清原县人民医院治疗性功能障碍多少钱国际乐园

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月20日 13:57:15
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Various knives, including table varieties, will be banned from China#39;s trains, according to a new rule that will take effect on January 10, Beijing Youth Daily reports.据北京青年报报道,根据1月10日起开始实行的新规定,包括餐刀在内的多种刀具被禁止带上中国的火车。China#39;s railway authority has made revisions to a previous rule on items that passengers are banned or restricted to take into railway stations and trains. Sharp or blunt objects that could endanger passenger safety or pose major security risks will be banned.中国铁路局已对旅客禁止或限制带入火车站和火车上的相关条例规定做出了最新修订。将可能危及旅客人身安全、存在重大安全隐患的利器、钝器等列为禁止携带物品。Along with controlled knives stipulated in the rule, kitchen, table, butcher knives and axes, as well as nail guns, defensive tools, bows and crossbows, will be forbidden in railway stations or trains, the paper said.该报道还表示,除已经限制的管制刀具以外,其他如菜刀、餐刀、屠宰刀、斧子等利器,射钉、防卫器、弓、弩等其他器具都禁止携带进站上车。In addition, the railway authority also adjusted the quantity of some items such as matches, lighters, pesticides and air fresheners.此外,中国铁路局对例如火柴、打火机、杀虫剂、空气清新剂等物品的允许携带数量也进行了调整。Passengers are allowed to carry two boxes of matches or two ordinary lighters, no more than 20ml of nail polish, hair-styling products or delusterant, and no more than 120ml of pressure containers such as cold wave lotion, mousse, hair spray, pesticide, or airfreshener.火柴限带数量减少至两盒,打火机最多只允许带两个;指甲油、去光剂、染发剂不超过20毫升;冷烫精、丝、发胶、杀虫剂、空气清新剂等自喷压力容器不得超过120毫升。 /201601/421800

