时间:2019年10月23日 02:45:38

Ann Arbor author Robert James Russell is celebrating the release of his newest book, Mesilla, this week.Mesilla is a Western that follows Everett Root, a wounded Civil War deserter haunted by his past, into 1863 New Mexico Territory.Root is being pursued through the desert and cant stop to remove the bullet from his leg, but he is driven forward to the town of Mesilla by the hope of redemption.;The idea that he could possibly start over and be atoned for his sins is so strong that its pushing him on,; Russell says.Russell says hes always been drawn to Westerns as a genre.;Theyre so uniquely American,; he says. ;My writing tends to deal a lot with landscape, and to me there is no other genre that deals with landscape the way Westerns do. Film, TV, books, you name it.;He considers Mesilla to be a revisionist Western, distinct from the classic style of Western, which he says tended to take a more shallow approach to story and character development.;Pre-1960s I think the Westerns were good. They were good, but I think they made cartoonish characters out of native peoples and women and, you know, the bad guys always wore black and the good guys always wore white, and it was very easy to tell who to root for,; Russell tells us.;And then in the 60s it changed, and people realized that there is a lot of gray area with people, and you start having the rise of the anti-hero, which is much more fascinating to write and and view I think.;Russell says Westerns represent a fundamental understanding of humanity, and speak to our need to tame the wilderness and find our place alongside nature.Looking to Mesilla for an example, he explains that New Mexico is just as much a character as Root. Root is pushing through the desert trying to survive, but New Mexico is constantly pushing back, ;pushing him down, so to speak.;;Talking about our relation to nature and our place in the world, I think Westerns do it better than anything else,; he says. ;I think Westerns could help remind us that theres a whole world out there (and) that were not necessarily meant to tame the world but we can live in harmony with the world.;Russell says he looks forward to writing about and exploring the West further, and wants to do so through different perspectives.;It wasnt a great time for native peoples, it wasnt a great time for women, but they still deserve their own point of view. They deserve their own stories. And I think having more of that is incredibly necessary.;Robert James Russell will be at Literati in Ann Arbor on September 25 to launch Mesilla.Information about the event can be found here, and you can learn more about Russell and his work on his website.201509/400764

The Tibetans had the deep abiding instinct and understanding the nature of the human existence.西藏人对于了解自然界中人类存在的原由拥有相当大的兴趣。Why are humans born? Where have they come from? And where do they go?为什么人类会诞生?他们从哪里来?曾经到哪里去?First, through their native traditions, and later on through the media of Buddhism.首先,透过他们的传统,接下来再透过佛教作为媒介。Tibetans explored the nature of human existence, what it means to be a human being.西藏人找到了人类存在的本质和身为人类代表的意义。At the height of Torlings influence, it massed considerable wealth from donations made by pilgirms.托林寺盛世时信徒的捐献令寺方累积庞大的财富。By Kings reign, legend has it, the Torlings influence and wealth was so great it began to shadow the practical needs of the kingdom.在赤扎西扎巴德国王的统治下据说托林寺的庞大影响及财富开始为古格王朝带来阴影。Guge relyed on a great pool of laber to work the irrigation schemes, grow the barley and raise the herds.古格王朝依赖庞大的劳力来兴建灌溉沟渠,种植青稞,饲养牛羊。But as more and more men flocked to the monasteries, King saw his human resources dwindle and the economy became to suffer.但越来越多人涌入庙寺为僧,赤扎西扎巴德发现他的人力正在短少经济开始陷入困境。By 1630, relations between the king and his brother had reached the all-time low.到了1630年国王与胞弟之间的关系下滑至最低点。A bitter dispute broke up between them, a power struggle between the monastery and the monarchy, between religion and state.他们之间爆发激烈争执,僧院与政权,宗教与国家之间爆发权力争夺。In the mix of all attention, all that was needed was a tiny spark to bring about the beginning of the end for Guge.在这样紧张的气氛下,只要一点小火花就会启动古格王朝的灭亡齿轮。For centuries, the abandoned ruins of Guge and the kingdom once flourished here remained a mystery and virtually unknown to the West.几世纪来古格王朝的遗址及曾盛极一世的王朝对西方世界仍是个谜团。Its remote location in the area of highlands of west Tibet kept it preserved almost intact.地处西藏干旱高原使得遗址保存非常完好。 译文属201604/437217

