原标题: 黑龙江省哈尔滨七院生孩子好吗城市解答
LONDON — When a SWAT team appeared at Pavel Durov’s door in St. Petersburg, he started thinking about his future in Russia.伦敦——当一特警队出现在帕维尔·杜罗夫(Pavel Durov)位于圣彼得堡的住所前时,他开始考虑自己在俄罗斯的前途。He was home alone, and he peered at them through a monitor.当时杜罗夫独自一人在家,通过监视器看着他们。“They had guns and they looked very serious,” said Mr. Durov, once Russia’s biggest celebrity entrepreneur. “They seemed to want to break the door.”“他们端着,看起来非常严肃,”杜罗夫说。“像是准备破门而入。”他曾是俄罗斯最受欢迎的知名企业家。Not long ago, Mr. Durov, 30, was seen as Russia’s Mark Zuckerberg. He founded a social network, VKontakte, which is more popular in Russia than Facebook, and made a splash by publicly offering Edward Snowden a job.不久之前,30岁的杜罗夫还被视作俄罗斯的马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)。他创建了社交网站VKontakte,在俄罗斯比Facebook更受欢迎。他还因为公开为爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供工作机会而引起轰动。Then the Kremlin tightened its grip over the Internet and President Vladimir V. Putin’s allies took control of VKontakte. Mr. Durov eventually sold his remaining stake for millions and fled Russia in April, after resisting government pressure to release the data of Ukrainian protest leaders.后来,克里姆林宫加大了对网络的管控力度,总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)的盟友掌控了VKontakte。杜罗夫最终以数以百万美元计的价格出售了自己剩余的股份,并于今年4月离开俄罗斯。在此之前,他顶住了来自政府的压力,拒绝透露乌克兰抗议活动领袖的相关信息。Mr. Durov, known for his subversive wit and an all-black wardrobe that evokes Neo from the “Matrix” movies, is now a little-seen nomad, moving from country to country every few weeks with a small band of computer programmers. One day he is in Paris, another in Singapore.杜罗夫以智力超群、喜欢穿一袭黑衣而闻名。这种打扮让人想起《黑客帝国》(Matrix)里的尼奥(Neo)。他现在已经成了神出鬼没的流浪者,每隔几周就会带领一小组计算机编程人员从一个国家转移到另一个国家。某一天,他会待在巴黎,另一天又会现身新加坡。“Me myself, I’m not a big fan of the idea of countries,” Mr. Durov said, wearing a custom-made cross between a hoodie and a sport coat.身穿兼具帽衫与休闲西特色的定制装的杜罗夫说,“我本人不大赞同国家的概念。”When he arrived with little warning in London for his first interview outside cyberspace since leaving Russia, he was en route to San Francisco, where he appeared at a technology conference on Tuesday. He is surfacing to showcase his new messaging app, Telegram, for people craving privacy and security.他突然造访伦敦,在离开俄罗斯后首次现身接受面对面采访。当时他正在前往旧金山的途中,准备在接下来的周二出席在那里举行的科技大会。他之所以露面,是为了展示为注重隐私与安全的用户设计的新即时通讯应用Telegram。His odyssey reflects the changing nature of the Internet in Russia.杜罗夫的传奇经历反映了俄罗斯互联网性质的变迁。The Internet was once seen as a way to diversify Russia’s economy beyond oil. When VKontakte started in 2006, Mr. Durov says, he envisioned his country as a tax-free and libertarian utopia for technologists.互联网曾被视作推动俄罗斯经济摆脱对石油的依赖而向多样化发展的一种途径。杜罗夫在2006年推出VKontakte时表示,他理想中的俄罗斯是一个让科技从业者如鱼得水的自由意志主义免税乌托邦。“The best thing about Russia at that time was the Internet sphere was completely not regulated,” he said. “In some ways, it was more liberal than the ed States.”“那时的俄罗斯最棒的一点在于,互联网领域完全不受约束,”他说。“在某些方面,俄罗斯比美国还要自由。”Now the Internet is viewed with suspicion by Mr. Putin, who has called it a “C.I.A. project” and has taken steps to insulate Russia from the rest of the digital world. One leading Russian activist recently said the government was on a “campaign to shut down the Internet.”到了今天,普京对互联网持怀疑态度,称这是“中情局(CIA)的项目”,并在采取措施将俄罗斯与数字世界的其他部分隔离开来。俄罗斯一位著名活动人士最近表示,政府正在“开展行动压制网络”。“Since I’m obviously a believer in free markets,” Mr. Durov said, “it’s hard for me to understand the current direction of the country.”“我坚信自由市场,”杜罗夫说,“所以我很难理解这个国家目前的发展方向。”Russia’s economy is also increasingly isolated, with its currency plummeting amid Western sanctions. The government is now predicting a recession for next year. Mr. Putin’s big challenge is falling oil prices, which Mr. Durov calls “the only chance” for economic and political reform.俄罗斯经济日益遭到孤立,在西方国家的制裁之下,货币大幅贬值。俄罗斯政府目前预测本国经济明年将陷入衰退。油价不断下跌是普京面临的巨大挑战,而杜罗夫称这是进行经济及政治改革的“唯一机会”。“When the petrol prices are high, there is no incentive for those reforms,” he said. “It can stay like this forever; nobody really cares.”“汽油价格很高时,没有改革的动机,”他说。“过去的状态会一直延续下去,没人真的在乎。”As the tensions in Russia play out, Mr. Durov says he is focused on Telegram, which he started last year.随着俄罗斯国内出现紧张气氛,杜罗夫表示,他目前关注的是去年启动的Telegram。There will be no outside investors, he says, no ads and no marketing, and it is available free, though he is likely to eventually charge for additional services. He says he has about 50 million users, almost entirely outside Russia.他表示,他们不会有外部投资者,没有广告,也没有市场营销。这款应用眼下可以免费获得,但他可能最终会为附加务收取费用。他表示,Telegram现在大约有5000万用户,几乎全部来自俄罗斯之外的地方。Mr. Durov learned programming from his brother, Nikolai, a mathematician and Mr. Durov’s right-hand man at VKontakte and Telegram. By 11, the younger Mr. Durov was coding his own versions of games like Tetris. The two developed a strategy game set in ancient China, which they called Lao .杜罗夫向哥哥尼古拉(Nikolai)学会了编程。尼古拉是一名数学家,也是杜罗夫在VKontakte和Telegram的得力助手。11岁的时候,杜罗夫就会编写自己版本的游戏,比如俄罗斯方块。兄弟二人研发了一款背景设定在古代中国的策略游戏,名为“老子军团”(Lao )。At St. Petersburg State University, Mr. Durov studied linguistics. In lieu of military service, he trained in propaganda, studying Sun Tzu, Genghis Khan and Napoleon, and he learned to make posters aimed at influencing foreign soldiers.在圣彼得堡国立大学(St. Petersburg State University)就读期间,杜罗夫学习语言学。他没有兵役,而是选择接受宣传方面的训练,研究孙子、成吉思汗和拿破仑。他还学习了如何制作旨在动摇外国部队军心的海报。The posters said things like “You are surrounded, surrender, there’s no hope,” or they would suggest to foreign soldiers that “some other guy is entertaining himself with your wife,” he recalled.