Paris remains eerily quiet. Straight after the terrorist attacks, on November 13, the tourists disappeared. Now, in grey January, the world’s formerly most visited city still feels empty. In the silence, Parisians can gauge where the attacks have left us.巴黎依然安静得出奇。去年11月13日的恐怖袭击之后,游客消失了。如今,在灰色的1月,这个以前全球游客最多的城市仍然感觉空荡荡的。在沉默中,掂量着恐袭给自己造成的影响。My office is in the eastern 11th arrondissement, focal point of both sets of 2015 attacks. The little local post office now has a full-time guard to check customers’ bags. A few doors down, the Belle Equipe café — where 19 people were murdered in November — is boarded up, to reopen God knows when. My favourite local restaurant is offering an unchanging daily all week, presumably because with almost no customers there’s little point buying food every day. But you can get a table any time, and eating is still much of the point of Paris, so you sit there instinctively calculating where you’d run if gunmen walked in.我的办公室位于巴黎东部第11大区,是2015年两次恐怖袭击的发生地。当地的小邮局现在配备了一位全职保安,检查客户的包包。走过几个门,就到了11月有19人遇难的Belle Equipe咖啡馆,这里现在被木板封住,天知道何时才恢复营业。我最喜爱的一家当地餐厅菜单整周不变,大概是因为几乎没有客人,每天买菜已没有意义。但任何时候你都能找到空桌,饮食仍然是巴黎生活的一件重要事情,因此你坐在那里,本能地思忖如果有手走进来,你要往哪跑。Perversely, the horrors have helped give Paris’s east side an identity. The historically poorer east, even after gentrification, was always the neglected Paris. It ranked below les beaux quartiers (“the beautiful neighbourhoods” in the west and on the Left Bank), just as Brooklyn ranked below Manhattan. The local Place de la République, for decades a big roundabout with a dirty old statue of Marianne, symbol of the republic, was Paris’s drabbest square.变态的是,恐怖事件帮助巴黎东部获得了一种身份认同。自古以来,东部地区较为贫困,即便在中产阶级化之后也是巴黎受到忽视的部分。它的地位低于几个美丽的邻近地区(包括位于西部和左岸的“美丽地段”),就像布鲁克林的地位低于曼哈顿那样。几十年来,当地的共和国广场(Place de la République)是一个大型环岛,矗立着脏脏的法兰西共和国象征玛丽安娜(Marianne)的旧雕像,是巴黎最没有生气的广场。But last year’s attacks targeted the east’s nightlife, its partially Jewish heritage and its bohemian classes as represented by Charlie Hebdo magazine. The evening of the Charlie attacks last January, thousands of people filled République — which, by chance, had recently been redesigned. The crowd chanted, “Liberty of expression!” (only in Paris) and honoured the murdered cartoonists. Days later, western heads of government shuffled east together from République down the unlovely Boulevard Voltaire, looking terrified.但去年的恐袭瞄准了东部地区的夜生活、其一定程度上的犹太传统以及以《查理周刊》(Charlie Hebdo)为代表的放荡不羁的阶层。去年1月《查理周刊》恐袭当晚,数千人涌入共和国广场,碰巧的是,那个广场刚被重新设计。人群高唱“言论自由!”(只是在巴黎),向遇难的漫画家致敬。几天后,西方政府首脑手挽手从共和国广场向东走上伏尔泰大道(Boulevard Voltaire),神色恐惧。République is now again a site of pilgrimage. In the evenings you see people lighting candles around the statue, scrawling the strangest messages, or singing John Lennon’s “Imagine”. The poet Jacques Prévert said of late 1940s Saint-Germain, “Perhaps it takes a war to launch a quartier.” Now terrorism has launched République.共和国广场现在再次变成了一个朝圣之地。晚上,你会看到人们在玛丽安娜雕像周围点燃蜡烛,写下最奇怪的留言或者唱起约翰列侬(John Lennon)的《想象》(Imagine)。诗人雅克渠莱维尔(Jacques Prévert)在谈到上世纪40年代末的圣日耳曼时表示:“或许这需要一场战争来创建一个地区。”如今,恐怖主义创建了共和国广场。But eastern Paris is scared. Two days after the November attacks, the ringleader Abdelhamid Abaaoud boasted (according to a witness) that “there will be other [attacks]”. These “would do even worse in the neighbourhoods near the Jews”, including “diversions on transport and in the schools”. Perhaps this was just a terrorist pipe dream but it’s stressful if you have kids in local schools. Parents and the headmaster of our school are currently debating whether or not we need an armed policeman in front.但巴黎东部感到恐慌。在11月恐袭两天后,主谋阿卜杜勒哈米德阿巴伍德(Abdelhamid Abaaoud)曾夸耀称(据一位目击者称)“还会有别的‘袭击’”。“在邻近犹太人的地区会更严重”,包括“对交通和学校的佯攻”。或许这只是恐怖分子的白日梦,但如果你的孩子在当地学校上学的话,你会感到紧张力了。我们家孩子学校的家长们和校长正在辩论是否需要申请在校门口安排一名佩的警察。The new fear overlies the longstanding French morosité: national discontent with the country’s path (or lack of path). Over lunch recently, I listened to a high-status Parisian deliver the ritual rant about the government that ends with, “C’est n’importe quoi” (roughly, “It’s a mess”). I’ve been hearing this speech since moving to Paris in 2002 but, for the first time, I thought: “Yes, it really is that bad.”新的担忧叠加在法国的长期愁云上:对国家道路(或者说没有道路)的全国性不满。在最近的一次午餐中,我听到一位身份很高的针对法国政府发泄老一套的抱怨,最后说“这是个烂摊子”。自2002年我搬到巴黎以来,我一直在听这种演讲,但这一次我终于认为:“没错,真的有那么糟糕。”I had previously believed French morosité was exaggerated. True, France was struggling, but so were all western nations after the crisis of 2008. Now, though, France is doing worse than others. Before, it could look at Italy and think, “There’s a country that really hasn’t adjusted to modernity.” But, lately, Italy has reformed its rigid labour market, cutting unemployment. So has Spain. France has done much less, so far at least.我曾认为法国的愁云被夸大了。没错,法国苦撑了几年,但2008年金融危机后的西方国家都是如此。然而,法国当下的表现比其他国家更糟糕。以前,它可以看着意大利,心里想:“还有一个国家真的没有适应现代性。”但意大利近来改革了本国僵化的劳动力市场,降低了失业率。西班牙也是如此。法国在这方面做得少很多——至少迄今如此。The brainy people who run this country mostly know what needs changing. In the office of one senior government aide, I saw a whiteboard on which someone had written a sort of national mea culpa, in English: “If it moves, tax it. If it still moves, regulate it. If it doesn’t move, subsidise it.”统治这个国家的聪明人士基本上了解什么方面需要改变。在一位政府高级助理的办公室,我看到一块白板,有人在上面用英文写了一段类似国民自嘲的话:“如果动,就对它收税。如果还动,就进行监管。如果不动了,就给它补贴。”...……But French governments dare not reform. They presume (perhaps rightly) that most French voters think that the status quo is terrible but must never be changed. And so unemployment keeps rising, recently reaching a new record of 3.59 million. Now President Hollande has come up with a brilliant scheme to cut joblessness: shift 500,000 unemployed people into training programmes.但法国政府不敢改革。他们假定(或许是正确的)大多数法国选民认为,虽然现状很糟糕,但绝不能改变。因此,失业率持续上升,最近达到了创纪录的359万。如今,总统弗朗索瓦攠朗德( Hollande)想出了一个减少失业的妙计:将50万失业人士转移至培训项目。Another brilliant Hollande scheme (soon backtracked from, like most Hollande schemes) was to strip convicted dual-national terrorists of French citizenship. This fantastically pointless gesture has aly spawned weeks of furious debate. Meanwhile, the land of liberty lives under a state of emergency expected to continue (according to prime minister Manuel Valls) until Isis is defeated. Even George W Bush didn’t go that far after the attacks of 9/11.奥朗德的另一项妙计(像他的多数计划那样,很快就被放弃)是剥夺被判有罪的、拥有双重国籍的恐怖分子的法国国籍。这一几乎毫无意义的举动已经引发了数周的激烈辩论。与此同时,总理曼努埃尔瓦尔斯(Manuel Valls)表示,这块自由之地上的紧急状态还将持续,直至“伊斯兰国”(ISIS)被击溃。即使美国前总统乔治圠布什(George W Bush)在9/11恐怖袭击之后也没有做得这么极端。Add on the damage from terror to race relations, plus the first fall in French life expectancy since 1969, and no wonder France’s far right is at a postwar high. Next year’s election may pit Hollande and former president Nicolas Sarkozy — two bad films we’ve aly seen — against the far right’s Marine Le Pen, a horror movie that surely won’t get made.恐怖袭击破坏了种族关系,加上法国人的预期寿命出现了自1969年以来的首次下降,这也难怪法国极右势力达到了战后的高点。明年大选,我们或许将看到奥朗德、前总统尼古拉萨科齐(Nicolas Sarkozy)——我们已经看过的两场糟糕电影——对垒极右翼的马琳勒庞(Marine Le Pen)——令人不堪设想的恐怖电影。For now we sit in cafés, enjoying what is still the best daily life in human history, and hope that one day we will look back and think: and just at that moment of maximum bleakness, France turned itself around.现在,我们坐在咖啡馆里,享受人类历史上最美好的日常生活,并希望有一天我们可以回顾并思考:正是在最黯淡的时刻,法国实现了转变。 /201602/425872