Russia and Ukraine俄罗斯和乌克兰Putins Ukrainian U-turn普京对乌克兰问题的态度转变How to treat signs that Russia at last wants to lower tensions如何看待俄罗斯最终想要缓和局势的迹象A DEFINING feature in the diplomacy of Russias president, Vladimir Putin, is to keep everyone guessing—because he can use doubt to magnify his threats, conceal his weaknesses and gain the initiative. That was the effect of his words on May 7th, one of the few public occasions he has spoken formally about the crisis in Ukraine. Mr Putin urged the pro-Russian separatists in the east of the country to postpone the referendums they planned for this weekend. He said that he saw Ukraines presidential election due on May 25th as a “step in the right direction”, contradicting his own foreign minister, who has repeatedly called it absurd. And he reported that he had ordered Russian troops to pull back from the border.俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京的一个典型外交特征是让所有人都猜不透。因为他可以利用疑惑来放大他的威胁、掩饰自己的缺点并获得主动权。作为他为数不多的在公共场合正式讨论乌克兰危机的谈话,他在5月7日发表的言论正是起到了这样的作用。普京敦促在该国东部的亲俄分裂分子推迟原定于本周末的公投。他表示,他认为5月25日的乌克兰总统大选是“朝着正确方向迈出的一步”,这一说法与俄罗斯外交部长的说法相矛盾,该部长曾多次称之为荒谬的。同时普京还报告说,他已下令俄罗斯军队撤出边境。A few welcomed this as the turning-point in a crisis that has now escalated into a low-intensity war. It is to be hoped that they are right. But many more, including this newspaper, will greet Mr Putins words with due scepticism. Throughout the crisis, Russia has said one thing and done another. Even as the diplomacy takes its course, the West must sustain its pressure on Russia and its support for Ukraine.一些人乐观地认为这是这场已然升级为低强度战争的危机的转折点。希望他们是对的。但包括本刊在内的更多的人抱着怀疑的态度将会迎合普京的话。在这场危机中,俄罗斯说一套做一套。即便是出于外交需要,西方也必须维持其对俄罗斯施加的压力和对乌克兰的持。Bait and bait again兵不厌诈The starting point is to gauge whether Mr Putin means what he says. He has promised Russian troop withdrawals before only to fall short: this time the retreat will need to be unambiguous. Actions in Ukraine count, too. Rather than continuing to incite the pro-Russian separatists, Mr Putin must be seen to use his influence to broker peace. But the most revealing test of his sincerity will be Russias media, which have been doing their bit for the Kremlin by pouring out anti-Ukrainian propaganda. They must now cease their relentless warmongering.出发点在于衡量普京能否说到做到。他曾承诺在功亏一篑前撤走俄罗斯军队,这一次的撤军需要更加明确。在乌克兰的行动同样也需如此。与其继续煽动亲俄分裂分子,普京更应该利用其影响力去促成和平。俄罗斯媒体最能真实地考验他的真诚,他们已经通过宣传反乌克兰为克里姆林宫做出了自己的贡献。现在,他们必须停止无休止的挑衅行为。Suppose that the Kremlin passes these tests, what then? Until now, Mr Putin seemed bent on fomenting confrontation in Ukraine—with the threat of Russian invasion kept in reserve. He has two reasons to step back. One is the increasingly burdensome sanctions that are beginning to damage the Russian economy. Possibly even more troubling for him is the mounting death toll in eastern Ukraine. The fighting is taking on a hideous momentum, sapping Mr Putins ability to use his influence over eastern Ukraine to wreck the government in Kiev. Instead, Russia risks being sucked in to the conflict, in order to honour the guarantees of protection that it has given its supporters. Although the threat of invasion is useful for him, actual occupation would involve huge costs. The sight of Russian and Ukrainian troops slaughtering each other would puncture Mr Putins popularity at home. Much better to keep Ukraine smouldering than to have it burst into flame.假设克里姆林宫通过这些了这些考验,接下来又会怎样呢?直到现在,普京似乎仍更倾向于在乌克兰煽动对抗,并同俄罗斯入侵的威胁一同准备。他有两个理由撤退。一个是西方国家越来越繁重的制裁已经开始损坏俄罗斯的经济。或许更令他不安的是有越来越多的人在乌克兰东部丧命。这场战争正朝着一个可怕的方向发展,削弱了普京利用他在乌克兰东部的影响力来破坏基辅政府的能力。相反,为了兑现对持者承诺过的保护,俄罗斯有可能会卷入到战争中。尽管威胁入侵对他而言十分有效,但实行起来却耗费巨大。俄罗斯和乌克兰军队的相互屠杀将削弱普京在国内的受欢迎度。因此,抑制乌克兰远比消灭它要好得多。Mr Putin seems to be hoping that a grateful world, desperate to avoid conflict, will agree to what he has sought all along: a federation of Ukraine that blocks it from moving towards the European Union and NATO, as well as the uncontested annexation of Crimea. The world should not oblige. Ukraine will need to give more autonomy to its regions—but not such power that they can veto foreign policy. The West must give Ukraine aid and as much advice as its government will take.普京似乎希望有一个感恩的世界,竭力避免冲突,认可他寻求已久的:乌克兰联邦妨碍它加入欧盟和北约以及对克里米亚的吞并。但这并不是一个感激的世界。乌克兰需要得到更多自治权,但它并没有这样可以否决外交政策的权力。因此西方国家必须给乌克兰以援助以及尽可能多的建议。This crisis is far from over. Mr Putin can turn the pressure on Ukraine back up just as easily as he seems to have turned it down. He has not relinquished Crimea, and his treatment of Ukraine has betrayed the nature of his regime (see article). Therefore, the West should maintain todays sanctions — and the threat of more. It should strive to lessen its dependence on Russian energy and face up to the fact that, while Mr Putin is in power, doing business with Russia will be perilous. After all, would you trust the man who started a fire next door merely because he has suddenly offered you a bucket of water?这场危机还远未结束。普京可以轻易地将压力转嫁到乌克兰身上,就像他似乎已经拒绝的那样。他没有放弃克里米亚,他对待乌克兰的方式已经同他的政权性质相背离(另见文)。因此,西方应保留现有的对俄罗斯的制裁并给以更多的威胁。它应该努力减少对俄罗斯能源的依赖,并认清这样的现实—在普京掌权期间,同俄罗斯做生意是危险的。难道你会相信仅仅因为邻居突然泼了一桶水就要开战的人么?译者:严文娟 译文属译生译世 /201502/357571

