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来源:健社区    发布时间:2019年10月14日 20:59:40    编辑:admin         

Fine-wine fraud伪造的美酒Chateau Lafake法国酒庄拉法克红酒The fine-wine boom is attracting forgers美酒追捧热潮催生造假者Taste is a delicate thing味觉一种微妙的东西WINE buffs are like art collectors.葡萄酒爱好者与艺术品收藏者相同,Few can tell the difference between a well-made fake and the real thing.他们中很少人能分清真品与制作精良的赝品有什么区别。Yet whereas counterfeit art has been around for centuries, wine forgery is relatively new.但艺术品伪造已经有几百年历史了,酒类伪造却还只是近几十年的事。It started in the late 1970s when the prices of the best wines—especially those from Bordeaux—shot up.20世纪70年代末期,由于精品美酒尤其来自法国波尔多的葡萄酒价格飙升,名酒伪造应运而生。Today, with demand from China fuelling a remarkable boom, counterfeiting is rife.现在,中国对尊贵名酒的需求推动了名酒市场的繁荣,假冒伪劣酒也开始盛行。By some estimates 5% of fine wines sold at auction or on the secondary market are not what they claim to be on the label.据估计,拍卖会或二级市场出售的美酒有5%货不对板。The simplest technique is to slap the label of a 1982 Chateau Lafite onto a bottle of 1975 Lafite.伪造名酒最简单的方法是将1982年产法国酒庄拉法克红酒的标签贴到1975年产的红酒空瓶上。Another trick is to bribe the sommelier of a fancy restaurant to pass on empty bottles that once held expensive wine, along with the corks.另一个伎俩是贿赂高级餐厅的调酒师,将盛装过昂贵名酒的空瓶和瓶塞一起拿到手,These can be refilled with cheaper wine, recorked and resealed.然后将空瓶重新灌装廉价酒,重新装塞,重新密封就完成了造假过程。Empty Lafite and Latour bottles are sold on eBay for several hundred euros.在eBay网上,Lafite和Latour红酒的空瓶通常价值几百欧元。The margins are fruity.酒类伪造有可观的利润。A great wine may cost hundreds of times more than a merely excellent one.一瓶尊贵名酒的价格可能比一瓶单纯的优质酒贵上几百倍。Small wonder that oenophiles are growing more vigilant.难怪鉴酒专家们越来越趋于谨慎。Bill Koch, an energy tycoon and avid wine collector, currently has five lawsuits pending against merchants, auctioneers and other collectors.能源巨头比尔.科赫热衷于名酒收藏,他近来提起5宗涉及酒类的法律诉讼,分别状告酒商,拍卖师和其余酒类收藏家,案件至今未有裁决。His grape-related gripes began in 2006, when he filed a complaint against a German wine dealer who sold bottles of Lafite he claimed had once belonged to Thomas Jefferson.科赫先生对买红酒的抱怨始于2006年,当时他从一名德国酒商手中购买了很多据称是托马斯杰斐逊收藏过的红酒,后来发现有假而投诉了这名德国酒商,The case is unresolved.案子至今未果。There is a code of silence in the industry, says Mr Koch, who owns 43,000 bottles of wine and estimates that he has spent 4m-5m on fakes.科赫先生说:业界存在着一套潜规则,即买到假酒也要毫不声张。 他拥有43000瓶上好葡萄酒,但用于购买假酒的钱估计也在4-5百万美元左右。Some collectors are too proud to admit that they have been duped.有些收藏者觉得承认被骗不是件光的事。Others fear sullying a vintages reputation and thereby reducing the value of their own collections.另一些则担心玷污了葡萄酒的声誉会降低自己拥有葡萄酒的收藏价值。So instead of speaking out, they dump their fakes into auctions or sell them to other private collectors, says Mr Koch.因此他们不会将事情张扬,而是;将假酒转手到拍卖会或出售给其它私人收藏者;,科赫先生如是说。Wine merchants and auction houses say they are doing everything they can to filter out the fakes.酒商及拍卖行表示他们正尽一切所能筛选出假货。Simon Berry, the chairman of Berry Brothers amp; Rudd, a British wine merchant, says his firm never buys wines from before 2000 unless they come from its own cellars.