category like the rumored iWatch. Apple is also taking time to create a new TV device. Such new products could offer Apple new areas of growth -- the iWatch alone could produce billion in revenue -- and beef up the company#39;s profit margins to levels that would impress investors again.虽然苹果素来以守口如瓶著称,但我们知道,它正在开发自己的几款新产品——有些可能会形成一个全新的产品类别,比如传闻中的智能手表iWatch。此外,苹果还在投入时间开发一款新的电视产品。这样的新产品可为苹果提供新的增长领域——仅iWatch就可产生60亿美元的营收,而且可把该公司的利润率提升到再次给投资者留下深刻印象的水平。For now, however, sentiment is against Apple and strongly in favor of Google. This week, more analysts have joined the Google ,000 club, citing other factors that could propel the stock higher in the coming year. Jeffries amp; Co. argued that a four-digit price is possible, given improvements in the Motorola handset business and non-search areas such as YouTube and commerce initiatives. Perhaps more encouraging, clickthrough rates on mobile ads are rising, Jeffries analyst Brian Pitz wrote.然而,目前投资者并不看好苹果,相反却强烈看好谷歌。上周,更多的分析师认为谷歌股价将会上涨至1,000美元,他们认为其他一些因素可能会在未来几年内推高谷歌股价。投资杰富瑞公司(Jeffries amp; Co.)认为,考虑到托罗拉手机业务的业绩改善、YouTube等非搜索领域以及电子商务计划,谷歌股价可能会上涨至四位数。或许更令人鼓舞的消息是,移动广告的点击率正在持续攀升,杰富瑞公司(Jefferies)分析师布莱恩?皮兹如是写道。How deserved is this reversal of fortune between Apple and Google#39;s stocks? Perhaps not as much as the stock charts might suggest. For much of the three years when Google was trading around 0 a share, it was subject to speculation that, first, it couldn#39;t thrive in the era of Facebook (FB), and then later uncertainty around the new CEO Larry Page. The effectiveness of Page#39;s bold steps are only now becoming apparent to investors.苹果和谷歌股票之间的这种运势逆转有多少合理的成分呢?实际情况或许并不是股票走势图可能展现出来的模样。过去三年谷歌股票徘徊于600美元附近的大部分时间里,人们一直存在如下的猜测:首先,谷歌无法在以Facebook为代表的社会化媒体时代实现繁荣发展,之后人们对谷歌联合创始人拉里?佩奇出任首席执行官的表现没有把握。对于投资者而言,佩奇实施的一系列大胆举措直到现在才显现出其预期效果。Apple, meanwhile, was riding a multi-year wave of bullishness and strong earnings growth that was driven by the iPhone and iPad. Those two products took years to conceive, design, and execute into the products we know. One thing that is certain about Apple -- it#39;s not sitting quietly counting its pile of cash. It#39;s trying to design new category-defining products. The real question is whether those products will resonate with consumers the way the iPad has.与此同时,苹果已被投资者持续看涨多年,而且在iPhone和iPad的推动下,它的盈利增长表现强劲。这两款产品经过了多年的构思、设计以及执行,才形成我们如今所知道的产品。对于苹果,我们可以确定一件事,那就是它不会静静地坐在那里,数着自己积累起来的巨额现金。这家公司正在设法设计自创类别的新产品。真正的问题在于,这些产品是否会像iPad那样,得到消费者的认可和共鸣。In other words, there are real, fundamental changes going on at both of these companies, but the effects of those changes are greatly enhanced in the stock performance. Just as Google was underappreciated two years ago, so Apple could be today. Just as Apple was revered with blind bullishness then, so Google is at risk of being overvalued if it does reach ,000 too quickly.换句话说,这两家公司都正在发生着一些实实在在的根本性变化,但这些变化的影响正在各自的股票表现中被显著放大。正如两年前谷歌失宠那样,苹果今天可能也是如此。正如那时那些盲目乐观的投资者极力推崇苹果那样,如果谷歌股价过快上涨到1,000美元的话,它现在就面临着股票估值偏高的风险。That doesn#39;t mean Google is doomed or that Apple is set to rebound quickly. Both of these companies are going to have, at different times, their fallow periods as well as their blowout earnings reports. Both are going to keep working on projects that will offer growth for investors with a long-term focus.