这些海报上印着“你们已被包围,除了投降,别无出路,”或者告诉敌军“其他男人在和你们的妻子厮混”,他回忆道。His main interest was developing a social network. A friend who studied in America showed him Facebook, then in its infancy, and he learned from it.他主要的兴趣是开发社交网络。在美国学习的一个朋友向他介绍了当时还处于起步阶段的Facebook,他从中借鉴了一些东西。“Some things like the layout of the early VKontakte was very influenced by Facebook,” Mr. Durov said. “Otherwise it could take ages for me to build, and I was not a professional designer.”“有些东西,比如Vkontakte早期的页面布局,受Facebook的影响就很大,”杜罗夫说。“否则,我可能会花很长的时间才能完成,毕竟我不是专业的设计师。”He also recruited fellow linguistics students to build a database catering to the post-Soviet university system, a step he said gave VKontakte “a tremendous competitive advantage.”他还找来语言学专业的同学,针对苏联解体后的大学体系建立了一个数据库。此举给Vkontakte带来了“巨大的竞争优势”,他说。In 2007, he decided to allow users to upload audio and files, without regard to copyright. Such policies have drawn criticism from the ed States Trade Representative and lawsuits from major record labels.2007年,他决定不考虑版权问题,允许用户上传音频和视频文件。这个做法已经遭到了美国贸易代表的指责和主要唱片公司的起诉。“Some people told me when I was implementing it that I would go to jail the next day,” he said. “I was very careless.”“我这么做的时候,有人警告,我第二天就会蹲进大牢,”他说。“我当时根本不在乎。”Demonstrations in 2011 over parliamentary elections resulted in a government showdown. During the SWAT standoff at his home that followed, he called his brother.2011年针对议会选举的示威活动,导致了政府向他摊牌。之后,当他的家被特警围住时,他给哥哥打了一个电话。“I realized I don’t have a safe means of communications with him,” he said, adding, “That’s how Telegram started.”“我意识到,我和他之间的所有通讯手段都不安全,”他说,“这就是Telegram的缘起。”Telegram is competing in a crowded field of messaging apps that promise varying degrees of security. Telegram has its fans and detractors, but it was rated respectably in a recent evaluation by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Telegram company, based in Berlin, has a deliberately complex structure of scattered global shell companies intended to keep it a step ahead of subpoenas from any one government.Telegram所在的领域竞争很激烈,有大量即时通讯应用承诺为用户提供程度各异的安全保障。Telegram有粉丝也有反对者,但在电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)最近的一项评估中,它的排名比较靠前。Telegram公司总部设在柏林,刻意设计了一个复杂的结构,由全球各地的空壳公司组成,力图做到比任何国家的政府发出的传票都领先一步。“This is very unusual for Russian entrepreneurs, to succeed outside of Russia,” said Sergei Guriev, a prominent economist who fled Russia last year. “He may not be a usual person in many ways, but he is definitely a very talented entrepreneur.”“俄罗斯创业者在本国以外的地方获得成功,是很不寻常的一件事,”去年逃离俄罗斯的著名经济学家谢尔盖·古里耶夫(Sergei Guriev)说。“从很多方面而言,他可能都不是一个平常人,但他绝对是一个才华横溢的创业者。”When Mr. Durov sold his stake in VKontakte last December, there was speculation it was worth a few hundred million dollars. Mr. Durov would not give a specific figure, citing a nondisclosure agreement.去年12月,杜罗夫出售了他在Vkontakte的股份。有人猜测这部分股份价值数亿美元。杜罗夫说他签订了保密协议,不能透露具体的数字。“In my days in Russia, I visited some very rich guys,” he said. “I visited big ships, private airplanes, houses — and I know for sure I don’t want this for myself.”“在俄罗斯的时候,我见过一些非常有钱的人,”他说。“我参观了他们的大型游艇、私人飞机和豪宅——我清楚地知道,我不希望自己变成这样。”“I’m very happy right now without any property anywhere,” he added. “I consider myself a legal citizen of the world.”“现在我在任何地方都没有任何资产,对此我感到很开心,”他说。“我把自己想成是这个世界的合法公民。” /201412/348087Search-engine giant Google launched a new service Wednesday that it hopes will reverse the trend of people gravitating away from the World Wide Web in favor of Facebook and other apps on their mobile phones.搜索引擎巨头谷歌在周三发布了一项新的务,谷歌希望通过这项务扭转人们迷恋用万维网的Facebook 和在手机上使用各种APP的趋势。The new service, called Amp, works by partnering with news publishers and other content providers to help them create Web content that downloads to mobile phones and tablets up to 85 times faster.这项新的务被称为Amp, 和新闻发布者及其他内容提供者一起来帮助创造万维网内容,以此将下载到手机和平板上的速度提高了85倍。It#39;s a seemingly simple concept and one that consumers may not even notice. But the stakes are high for Google, which competes with apps such as Facebook for eyeballs and ad dollars.这似乎看起来是个简单的想法,但是却没有被消费者注意到。这个尝试对谷歌来说也是风险很高,因为这个和像Facebook 这样的APP 竞争吸引力和广告收入。That battle has gotten tougher on smartphones and tablets, where apps generate three times as much attention as the Web, according to research firm eMarketer. The trend toward in-app browsing is only expected to worsen over time. By 2017, the gap is expected to widen to three hours and 23 minutes on mobile apps vs. just 52 minutes on the mobile Web, eMarketer predicts.这项务在智能手机和平板电脑 方面将愈发艰难,因为其吸引力将是万维网的三倍,搜索引擎公司eMarketer 说道。在应用程序浏览的趋势是随着时间的推移,预计将会恶化。2017年,差距将扩大,在移动应用程序需要三小时23分钟,而在移动网络上只需要52分 钟,eMarketer预测。;We love the World Wide Web. To some degree, on mobile, it has not fully satisfied users#39; expectations,; said Google#39;s head of news, Richard Gingras. ;We are hoping to change that,; Gingras said at a launch event Wednesday in Manhattan.“我们爱万维网。在某种程度上,移动,它已经不能完全满足用户的期望,”谷歌的新闻领导,李察金格拉斯说。“我们希望改变,”金格拉斯星期三在曼哈顿的活动启动仪式上说。One reason for the gap is speed. When users click on a news link and it#39;s slow to respond, they will exit and go elsewhere. ;That#39;s not good for us,; Gingras said.这个差距的一个原因就是速度。当用户点击新闻链接时,她反应很慢,用户就会退出然后浏览其他地方。“这对我们来说是不好的” 金格拉斯说。Early results show download speeds up to 85 times faster when content is created using Amp, said David Besbris, vice president of engineering at Google.老用户说,当内容由Amp 创造时,其下载速度就提高85倍,谷歌搜索引擎的副董事长说道。Google launched the new Amp service, which is being co-sponsored by Twitter, to a room full of news publishers at a cafe in downtown Manhattan on Wednesday. Twitter is a stand-alone app but it also relies on Web-generated links to drive traffic.谷歌推出了新的务,这是星期三,新闻出版商在曼哈顿市中心的一家咖啡馆和推特共同发起的。推特是一个独立的应用程序,但它也依赖于网络生成的链接,以推动流量。The Amp service is free for content providers, Google#39;s executives said. They expect to eventually expand the service beyond news content to other mobile content providers.Amp 务对内容提供者是完全免费的,谷歌的领导说。他们希望能超越新闻内容最终扩展其业务到其他移动内容提供者那里。;This is about making sure the World Wide Web is not the World Wide Wait. And to make sure that platform evolves,; Gingras said.“这就是在让万维网不在是万等网转变。并在确保这项平台在扩展演变,” 金格拉斯说道。 /201510/402557