英国酒商贝瑞兄弟与陆克文主席西蒙贝里称他的公司从来不购买2000年以前的葡萄酒,除非它们真的来自出产的酒窖。Christies, an auctioneer, says all the wines it auctions are inspected three times by different people, using detailed checklists for condition and authenticity.拍卖商佳士得称,它拍卖的所有名酒都要经过不同人反复检验三次,对他们出具的葡萄酒情况和真实度详单逐一对比验。Fear of fakery has not stopped the boom.对伪造名酒的担忧并没有阻止名酒的市场繁荣。But the wines that win the best prices at auction are those whose provenance is certain.在拍卖会上竞得高价的名酒其来源也是真实可靠的。In May, Christies sold an impériale of 1961 Latour for 6,000 in Hong Kong.五月份,佳士得在香港以21.6万美元拍售了一瓶1961产的impériale葡萄酒,It came directly from the cellars of Chateau Latour.它直接来自于产地Chateau Latour的酒窖。 /201305/241376。

Business商业报道The circus business马戏团商业Sunstroke日射热Cirque du Soleil may be struggling, but the cluster around it is thriving太阳马戏团或许正处于苦斗之中,但围绕其四周的星团正熠熠发光。No lions, no bearded ladies 没有狮子,没有胡子的女士IN THE deconsecrated church of Saint-Esprit, jugglers toss fluorescent orange clubs in front of the former altar, trapeze artists soar under the gaze of stone saints and wobbly unicyclists use two lines of repurposed pews as handrails.在蓬圣埃斯普里神圣的教堂里,杂耍艺人们在从前的祭坛前抛掷橙色荧光棒,高空表演者在石像圣人的凝视下飞来飞去,摇摆的骑独轮自行车表演者用两条赋予了新用途的教堂长凳作为扶手。Declared surplus to requirements after Quebeckers deserted Catholicism in droves, the church is now the ecole de Cirque de Quebec, through which 20,000 aspiring entertainers pass each year.在魁比克人成群结队地公然宣布放弃天主教后,教堂被余下来,通过每年录取20000多个有抱负的艺人,成为了现在的魁比克马戏团学校。The schools director, Yves Neveu, says only half-jokingly, Someone said the archbishop should be jealous because Im filling my church.学校的主任,伊夫?奈芙,半开玩笑地表示,有人说大主教应该嫉妒,因为我正填满我的教会。Nearby Montreal boasts an even bigger school for circus performers.而在不远的蒙特利尔,还有一间更大的杂技表演学校。Although only a handful of students go on to a career in the circus, the popularity of the programmes offered to would-be acrobats,尽管仅有少数学生会继续在马戏团的职业生涯,但为想要成为杂技演员的人提供了普及课程,local children and even tourists off cruise ships is the visible manifestation of the circus craze that has gripped Quebec.当地的孩子,甚至游轮中游客的狂热程度都明显表示马戏团的热潮已经席卷整个魁北克。At its heart is the privately owned Cirque du Soleil, started in 1984 by a troupe of stilt-walkers from nearby Baie-Saint-Paul.浪潮的核心正是由圣保罗湾附近的一个踩高跷戏班子1984年开创的太阳马戏团。It is now one of Canadas most important cultural exports, employing 5,000 people at eight permanent shows in Las Vegas and at 12 others that tour the world.现在,太阳马戏团是加拿大最重要的文化输出产业之一,员工达5000人,有八场在的固定演出和十二场世界巡演。In 2012 its turnover was about C1 billion—it does not reveal its profits.2012年其营业额约1000000000加元-其利润并未透露。In 2005 this newspaper asked whether Guy Laliberte, majority owner of the circus, could keep it flying.2005年杂志向马戏团创始人盖?拉利伯特问道,能否保持马戏团风光下去。That question was raised again early last year when the company laid off 400 employees, mainly at its head office in Montreal.去年年初,蒙特利尔公司总部裁员400人时,这个问题再次被提出。The company has blamed the strong Canadian dollar and the after-effects of the global recession, which hit sponsorship income.