These dark flies are driving me badly!这些飞来飞去的黑苍蝇快把我逼疯了!I wish I couldstrangle each of every one of them!我真想把他们全部勒死!Im sorry to say, but thats impossible.很遗憾,你办不到!I realize that. I dont mean that I have to strangle all ofthem.我知道,要全部都勒死不容易,Really, I did happy if I could strangle even just one ortwo of them.不过,哪怕勒死那么一两只也好啊!Impossible!你还是办不到!Im sure. I can just manage to just strangle one if I had some dental flosses or something.我保如果有类似牙线的东西,我肯定能勒死一只苍蝇。Im sure you couldnt because insects breathe quite differently from us.我打赌你做不到。因为昆虫呼吸可不像我们人类的。昆虫既没有肺似的中心区域,可以容纳空气;They dont have acentral area like our lungs where they gather oxygen; nor a transport system like our heart, andthe blood used to deliver oxygen to all of our cells.也没有像心脏似的运输系统,可以通过血液循环,给身体所有细胞供氧。Nope. Flies, like all insects, breathe through many tiny openings called spiracles.苍蝇,和所有昆虫一样,通过无数微小的气门来进行呼吸。These openingsare part of tubes called trachea.气门是气管的部分。Each tube leads to a fluid-filled tracheole, where theoxygendissolves and then diffuses across the wall of the tracheole and into several of theinsects cells.气管又分成许多微气管,微气管里充满液体,吸入的氧气溶解于其中,穿透气管管壁扩散到昆虫的无数细胞中。So there is no central breathing area to block off so that you might strangle a fly.所以, 你没方法让苍蝇窒息。However, if you wanted to drown a fly, thats another story.但是,如果你想让苍蝇淹死,又是另外回事了。The spiracles of most insects canclose to keep things like dust out.大多数昆虫紧密气门,防止灰尘进入。Therefore, they can hold their breath, so to speak.这样,它们不得不屏住呼吸,But if aninsect is trapped in water for too long, it will run out of oxygen and eventually drown.但是如果在水里太长时间,它们会因为缺氧而溺死。Now, I just have to figure out how to lure them all into some water.那么,现在我只要想法子让苍蝇掉进水里就可以啦!201410/333586

文章编辑: 周爱问