I’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe,” the villain played by Rutger Hauer reminisces at the end of the film Blade Runner after hauling Harrison Ford’s character on to a roof top and sparing his life. “People” is the operative word since Roy Batty is not a person but an android who escapes to earth from a space colony and takes revenge on the Tyrell Corporation, his creator.“我见过的事,你们人不会相信。”在电影《银翼杀手》(Blade Runner)末尾,鲁特格尔樠尔(Rutger Hauer)饰演的反派将哈里森輠祹(Harrison Ford)饰演的角色拉回屋顶,饶了他一命,然后说出了这句话。在这句话里,“人”是最重要的字,因为罗伊巴蒂(Roy Batty)不是人类,他是个机器人。他从太空殖民地逃到地球,向自己的创造者“泰勒公司”(Tyrell Corporation)实施报复。That is what I call a killer robot — a being that can hold an intelligent conversation with you before wiping you out. It was science fiction in 1982, when Blade Runner, based on Philip K Dick’s dystopian fantasy novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? came out. It is now faintly plausible — sufficiently for artificial intelligence researchers to warn this week of the dangers of an autonomous arms race.这才是我认为的“杀手机器人”(killer robot),一个在消灭你之前,能与你进行一场高智商谈话的存在。电影《银翼杀手》改编自菲利普迪克(Philip K. Dick)的反乌托邦奇幻小说《机器人会梦见电子羊吗?》(Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep)。影片上映于1982年,当时它还是一部科幻电影,如今却有点像真的,反正对于人工智能研究人员来说已经足以成真了,前不久他们警告要谨防出现自主式武器军备竞赛的危险。The killer machines feared by those such as Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla Motors, and Stephen Hawking, the theoretical physicist, are crude terminators by comparison with the Nexus replicants in Blade Runner. No one would fall in love with an armed quadcopter that blows up enemy soldiers, as the hero of Blade Runner does with Rachael, the female android who does not realise that she is a replicant.包括特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)创始人埃伦穆斯克(Elon Musk)、理论物理学家斯蒂芬霍金(Stephen Hawking)在内,这些专家们所担心的杀人机器,与《银翼杀手》里的“连锁”(Nexus)复制人相比的话,只是原始级别的终结者。《银翼杀手》里的瑞秋(Rachael)开杀死哈里森輠祹葲敌人时,这位男主公爱上了她——瑞秋是个女机器人,她并不知道自己是复制人。但是当一台配备武器的四轴飞行器干掉敌方士兵时,没人会爱上它。Robots can murder us but they cannot understand us. Autonomous killing machines are becoming reality — Israel aly has its Harpy anti-radar drone, which loiters in the sky before choosing and destroying targets itself. A sentient, sophisticated machine with common sense and the capacity to grasp people’s moods and predict behaviour is still a distant prospect.机器人可以杀死我们,但它们无法理解我们。自主式杀人机器正在成为现实,以色列已经拥有了哈比(Harpy)反雷达无人机,它可以在空中漫无目的地飞行,然后自主选择目标并加以摧毁。但是想创造出一架具备常识,能理解人类情绪,预测人类行为,拥有感知能力的复杂机器,仍是个遥远前景。In theory, it will be created. Artificial intelligence researchers do not see the barrier in principle to robots developing higher reasoning powers, or the kind of physical dexterity that humans possess. The last remaining workers on car assembly lines are people who can attach screws nimbly and reach inside the body shells for electrical wiring in a way that has defeated robots to date.理论上讲,这种机器人是能造出来的。人工智能研究人员看不到任何原则上的障碍,阻止机器人发展出更高水平的推理能力,或是人类那种灵活的身体。汽车装配线上目前仅剩下能够敏捷地拧螺丝的工人,以及一些能够到车身外壳里焊电线的工人,机器人暂时还无法胜过他们。Machines also possess some advantages. They do not have to constrict their processing units to fit into skulls, and they do not need to supply them with oxygen, an energy-hogging technology. Nor are they limited by an evolutionary edict to reproduce, rather than purely to get cleverer.机器还占有一定的优势。它们不必为了适合颅骨大小而压缩处理装置,它们也不需要氧气供应——这是个高度耗能的技术。它们的再造也不受进化法则限制,完全可以变得越来越聪明。But despite rapid advances in machine learning, visual and voice recognition, neural network processing — all the elements that are now transforming the potential of artificial intelligence — androids are not with us. Computers can beat humans easily at chess, but poker at the highest level is beyond them — they would need to see through the other players’ bluffs.但尽管机器在学习、视觉及语音识别、神经网络处理(这些元素都在改变人工智能的潜力)方面发展迅速,机器人还是不能理解人类。计算机可以在国际象棋上轻松击败人类,但它们玩不了最高水平的扑克牌游戏,因为它们得看穿对手的虚张声势。“Computers are becoming better and better at perception tasks,” says Fei-Fei Li, director of Stanford University’s artificial intelligence laboratory. “Algorithms can identify thousands of types of cars while I can only tell three of them. But at the cognitive, empathetic, and emotional level, machines are not even close to humans.”斯坦福大学(Stanford University)人工智能实验室主任李飞飞说:“计算机在感知任务上正变得越来越好。它的算法已经能识别数千种汽车,而我只能认出三种。但在认知、同理心和情感层面,机器还无法接近人类。”I have also experienced something you people would not believe — Google’s self-driving car. The thing that struck me as it toured Mountain View in California recently was that it felt human. It accelerated from junctions confidently, even assertively, closing the gaps with vehicles in front so others could not rush in. We would be safer if all drivers were equally calm and rational.