太阳剧团将此归咎于加币走强和全球经济衰退的后续效应,削弱了赞助收入。It has launched a cost-cutting drive but insists it is not in crisis虽然剧团开始削减成本,但坚称并未面临危机。.However, the company that reinvented the circus by eschewing traditional acts such as lion tamers and bearded ladies, and by targeting adults rather than children, is certainly finding it tougher going these days.然而,避开马戏团的狮子驯兽师、大胡子女士们等传统表演方式,将目标人群定位在成年人而非儿童,重新改造了的马戏团,现在的处境一定是艰难的。It enjoyed early and rapid success because it had created an uncontested blue ocean in which to swim, according to two management strategists from INSEAD business school in France.两位法国INSEAD商学院的战略管理专家表示,剧团能够享受到早期快速的成功,是因为其建立了一个没有竞争的蓝海。That ocean is now full of sharks, says Gilles Ste-Croix, one of the original stilt-walkers, who is now the companys artistic guide.现如今那片海满是鲨鱼。最初的高跷步行者之一,现公司年代艺术指导,吉尔斯圣克鲁瓦如是说。Competition comes not just from older circuses that have updated their acts, such as Ringling Bros. and Barnum amp; Bailey, but also from a trend in the arts to merge various disciplines, for instance by bringing acrobats into operas.剧团的竞争压力不仅来源于更新表演内容的旧有马戏团,如林林兄弟巴纳姆贝利马戏团,而且也来自于在多种学科融合的一个艺术趋势,比如让杂技走进歌剧。Smaller rivals have also emerged from the large shadow Cirque du Soleil casts in Quebec.小型竞争竞争者也在太阳马戏团投射在魁北克巨大的阴影下崛起。A troupe called Les 7 doigts de la main set a box-office record at the Broadway theatre where they performed a show called Pippin.剧团七指马戏团在百老汇剧院表演彼平正传,创造了票房纪录。Flip FabriQue, formed by a group of friends just two years ago, is now travelling the world.由一群朋友就在两年前创立的FabriQue也开始世界巡回。And Cirque Alfonse toured Europe, Asia and America in 2013 with a truly Canadian spectacle called Timber!, which features chainsaw-juggling lumberjacks.阿尔冯斯马戏团2013年带着真正的加拿大表演伐木乐园游历了欧洲、亚洲和美国,该剧充分展现电锯杂耍伐木工人的特点。These newer outfits are both a source of competition and collaboration for Cirque du Soleil, with performers moving back and forth.表演者来来去去,这些新的组织既是太阳马戏团的竞争者也是合作对象。It also collaborates with notable local talents, such as Robert LePage, a director, playwright and actor whose company Ex Machina is based in Quebec City.此外,马戏团与当地的知名人才合作,如罗伯特-勒帕热,一位公司总部位于魁北克市的导演,演员和剧作家。This has reinforced what has become a Quebec entertainment cluster.强化魁北克的产业。Mr Neveu, a Cirque du Soleil alumnus, thinks that rather than serving a spell with his former employer, many of the students at his school will go straight to work in one of the many smaller troupes, which he sees as a healthy trend.太阳马戏团的校友奈芙先生认为,学校的很多学生将直接在新的小团中工作而不是为其前雇主轮流演出,他也相信这是一个好的趋势。Even so, Cirque du Soleil remains the sun around which all the others are orbiting.即便如此,太阳马戏团仍是其他团体围绕旋转的太阳。 /201402/276622。