并不是说谷歌在劫难逃,也不是说苹果股价马上就会反弹。这两家公司都将在不同的时候经历无所作为的低谷时期以及盈利报告大幅超预期的高潮时期。这两家公司都将注重于长期发展策略,继续开发为投资者提供增长前景的项目。But for now, consider that Google is trading at 18 times its expected earnings this year, double the ratio for Apple. That shouldn#39;t surprise anyone, but it also suggests that the recent reversal of fortunes making financial headlines today are priced into both of these tech giants. What is much less certain is where they will both be in a year or so from now.但现在,考虑到谷歌目前股价已达到其今年每股预期收益的18倍,是苹果的两倍。这个数字不应该有任何人会感到意外,但它同时也表明,这两家公司最近成为财经头版新闻的运势逆转已反映在这两家科技巨头的股价上。现在难以确定的是,一年左右的时间之后,这两只股票各自又会处于什么价位。 /201303/229675

Neutrino communications中微子通信ET, phone home外星人,致电家中The world#39;s first neutrino-messaging service世界上首次中微子通信务PARTICLE physics is all very well for addressing trivial matters like ;why are we here?; (see article). But some people question its practical usefulness. To answer such naysayers a group of physicists at Fermilab have just submitted a paper to Modern Physics Letters A in which they describe how they have built themselves a neutrino-powered telephone.粒子物理学总是能很好地解决我们生活中遇到的像;为什么我们在这里?;这类的琐事。但是一些人会质疑它的实际可行性。为了消除类似的质疑,费米实验室的一群物理学家刚向物理学界权威杂志Modern Physics Letters A提交了一篇论文,论文中描述着他们怎样为自己成功定制了利用中微子载波的无线电通信电话。Naturally, their neutrinophone is digital. A pulse of neutrinos (small, elusive subatomic particles with no electric charge) corresponds to the digit ;1; while no pulse corresponds to ;0;. The neutrinos themselves are created by smashing bunches of protons into a target made of graphite. They are detected roughly 1km away by researchers who, in their day jobs, work on a neutrino collaboration called MINERvA. By modulating the pulses of protons the group was able to send a message in binary that, when translated, ;neutrino;. Whether this will go down in history alongside Alexander Graham Bell#39;s first message, ;Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you,; remains to be seen.显然,他们的中微子电话通信是数字化的。一个中微子(一种不带电荷形态诡异的亚原子粒子)脉冲对应着逻辑电平;1;,没有脉冲时就对应着逻辑电平;0;。中微子产生于一些质子束轰击一个石墨目标后产生脉冲介子,介子随后衰变而成。整天工作于一个「主注入器之中微子V-A交互作用实验(MINERvA)的研究员们在大概在一公里远处能检测到中微子。通过对质子束脉冲的调制编码后,以二进制码的形式进行中微子传输。是否这将延续亚历山大?格拉汉姆?贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)的历史,以;Watson先生,请过来,我想见到你;进行首次中微子通信,我们拭目以待。The point, though, apart from sheer wackiness, is that neutrinos are not easily intercepted by collisions with other sorts of matter. If humanity wanted to broadcast its existence to intelligent life forms that might be out in the galaxy listening, a modulated beam of neutrinos would be a good way of doing so. Conversely, some people argue that listening for ET at radio frequencies is the wrong approach. The right one, they think, would be to build a neutrino-receiver. And that would mean plenty of work for neutrino physicists. Perhaps, then, from its makers#39; point of view, the neutrinophone is not such a nutty idea, after all.然而,重要的不仅是其古怪性而且中微子在传输中当受到其他物质的撞击时不容易被破坏。如果人类想让远在系的地方听到充满智慧生命存在性的广播,那么经过调制的中微子光束则是使他实现的一种很好的方式。相反,一些人认为利用无线电广播频率收听外星人是一种错误的方式。他们认为正确的方式应该是搭建一个中微子载波的接收器。这就意味着中微子的物理学家将需要做大量的工作。那么,也许中微子电话的制造商会认为,毕竟中微子电话并非是一个疯狂的创意。 /201208/193894

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