我也经历过一些事,你们这些人不会相信——谷歌的无人驾驶汽车。最近我坐着它游览了加州的山景城,震惊地发现它感觉上就像人类。它自信地,甚至是果断地从交叉路口加速,缩小与前方车辆的距离,让其他车辆无法插入。如果所有司机都能这样冷静和理性,我们的生命会更安全。Inside the car, you can see what it perceives with its sensors and rooftop radar. The outlines of objects around, including pedestrians, buses and other cars, are displayed like hollow, moving shapes on the screen of a laptop held by a Google engineer. The objects are categorised by different colours, so the vehicle knows it should react to them and how far to steer clear.在谷歌无人驾驶汽车里,你可以看到它如何用传感器和车顶雷达进行感知。一位谷歌工程师手持一台笔记本电脑,行人、公交车和其他车辆等周围物体的轮廓呈现为空心的、移动的图形显示在屏幕上。这些物体按照不同颜色分类,因此无人驾驶汽车知道该对它们作出反应,以及该从多远避开。A self-driving vehicle would, in other words, be a perfectly capable killer robot if you attached a missile launcher to its roof, and machine guns to its sides (not that Google would do such a thing, of course). It could cruise through cities, scanning for warm, slow-moving, pink-coloured objects to destroy.换言之,如果你在自动驾驶汽车的车顶安装一个导弹发射器,并且在车身两侧装上机(当然啦,这并不是说谷歌会干这种事),它完全能化身“杀手机器人”。它可以悠闲地穿越城市,扫描搜寻有热度的、缓慢移动的粉红色目标加以摧毁。So it is not scaremongering for scientists to warn of artificial intelligence research being tainted by association with autonomous weapons. The internet itself emerged from research funded by the US Department of Defence in the 1960s, and military and space programmes have the deepest pockets and the keenest interest in developing cutting-edge technology. What would be foolish would be to think the advent of killer robots means that machines are y to take over the world.因此,科学家们警告人工智能研究领域存在与自主武器相结合的情况,并非是危言耸听。互联网本身就发源于美国国防部在上世纪60年代资助的研究课题,而且在开发尖端技术方面,军事和航天计划拥有最雄厚的财力和最强烈的兴趣。要有多蠢,才会认为“杀手机器人”的出现就意味着机器将接管全世界。Destroying things is easier than understanding or creating them. Artificial intelligence — the ability to scan, process and analyse large data sets — is not the same as the capacity to perform most human tasks (known as artificial general intelligence).破坏事物比理解或创造事物更容易。人工智能(扫描、处理和分析大型数据集的能力)并不等同于“强人工智能”(artificial general intelligence),后者才具有执行大多数人类任务的能力。Even those who warn of machines taking jobs that are now performed by humans accept that managerial, professional, and artistic jobs that demand high level reasoning, empathy and creativity are still safe. A robot that scans a set of features to identify a woman, but cannot grasp her mood, or use common sense to solve an unexpected puzzle, remains very limited.一些人警告说机器将抢走目前由人类完成的工作,但就连他们也同意,管理、专业和艺术工作仍然是安全的,因为这些工作需要具备高水平的推理能力、同感能力以及创造能力。机器人的能力仍非常有限,它可以通过扫描一系列特征来识别一个女人,却无法体会她的情绪,也无法运用常理来解决意料之外的难题。“Quite an experience to live in fear, isn’t it? That’s what it’s like to be a slave,” Roy Batty remarks to the human bounty-hunter he has defeated in combat before reaching out and rescuing him from falling to his death. Let us not enslave ourselves yet.罗伊巴蒂已经在对决中战胜了人类赏金猎人,却又在对手坠下屋顶时伸手救了他一命。接着他对赏金猎人说道:“活在恐惧里的滋味不好受吧?这就是当奴隶的感受。”我们千万不要让自己沦为奴隶。 /201508/391134

Clichés are often true, and at the moment this one is apt: the Chinese word for crisis also implies opportunity. On Friday, Hong Kong- and China-listed property developer China Vanke announced first-half results. Revenues rose one quarter — mostly on volume growth; average prices were down just shy of 3 per cent.陈词滥调中往往蕴含着真知灼见,此时此刻下面这个词就很符合这个观点:中文中的“危机”一词也包含“机会”的意思。周一,在香港和中国内地两地上市的房地产开发商万科(China Vanke)发布了上半年业绩。营收增长近四分之一——主要是拜销售面积增长所赐;销售均价则下降了约3%。Along with peers China Overseas Land and Investment and China Resources Land, Vanke trades on single-digit multiples of 2015 earnings, for growth in the low to mid teens. Cheap? That depends where we are in the cycle. Since April, property prices have merely stopped falling. If they resume their tumble, the low multiple will prove painfully deceptive.与中国海外发展(China Overseas Land and Investment)和华润置地(China Resources Land)两家同行一样,按2015年盈利(预期增幅13%至16%吧)计算,万科股票的市盈率为个位数。便宜吗?这要看我们处在周期中的什么位置。今年4月以来,房价只是停止了下跌。如果房价恢复下滑的话,低市盈率将被明极具欺骗性。China’s economy looks shaky, with last week’s adjustment to the renminbi taken as a sign that it could be worse than feared. Still, macro data have been poor for some time — yet Vanke’s numbers were far from terrible. This year, supply has fallen much more sharply than demand. Figures from China’s National Bureau of Statistics show completed residential projects’ gross floor area (GFA) down 16 per cent year on year, even as the GFA of residential sales rose 7 per cent. The GFA for new projects commenced — which would become available in about a year — has fallen by nearly a fifth. Land purchases have collapsed by a third.中国经济看起来很疲弱,上周对人民币的调整被看作一个信号:中国经济状况可能比人们担忧的还要糟。不过,虽然一段时间以来的宏观经济数据表现不佳,但万科的业绩可是一点都不糟糕。今年以来,比起需求,供给的降幅要大得多。中国国家统计局的数据显示,竣工住宅项目总建筑面积(GFA)同比减少了16%,而同期销售的住宅总建筑总面积却增长了7%。新开工项目总建筑面积下降了近五分之一。开发商拿地数量锐减了三分之一。Some of this is due to demand and supply mismatches: inventories in third tier cities remain high, curbing appetite for new projects. More vibrant top tier cities, such as Shenzhen which has led the turnround, look set to become supply constrained due to a scarce, and thus expensive, land bank.造成这种局面的部分原因在于供需不匹配:三线城市库存仍然很高,抑制了开发商上马新项目的兴趣。而在交易更加活跃的一线城市,例如已率先扭转局面的深圳,由于土地稀缺又贵,供应势必将吃紧。This lends itself to a bullish thesis for sector leaders. COLI, China Resources Land and Vanke have been disciplined with their balance sheets. Vanke’s net debt to equity is a mere 16 per cent. As the renminbi weakens, offshore debt may have lost its appeal but onshore demand is healthy, with about bn of renminbi debt raised so far this year. Last week, regulators approved Vanke to issue .4bn in bonds.