But even he has his limits. 但它也有忍不住的时候。On the reef, there seem to be an almost infinitely variety of ways of feeding, some fish even cultivate their own food. 在礁石中,总有各种觅食方式,一些鱼甚至自己种植食物。So theyre very protective of it.所以他们非常保护自己的食物。Theres one fish species that is so good at defending its particular patch of reef. 有一种鱼非常擅长保护他们自己那块礁石。But its responsible for more attacks on divers than any others. 这种鱼比其他的鱼更常攻击潜水者。And thats this species here. 就是它。This is a white damsel, and its a constant gardener, nurturing and caring for a patch of algae. 这是一条白色的雀鲷,是一位勤劳的园丁,培育和照料一片海藻。Much of the algae growing on the sandy sea bed is edible. 大多数生长在沙质海床的海藻都可以食用。So the damsel farms it in green patches, encouraging some species nipping down others and gently transforming the landscape around her. 雀鲷在这片绿地里耕耘,留下一些,吃掉另外一些,渐渐地改造了自己周围的地盘。After all this hard work, she doesnt look kindly on trespassers. 毕竟这很辛苦,她对来访者并不友善。Anything that swims too close is chased away.任何靠太近的都会被赶走。But is she brave enough to try to see me off?但是它能赶走我吗?201409/327383。

Don: Hey Yaeuml;l, I was wondering–why dont we hear much about the moon anymore? 嘿,Yaeuml;l,我在想——为什么我们现在没什么跟月球相关的消息了呢?Yaeuml;l: Whadya mean, Don? Don,你是什么意思?D: Its just that back in the 1960s and 70s, sending astronauts to the moon was a big deal, but nobody talks much about it anymore. 早在二十世纪六七十年代的时候,送宇航员上月球是个天大的事儿,但却没什么人再谈论这件事儿。Y: Well, actually NASA is planning to send astronauts back to the moon. 事实上,NASA正计划送宇航员重返月球。D: Really? 真的吗?Y: Yep. And this time theres talk of building a lunar base where astronauts can stay for weeks and months at a time to conduct experiments in low gravity. 对呀。这次他们说要建立一个月球基地,宇航员一次可以停留几周或几个月在低重力的条件下进行实验。D: Cool. 很棒啊。Y: But there are a few kinks to work out–like what to do about moon dust. 但还存在几个问题要解决——比如说月球尘埃怎么办。D: Wait. Why is moon dust a problem? 等等。为什么月球尘埃会是个问题?Y: Well, for one thing, it has chemical properties that resemble fresh fractured quartz, which is pretty toxic. 嗯,一方面,它的化学性质,像断裂的石英,那是有剧毒的。And moon dust is clingy; it gets all over spacesuits and inside space capsules.而且月球尘埃很有依附性,太空太空舱里面都会有。Astronauts from the 60s and 70s used to complain that there was so much dust inside the capsule that they could smell it. 二十世纪六七十年代的宇航员们曾经抱怨,太空舱里面有太多的灰尘,甚至他们都能闻得到。D: So is the dust actually dangerous? What happens if it gets in the lungs? 那么灰尘对身体有害吗?如果它进入肺里会怎样?Y: Thats what scientists are studying now. 那就是科学家们现在正在研究的。One issue is that the moons weak gravity could allow dust particles to float around in an astronauts airway, which could let moon dust penetrate deeper into the lungs. 一个问题就是,月球的低重力会让尘埃粒子飘进宇航员的导气管,这可能让月球尘埃更深地穿透进人的肺部。D: Which increases the health risks.这就增加了健康风险。So what can astronauts do to breath in less dust? High-tech feather dusters? 那么怎么做才可以让宇航员吸入较少的粉尘?高科技的鸡毛掸子吗?Y: Funny. But its a good question–one that scientists are busy looking into before sending astronauts up there to set up house on our very dusty moon. 太逗了。不过这确实是个好问题。这是科学家们正在忙于调查的问题,要在将宇航员们送上太空造房生活之前解决的问题。201308/251148。