这为行业龙头提供了乐观的理由。中国海外发展、华润置地和万科一直都严格管理资产负债表。万科的净债务与股东权益的比率只有16%。随着人民币走软,离岸债务可能已经失去吸引力,但在岸需求还很健康——今年迄今共发行了约140亿美元的人民币债券。上周,监管机构批准了万科发行14亿美元的债券。Goldman Sachs figures show the consolidation trend has been accelerating. In the year to July, the top 17 developers increased their market share to 22 per cent, up 5 percentage points and the biggest gain since at least 2007. The crisis is not the same for everyone; that is why it will create opportunities.高盛(Goldman Sachs)的数据显示,房地产业的整合趋势一直在加速。在截至7月的一年中,中国17家最大开发商的市场份额扩大到22%,上升5个百分点,是至少自2007年以来的最大增幅。危机对每个人来说是不一样的,这就是为什么它能够创造出机会。 /201508/393778Will a magnet really destroy your smartphone?磁铁真的会毁了你的智能手机吗?Do magnets actually pose a terrifying risk to our gadgets, and where did we get the idea that they’re dangerous in the first place?磁铁真的会对我们的智能工具造成威胁吗?我们又是为什么会认为它们是危险的?Let’s find out.现在我们就来揭晓。This more than likely stems from old electronic devices, such as CRT monitors and televisions, which were susceptible to magnetic fields, explains Matt Newby from first4magnets, ;When placing a strong magnet near one of these you could distort the picture. Thankfully, modern televisions and monitors aren’t susceptible in this way.;“老式电子设备如 CRT 显示器和电视机易受磁场影响,”first4magnets公司的马特·纽比解释道,“当你在这些设备附件放置强力磁铁时,画面可能会变形。不过值得庆幸的是,现代电视机和显示器不易受到此种影响。”Most modern electronics, like our smartphones, are not going to be adversely affected by small magnets; but is that all there is to it?大多数现代电子产品,比如我们的智能手机,不太会受到小型磁铁的不利影响,不过事情真是如此吗?How do magnets affect smartphones?磁铁是如何影响智能手机的?The vast majority of magnets that you come across day to day, even many of the super-strong ones on the market, will have no adverse effect on your smartphone, says Matt, ;In fact, within the device there will be a number of very small magnets which perform important functions.For example, the new Apple Watch uses a magnetic inductive wireless charging system.;马特表示“我们在日常生活中见到的绝大多数的磁铁,甚至市面上那种超强磁铁都不会对指智能手机造成伤害”,“事实上,在一些装置内会有若干非常小但却发挥重要作用的磁铁。例如,最新一代的苹果手表就使用了磁性感应无线充电系统。”However, before you get carried away and start rubbing magnets all over your smartphone, there is something else to consider.不过,在你大松一口气,开始用磁铁在你的智能手机上划来划去之前,还要了解一些事情。Matt warned that magnetic fields can temporarily interfere with the digital compass and magnetometer inside your smartphone, and that’s more serious than you may think.马特警告说,磁场可能暂时干扰智能手机里的数字罗盘和磁强计,而其后果远比你想象的严重。The engineers over at Kamp;J Magnetics actually experimented with an iPhone to show how the sensors inside can be affected by a magnet.其实,Kamp;J Magnetics工程师已经用iPhone进行了实验,来检测磁铁会如何影响iPhone内部的传感器。The problem we found is that a nearby magnet will affect the internal magnetic sensors inside the phone. The compass won’t correctly, explained Michael Paul, an engineer at Kamp;J, ;What’s worse, if you stick a strong magnet to the phone, you could slightly magnetize some steel components inside, making them act like weak magnets. This can make it difficult to properly calibrate the compass.;“我们发现附近的磁铁会影响手机内部的磁性传感器。造成指南针失常,”Kamp;J Magnetics的工程师Michael Paul解释道,“更糟糕的如果你在手机旁放置强力磁铁,里面的一些钢构件会稍稍磁化,他们会变成弱磁铁。这样指南针便难以正确校对。”You might think it’s unimportant because you never use the compass app, but that doesn’t mean other apps aren’t relying on the same sensor.你可能认为这不重要,因为你从来不使用指南针这个应用程序,但这并不意味着其他应用程序不依赖于相同的传感器。Google (GOOGL, Tech30) Maps, for example, uses the sensor to detect which way the phone is facing, and a number of games also rely on it to work out your orientation.例如,谷歌公司(GOOGLTech30)的谷歌地图就使用传感器来检测你的朝向,而且很多游戏也依靠它来判断你的方向。It seems as though magnets aren’t likely to kill your smartphone, but there’s definitely a possibility they’ll mess some pretty important aspects up, so why take the risk?虽然磁铁不会让你的智能手机报废,但它极有可能扰乱一些重要的原件,因此我们完全不必冒这样的险。 /201506/378577

Shoushi Calendar《授时历》Shoushi Calendar,the most outstanding calendar in ancient China,was compiled by Guo Shoujing,a prominent scientist in the Yuan Dynasty,and his colleagues. Enforced in 1281,throughout the Ming Dynasty and the begin-nin4 of the Qinq Dynasty,the calendar was used for over 360 years.《授时历》是中国古代最优秀的历法。由元代著名科学家郭守敬等人编制,从1281年开始实行,历经整个明代,一直到清初,共用了360多年。The reason why the calendar was used for such a long time has much to do with its accuracy in calculation. In the first place,it employed astronomical docu-ments of the highest accuracy in its time. For instance,it set the tropical year at 365.2425 days,which was the exactly the same as that in the currently used Gre-gorian Calendar, 301 years preceding the latter though. Secondly, based on earlier scholars finding that the length of the tropical year was gradually shortening,the Shoushi Calendar held that the tropical year shortened by 0. 0001 day every 100 years,which was more accurate as compared with earlier researches.《授时历》之所以沿用这么长时间,和它的计算精度非常高有很大关系。首先,它使用了当时最为精确的天文资料。例如,它确定了回归年的长度为365.2425日,与现今通行的公历值完全一致,但是它比格里高利历早了301年。其次,它吸收了前人研究发现的回归年的长度在逐渐变小的观点,规定100年中回归年的长度减小0. 0001日。与前人研究相比,这个数值要精确一些。In addition,instead of the mathematical method of recording astronomical documents via complicated fractions,the calendar employed decimal fractions,which largely reduced calculation workload and guaranteed accuracy. It also made innovations in terms of calculation methods;for instance,the use of mathematical approaches like cubic interpolation,polynomial equations to the 4th order and spherical trigonometry.另外,《授时历》废除了用复杂分数表示天文资料的办法,使用小数制,不仅大大减少了计算量,也保了计算精度。《授时历》在计算方法上也有创新,例如三次插内插法、四次多项式方程、球面三角法等数学方法的使用。Soon after its compilation,the Shoushi Calendar was Sp to and adopted by Japan and Korea. In recent years,astronomers from Japan,European and North American countries are again showing interests in ahe Shoushi Calendar,and some broad and in-depth researches have been made. As an advanced and accurate calendar in the history of China,the Shoushi Calendar also occupies a distinct posi-tion in the history of world astronomy.《授时历》编制不久即传播到日本、朝鲜,并被采用。近年来日本和欧美等国的天文学家对《授时历》产生了新的兴趣,进行了广泛而深入的研究。作为中国历史上一部先进的、精确的历法,《授时历》在世界天文学史上也占有突出的位置。 /201511/409392Uber, the on-demand ride-hailing service, closed a .2 billion round of financing on Thursday, valuing the company at an eye-popping billion just five years after its debut.本周四,共乘租车务Uber在新一轮融资中筹得12亿美元(约合人民币72亿元),该公司诞生短短五年后,估值就达到了令人瞠目的400亿美元。The company authorized a sale of up to an additional 0 million in stock on top of the .2 billion round, according to a Delaware filing on Thursday.上周四在特拉华州提交的一份文件显示,除了这12亿美元之外,该公司还授权销售高达6亿美元的股票。“Millions of people may decide that they no longer need to own a car because using Uber will be cheaper than owning one,” Travis Kalanick, chief executive of Uber, said in a blog post on Thursday announcing the raise.“数百万人可能会决定不再买车,因为使用Uber更加便宜,”本周四,Uber首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)在宣布这轮融资的文中写道。Uber, which operates in more than 200 cities around the world, has aly raised more than .5 billion in venture capital. Uber was last valued at billion just six months ago, when it raised funding from investors including BlackRock, Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins Caufield amp; Byers.Uber在全球200多个城市经营业务,已募集逾15亿的风险投资。仅仅半年前,当贝莱德( BlackRock)、谷歌风险投资公司(Google Ventures)和凯鹏华盈(Kleiner Perkins Caufieldamp; Byers)等公司投资Uber时,它的估值才170亿美元。But despite the company’s rapid expansion over its five years of existence, Uber is racing to beat other ride-sharing rivals like Lyft and Sidecar, who are also raising large amounts of money to grow quickly in the ed States.但是,尽管Uber在其五年的历史中迅速扩张,它仍在努力争取击败Lyft、Sidecar等同类务,这些竞争对手也筹集了大笔资金,在美国的业务增长迅速。Uber also faces competition on international fronts. It is fighting expensive regulatory battles in Europe, Thailand and Vietnam, among other countries. And on Wednesday, Softbank announced it had invested 0 million in GrabTaxi, a popular service in Southeast Asia.Uber还面临着国际竞争。在欧洲、泰国和越南等国,该公司正在和监管机构作战,胜负事关大笔金额。本周三,软银(Softbank)宣布,已向东南亚颇具人气的务企业GrabTaxi投资2.5亿美元。The Delaware filing, obtained by VC Experts, was first reported by Fortune.在特拉华州提交的文件被VC Experts获悉,由《财富》(Fortune)率先报道。 /201412/347007

Volvo’s new S90 saloon has a familiar face. The car is the second big model to come off the Swedish brand’s heavily touted bn vehicle platform and follows the sleek, critically acclaimed XC90 sport utility vehicle.沃尔沃(Volvo)全新S90轿车有副“熟脸孔”。这是该瑞典公司备受吹捧、耗资110亿美元打造的车辆生产平台下线的第二款大型车,而第一款则是广受好评、外形典雅的XC90运动型多功能车(SUV)。The S90 has the same, T-shaped LED headlights — a nod to Thor’s hammer from Norse mythology — and a grille made of 23 rods of curved iron.S90同样配备了“T”字型LED大灯——取意于挪威神话中的“雷神之锤”,其格栅由23根呈现弧度的钢栏组成。“This is the face of Volvo,” says chief designer Thomas Ingenlath. “It’s confident, it’s proud and it is strong.”“这就是沃尔沃的前脸,”首席设计师托马斯英格拉特(Thomas Ingenlath)称,“它显得自信、骄傲、硬朗。”To that list could be added the word independent.这一系列的修饰语中还可以加入“独立”一词。Five years after falling under the control of Chinese industrial group Zhejiang Geely Holding in a landmark Asian acquisition, Volvo feels more Scandinavian — and more successful — than ever.5年前,中国浙江吉利控股集团(Zhejiang Geely Holding)完成了一桩在整个亚洲具有标志性意义的收购案,将沃尔沃纳入麾下。如今的沃尔沃感觉比以往更具北欧特色,也更加成功。The company is forecasting a large rise in profits and record sales this year. It is gaining credibility as an alternative to the three German premium carmakers. The privately held company is even preparing to tap the bond market for the first time.该公司预计今年利润将有大幅提高,并将创下销量纪录。其作为三大德系豪车品牌替代之选的声誉日盛。这家私人控股公司甚至准备首次进入债券市场融资。Now Volvo is trying to shake off its buttoned-up reputation and tell the world about its transformation.如今,沃尔沃正试图摆脱其内敛含蓄的名声,向世界宣告它的转变。“We’re a normal company,” says Hakan Samuelsson, Volvo’s understated chief executive, in an interview at the company’s Gothenburg headquarters. The group still shares part of the site with the truckmaker of the same name that used to own Volvo.“我们就是一家正常的公司,”行事低调的沃尔沃首席执行官哈坎萨缪尔森(Hakan Samuelsson)表示。他在哥德堡沃尔沃总部接受采访,该公司仍然与曾经的东家——同名的卡车制造商,共用部分办公地点。Mr Samuelsson’s predecessors had plenty of defending to do. Volvo, aS part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group between 1999 and 2010, suffered stagnating sales. It was not helped by uninspired products that were — Volvo executives now say — compromised by having to share parts, styles and skeletons with its US parent.萨缪尔森的前任们做过很多自我辩护的事。1999年至2010年期间,作为福特(Ford)旗下Premier Automotive Group(P)的子公司,沃尔沃经历了销量停滞不前的时期。了无新意的产品更是于事无补。沃尔沃高层如今称,当时生产的车型不得不与其美国母公司的其他车型共用零件和整体架构,风格如出一辙。“If this was a hospital, the patient would have been declared dead,” says one Volvo manager of the then lossmaking company.“如果有汽车医院的话,那么当时沃尔沃这个病人就已经被宣布死亡了,”一位经理谈到当时亏损的沃尔沃时说道。