Microsoft and the PC industry微软和个人电脑业Defenestrated被抛弃Steve Ballmer is a casualty of the personal computer’s rapid decline史蒂夫鲍尔默是个人电脑迅速衰败的罪魁祸首Aug 31st 2013 |From the print editionUNTIL August 23rd few people would have described Steve Ballmer as “retiring”. Microsoft’s chief executive has played both tiger and Tigger: snarling (toothlessly, as it turned out) at Apple’s gadgets; and bouncing, with a whoop, onto conference stages to extol his company’s wares. But retiring he is, within a year.在8月23日之前很少人会想到史蒂夫鲍尔默会退休。微软的首席执行官即使老虎也是跳跳虎,与苹果的产品叫板,但是结果却没什么威胁,在发布会上吹嘘其产品。但是他将会在一年之内退休。Mr Ballmer’s departure is a surprise. He had announced a reorganisation of the company only in July and had hoped to oversee much of the change. Some celebrated his going: Microsoft’s share price went up by 7.3% on the day the news broke. Mr Ballmer has plenty of critics, although Microsoft’s revenues have trebled on his 13-year watch, to .8 billion in the year to June, and profits have grown similarly, to .9 billion. The critics point at the rise of Apple and Google, and say Microsoft should have done better—or handed some of its billion of cash to shareholders. In an interview with the Seattle Times, Mr Ballmer denied that pressure from ValueAct, a fund with a small stake in the firm, helped push him out.鲍尔默的离职是一个意外。就在七月他还宣布了公司的重组,希望能看到改变。一些人为他的离开叫好,微软的股价在鲍尔默退休消息传出的一天内上涨了7.3%。尽管微软的营收在鲍尔默的13年掌舵期间翻了三倍,达到了219亿美元,但是他还是饱受批评。批评者瞄向苹果和谷歌的崛起,表示微软应该比现在做的更好,或者将其770亿现金部分返给股东。在一次来自西雅图时报的采访中,鲍尔默否认了其迫于拥有微软小部分股份的基金ValueAct而离开的说法。Microsoft sits atop a pyramid of companies that prospered from the long boom in personal computers (PCs). The vast majority of PCs run on Microsoft’s Windows operating system and are powered by Intel’s processors. They bear the brands of Dell, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Lenovo and others, and nowadays are mostly made by Taiwanese contractors. The trouble is that people increasingly prefer to buy mobile devices, made by Apple or running Google’s Android operating system. Sales of PCs have been falling at double-digit rates. From the pyramid’s apex to its base, companies are desperate both to refresh the PC and reduce their reliance on it. Few are having much success.微软坐在受益于个人电脑长期繁荣的公司金字塔顶端。大部分的个人电脑跑的是微软的视窗操作系统,用的是英特尔的处理器。它们撑着戴尔,惠普,联想和其他品牌,大部分是有台湾代工厂完成的。现在的麻烦是人们越来越多的倾向于苹果生产或者运行谷歌安卓操作系统的移动设备。个人电脑销量以两位数的速率在下降。金字塔上的公司个个都昂着更新个人电脑,减少它们对个人电脑业务的依赖。几乎没有一家取得成功。Frank Gillett of Forrester, a research firm, reckons that Windows’ share of the market for personal devices, once 95% or more, has dropped to around 30%. Microsoft responded belatedly with Windows 8, a new edition intended for touchscreen PCs and tablets launched last October, with variations for cheaper tablets and phones. Applications lie behind oblong tiles designed for fingertips rather than icons for mouse-clicks. Microsoft’s successful Xbox entertainment system was given the same look. The idea was that this uniform style would help to transfer Microsoft’s dominance of the desktop to mobile devices, and refresh the PC too.调查公司Forrester的Frank Gillett认为微软一度站个人设备市场95%以上的视窗系统现在所占份额跌到了大概30%。微软随后的回应是适用于触屏个人电脑和平板电脑的视窗8系统,发布于去年十月,同时拥有廉价平板和电话的版本。