Under Chinese ownership, Volvo is getting on to the shopping list of drivers who normally prefer Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz. The XC90 put Volvo into a higher price category and has had consumer magazines agog with its sleek interior, in-car technology and advanced safety features.在吉利控股下的沃尔沃逐渐进入通常偏爱奥迪(Audi)、宝马(BMW)和奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)的车主的选购清单。XC90提升了沃尔沃的产品价位,消费者杂志大谈该车型时尚的内饰、车载技术和先性的安全性能。“[Geely] bought Volvo because they assumed Volvo deserved a better future,” says Mr Samuelsson. “They wanted to release the tiger. And they are seeing that happening now, in steps.”“(吉利)收购沃尔沃,是因为他们认为沃尔沃值得拥有更好的未来,”萨缪尔森称,“他们想放出这只猛虎。现在,他们正在逐步看到这一切成为现实。”The company’s ambition draws comparisons with another resurgent premium carmaker — Jaguar Land Rover of the UK — which was also formerly part of the Ford stable and has since fallen into Asian possession.沃尔沃的雄心可与另一个东山再起的豪车品牌——英国的捷豹路虎(Jaguar Land Rover)作比。捷豹路虎以前也是福特旗下的品牌,后来被亚洲企业收购。So far, JLR’s profitability has left Volvo in the dust. The British-based group made 2.6bn in pre-tax profit in its last financial year — twice what Tata Motors paid Ford to acquire the two UK brands in 2008.目前为止,捷豹路虎的盈利能力令沃尔沃望尘莫及。上一财年,这家总部在英国的集团实现了26亿英镑税前利润——比2008年塔塔汽车(Tata Motors)从福特手中收购这两个英国品牌时付的代价高出一倍。Volvo made only 0m in operating profits last year, despite selling an almost identical number of cars — about 460,000.去年,尽管沃尔沃卖出了几乎与捷豹路虎相同数量的汽车——约46万辆,但其营业利润仅为2.6亿美元。Operating margins at Volvo are also thin — 2.2 per cent in the first half of this year. JLR, by contrast, makes operating margins close to 10 per cent, having built on the success of products conceived during the Ford era, such as the Range Rover Evoque.沃尔沃的营业利润率也很低——今年上半年为2.2%。相比之下,捷豹路虎的营业利润率接近10%,这建立在未被收购前构想的多款车型——如路虎揽胜极光(Range Rover Evoque)——大获成功的基础上。At Volvo, “we based our turnround exactly on a new platform, new vehicles, not just new-style vehicles,” says Mr Samuelsson. “I don’t think you can say that Jaguar has that same process. So that, of course, takes a longer time.”在沃尔沃,“我们的复兴完全基于新平台、新车型,而不仅仅是同车型的新款,”萨缪尔森称,“我想你不能说路虎也经历了一样的过程。所以,这当然会导致我们需要更多时间。”Volvo created Spa (scaleable product architecture), the first of two completely new modular building systems, for large cars. It has moved to innovative, four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines that will power the majority of its future cars. And by 2019, it will have a line-up of nine new or reworked vehicles: three sizes in three different styles.沃尔沃建设了制造大型车的SPA平台(scaleable product architecture,可扩展车体架构),这是两个全新的模块化生产体系中的第一个。该公司已开始采用创新性的、四缸汽油或柴油发动机,未来其大多数车型将依靠这类引擎提供动力。到2019年,它将拥有9款全新或改进版车型的产品阵容,在3种不同风格的车型中分别有3种不同的规格。Volvo is now moving into phase two of its turnround: capitalising on the investments, launching the new products, and sustaining a higher price point.沃尔沃如今正步入其复兴计划的第二阶段:利用投资、推出新产品、维持较高价位。Attention now turns to the second, smaller toolkit: CMA, which stands for compact modular architecture and is the big test of Volvo’s relationship with its Chinese paymasters.现在把目光转向第二个较小的生产平台:紧凑型模块化架构CMA,它将给沃尔沃与其中国东家的关系带来重大考验。Geely Auto, the Hangzhou-based volume carmaker also owned by Volvo’s parent, is working with Volvo to create midsize cars in a variety of shapes — hatchbacks, sedans and small SUVs. The platform is an attempt to find cost savings and make acceptable margins on small cars.总部位于杭州的吉利汽车(Geely Auto)也是沃尔沃母公司旗下的公司。吉利汽车正在与沃尔沃共同研发各种车型——掀背车、轿车和小型SUV——的中级车。CMA平台是在小型车领域寻找成本节省空间、创造合意的利润率的一次尝试。It means upmarket Volvo must share parts with firmly mass-market Geely. That task has scuppered a high-profile former alliance with the DaimlerChrysler. “It’s very difficult to develop platforms and architectures if the brands are positioned very differently,” says Martin , associate professor at Stockholm School of Economics.这意味着,高端品牌沃尔沃必须与坚定地走大众市场路线的吉利共享零件。这样的任务破坏了此前沃尔沃与戴姆勒克莱斯勒(DaimlerChrysler)之间备受瞩目的合作。“如果不同品牌的定位截然不同,很难共同研发平台和架构,”斯德哥尔经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)的副教授马丁斯科尔(Martin )。But the collaboration — enshrined in China Euro Vehicle Technology, a sister company to Volvo and Geely Auto — gives Volvo greater volumes for its engines. Geely in return gets European design and perhaps the chance to become the first Chinese carmaker to achieve global renown.但是,这次合作——双方成立了吉利汽车欧洲研发中心(China Euro Vehicle Technology,简称CEVT)——使沃尔沃可以生产更多发动机。吉利得到的回报是欧洲的设计,或许还有机会成为第一家享誉国际的中国汽车制造商。There is still some talk around Gothenburg and among suppliers of conflict between the Chinese and Swedish participants in and around CEVT.在哥德堡一带以及供货商中间,仍然流传着CEVT的中方和瑞方人员存在擦的说法。“Of course it has been challenging — God, I can tell you, there are days I wonder, ‘How the hell should we fix this?’,” says Mats Fagerhag, the former Ramp;D chief at Saab who runs CEVT.“这当然很有挑战性——天啊,我可以告诉你,有时我会想,‘我们到底该怎么解决?’”CEVT的负责人方浩瀚(Mats Fagerhag)称。他曾主管萨(Saab)研发部门。But he says the focused nature of the collaboration means Volvo and Geely have created a “smarter” way of integrating. “Somehow you are forced: let’s solve those cultural issues here quickly here because we have an important task to do.”但是他称,此次合作目标明确,意味着沃尔沃和吉利创造了一种“较聪明的”融合方式。“某种程度上你是被逼的:让我们迅速解决这些文化问题,因为我们还有重要的任务要去完成。” /201601/419975LONDON — Despite warnings that a new ethical threshold was being crossed, British lawmakers on Tuesday voted to allow the in vitro creation of babies using the DNA of three people, a procedure that could prevent the inheritance of genetic diseases.伦敦——尽管有人警告说,用三个人的DNA进行体外受精的做法,将会逾越一道新的伦理界限,但本周二,英国国会议员投票通过了这项可以用来防止遗传病的技术。