应用以矩形磁贴展示在桌面,为了使用手指触控而不是鼠标点击。微软成功的Xbox系统也使用同样的外观。微软的想法是这种风格上的统一会帮助微软从桌面霸主转变成移动设备霸主,同时也更新个人电脑。It has not happened yet. Few businesses were likely to hurry to buy Windows 8 anyway; some have yet to switch to its predecessor, Windows 7. Consumers have not taken to tiles on PC screens: a new version, Windows 8.1, due in October, will make it easier for them to stick with the old look. Only now is a wide choice of touch PCs and tablet-PC hybrids appearing.然而这个愿景还没有实现。很少的企业急着想购买视窗8系统,有些甚至都没有使用前代的视窗7系统。消费者也没有习惯笔记本屏幕上的磁贴,将于10月发布的最新版本的视窗8.1会让消费者更简单的回到传统桌面。现在有很多混合型平板电脑机型出现在市面上。Microsoft’s own tablet, the Surface, has been a flop, forcing it to make a 0m write-off in its latest results. Windows phones, mostly made by Nokia of Finland, are far behind iPhones and Android devices, with just 3.3% of the world market according to Gartner, another research firm. They have ousted BlackBerry from third place, but that is not saying much.微软自家的平板Surface是一款失败的产品,到现在只销售了9亿美元。另一家调查公司Gartner表示,使用微软操作系统的手机,主要由芬兰的诺基亚生产,销量远远落后于iPhone和安卓设备,只占到手机世界市场的3.3%。它们已经取代了黑莓第三的位置,但是也说明不了什么。Next to Microsoft at the apex, Intel has also done poorly in smartphones and tablets, though it is striving to catch up and in June unveiled a new chip that it hopes will bring new zip to PCs. Among the PC-makers, HP pondered quitting altogether in 2011, then sacked the chief executive who suggested it. Meg Whitman, his successor, chose to stay in, as well as pushing into services and software and shedding 27,000 jobs. She has plenty still to do: HP’s latest results, on August 21st, sent a share-price rally into reverse. At Dell, which is scrapping for much the same ground, Michael Dell, the founder and chief executive, still hopes to win a battle to take the company private. Of the leading PC-makers, Lenovo has coped best. Its home market, China, is slowing but growing, and it is selling plenty of smartphones.跟微软地位相同的英特尔在智能手机和平板市场表现也不佳,尽管其在努力追赶,并于6月发布了一款新的处理器,希望给个人电脑注入新的力量。在所有的个人电脑生产商中,惠普在2011年曾考虑退出,然后解雇了提出这个想法的首席执行官。继任者Meg Whitman选择继续留在个人电脑市场,进军务和软件行业,并减少了27000个职位。她仍然有很多事要做:惠普8月21日最新的财报显示股价重新下跌。戴尔的境遇也非常相似,创始人兼首席执行官迈克尔戴尔仍然希望让公司私营化。在所有的个人电脑制造巨头中,联想的表现是最好的。在本土市场中国,联想在缓慢增长,同时也销售相当部分的智能手机。Despite its slow start in mobile, Microsoft remains hugely profitable. “It’s easy to get focused only on Windows,” says David Cearley of Gartner. The firm was quicker than its rivals to provide cloud services to big companies. Although Google’s free word-processor and spsheet threaten its Office software, Microsoft still has most of its customers, to whom it can sell improved services online. The direction Mr Ballmer has set “makes a lot of sense”, Mr Cearley says. Had he set out sooner, he might have seen the journey through.尽管在移动市场开始较慢,但是微软仍然有很大利润。Gartner的David Cearley表示,专注于视窗操作系统很容易。微软在给大公司提供云端务上比其他对手快了不少。尽管谷歌免费的文本处理软件和表格处理软件对微软的Office构成了威胁,但是微软仍然拥有大部分顾客,微软向其销售改进的在线务。Cearley说鲍尔默规划的方向起了很大的作用。尽管他就要离开,但是他可能看透了前景。 /201309/255929。