The move would make Britain the first country to authorize an in vitro fertilization technique that involves altering a human egg or embryo before transferring it to the womb.英国可能会成为第一个批准这种体外受精技术的国家。这种技术先对人类的卵子或胚胎进行改动,然后将其植入子宫。The issue provoked fierce debate, with some opponents likening the procedure to genetic modification and arguing that it would open the way to the creation of so-called designer babies.这个问题引起了激烈争论,一些反对者将这个方法和基因改造相提并论,认为这会开启“婴儿设计”的大门。Lawmakers in the House of Commons voted 382 to 128 in favor of the move, which still requires final approval from the House of Lords, the unelected upper chamber of Parliament. The House of Lords rarely rejects the decisions of its elected colleagues.下议院以382票赞成,128票反对的结果通过了这项技术,但仍然需要获得非民选的上议院的最终批准。上议院很少推翻民选的下议院议员的决定。The vote came after a number of objections were raised, including the fact that other nations, including the ed States, have not taken such a step.在这项投票进行之前,已经有人提出若干异议,其中之一是包括美国在内的其他国家都没有采用这一技术。Describing the move as “bold” but “considered and informed,” the health minister, Jane Ellison, argued in favor of legalizing the procedure, which is designed to help women with mitochondrial diseases. Defects in the mitochondria — energy-producing structures outside a cell’s nucleus — can result in a range of complications, including muscular dystrophy and heart, kidney and liver failure.卫生部长简#8226;埃里森(Jane Ellison)说下议院的决定“很大胆”,但却“经过了深思熟虑”,这项技术旨在为患有线粒体疾病的女性提供帮助,她赞成将其合法化。线粒体位于细胞核之外,功能是产生能量,线粒体缺陷可能会导致一系列并发症,比如肌肉萎缩症和心、肾、肝功能衰竭。An opponent of the change, Edward Leigh, a Conservative lawmaker and former minister, said before the vote that it was a “monumental decision.”持反对意见的保守党议员爱德华#8226;利曾担任过部长,他在投票前表示,这个决定的影响将会“极其深远”。“If we believe that, sadly, given the nature of the human condition, there are these appalling diseases, where do we stop?” he asked, calling for full clinical trials to determine the procedure’s safety and effectiveness.“如果我们认为,可悲的是,鉴于人类生存状况的性质,人间存在着各种可怕疾病,那我们要在何处停手?”他问道。他还要求进行全面的临床试验,以确定这项技术的安全性和有效性。“We will be the first state to authorize this in the world,” Mr. Leigh added. “We will be in a unique position, and we should ask ourselves why no other state — not the European Union, not the U.S., yet — thinks this process is absolutely safe.”“我们将成为世界上第一个批准该技术的国家,”他还表示。“我们将处在一个特别的位置。我们应该问问自己,为什么欧盟、美国和其他国家都不认为这项技术绝对安全?”If it wins final approval, as seems likely, the technique is expected to be used only sparingly, and in the cases of women who have faulty mitochondria. The resulting embryo would have nucleus DNA from the child’s parents but mitochondrial DNA from a donor.该技术最后获得批准的可能性很大,如果真是如此,预计它只会少量应用在患有线粒体疾病的女性中。用这种技术产生的胚胎,必须从孩子父母的细胞核中提取DNA,但线粒体DNA则取自捐献者。Scientists say that the child would inherit the characteristics of the parent, other than the mitochondrial defect, rather than those of the donor.科学家们说,除了线粒体缺陷之外,孩子将会继承父母的特征,而不是捐献者的特征。They also say that the procedure is different from the one used to genetically modify foods, in which individual genes are usually selected to be transferred from one organism into another.他们还指出,该技术不同于转基因食品技术。后者通常是有选择地把个别基因从一个有机体转移到另一个上。Tuesday’s vote was welcomed by Robert Meadowcroft, chief executive of the Muscular Dystrophy Campaign, who described it in a statement as a “milestone in giving women an invaluable choice, the choice to become a mother without fear of passing on a lifetime under the shadow of mitochondrial disease to their child.”本周二的投票受到了肌肉萎缩症运动(Muscular Dystrophy Campaign)首席执行官罗伯特#8226;麦道克劳夫特(Robert Meadowcroft)的欢迎,在一份声明中,他称该决定是一个“里程碑,为一些女性提供了非常宝贵的选择,让她们可以成为母亲,而不必担心把线粒体疾病遗传给孩子。”“There are currently no means to treat devastating mitochondrial diseases, which can cause muscle wastage, loss of vision, stroke-like episodes and a premature death,” the statement added. “Preventing inheritance, where possible, remains our only option, and that is why we have invested in and wholly support this pioneering technique.”“线粒体疾病可以造成巨大痛苦,可能会导致肌肉萎缩、失明、卒中样发作和早亡,目前没有任何治疗方法,”该声明说。“我们唯一的选择仍然是尽可能地防止把它遗传给下一代,这就是我们为什么投资于这种开创性的技术,并全心全意地持它的原因。”Some groups opposed to the procedure, including Human Genetics Alert, had likened it to genetic modification. “Although food crops, bacteria and animals have been genetically engineered for the last 20 years, there has been a worldwide consensus, embodied in legislation in over 60 countries, that we should not attempt to do the same with human beings,” the group said on its website.“人类遗传学警报”(Human Genetics Alert)等组织反对这项技术,将它和基因改造相提并论。“虽然在过去20年里,基因工程已经涉及粮食作物、细菌和动物,但我们不应该尝试对人类做同样的事情,这是一个世界性的共识,有60多个国家的立法都体现了这一共识,”该组织在网站上表示。“This is because crossing this line would lead inevitably to a future of ‘designer babies’ and a new consumer-driven eugenics,” the group said.“这是因为,一旦逾越这条界限,将来就会不可避免地出现‘婴儿设计’和消费者驱动的新型优生学活动,”该组织表示。“There are also serious ethical objections to this procedure, which involves the destruction of human embryos as part of the process,” Bishop John Sherrington said in the statement.“这项技术在伦理上也遭到了强烈反对,因为它涉及破坏人类的胚胎组织,”主教约翰#8226;谢林顿(John Sherrington)在声明中说。The Church of England argued that there should be “more time for consultation and research,” while adding that the church did not want to prevent people “from benefiting from a major advance in genetics and assisted reproduction.”英国教会认为应该“用更多的时间来磋商和研究”,同时表示,教会不想阻止人们“从遗传学和辅助生殖技术的重大进展中获益”。 /201502/358684

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