The southern U.S. state of Georgia executed a man early Friday morning after the U.S. Supreme Court denied a stay of execution for the convict who had been on death row for 34 years.美国南部乔治亚州星期五凌晨处死了一名犯人,这名死刑犯已经被关押了34年,美国最高法院拒绝延缓对他的处决。John Wayne Conner received a lethal injection at the state prison in Jackson, Georgia.约翰#8729;韦恩#8729;康纳尔在乔治亚州杰克逊市的州立监狱里接受了注射死刑。The 60-year-old Conner was scheduled to be put to death Thursday evening, but the appeals process was still under way.60岁的康钠尔原定星期四晚上被处死,但当时上诉程序还在进行。Conner was convicted for fatally beating his friend J.T. White during an argument after a night of drinking in 1982.康纳尔1982年晚上喝酒后跟朋友J.T.怀特发生争执,把怀特打死,因此被定罪。Conner#39;s execution is the sixth in Georgia this year, a record under the current death penalty law.康纳尔是乔治亚州今年被执行死刑的第六个人,是该州现行死刑法实施以来人数最多的一年。 /201607/454748

  A total of 1,409 people died as a result of infectious diseases on the Chinese mainland in February, official data showed last Monday.上周一官方发布的数据显示,今年二月份,中国大陆因传染病共死亡1409人。According to the National Health and Family Planning Commission, there were 485,649 cases of infectious diseases reported on the mainland last month.据国家卫生和计划生育委员会统计显示,上个月中国大陆共报告了485649起传染病例。Nearly 279,000 cases were classified as Class B infectious diseases under China#39;s Law on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, and they resulted in 1,397 deaths.按照《中华人民共和国传染病防治法》,近27.9万病例被确诊为乙类传染病,共造成1397人死亡。Viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhoea and bacterial and amoebic dysentery accounted for 96 percent of cases in this category.病毒性肝炎、肺结核、梅毒、淋病以及细菌性痢疾、阿米巴性痢疾占到了该分类的96%。Category C diseases were responsible for more than 207,000 cases and 12 deaths.丙类疾病数量达到了20.7万例,导致12人死亡。Infectious diarrhea, foot and mouth disease and influenza were the most prevalent in this category, accounting for 94 percent of cases.感染性腹泻、手足口病、以及流感在该分类中最为常见,病例占比约为94%。 /201703/499751

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  Rejoice at the demise of a poorly motivated deal. 太好了,一笔动机不足的交易黄了。Yesterday China Vanke, the developer listed in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, said it would not after all buy assets from Shenzhen Metro in exchange for shares. 在香港和深圳两地上市的开发商万科(China Vanke)昨日最终表示,将不会用股票换取深圳地铁(Shenzhen Metro)的资产。The deal was touted in March as a means to ensure Vanke’s future growth. 这笔交易在3月曾被宣传为确保万科未来增长的一种手段,It was, rather, designed to bring a large, friendly shareholder on to the register to tip the balance in a battle for control.但其真实目的是让一个庞大的、友好的股东成为大股东,以改变股权之争中的力量对比。Vanke has been caught in a takeover tussle since last year when companies affiliated with Baoneng, a privately owned insurer, began to build a stake now worth one quarter of the company. 万科从去年开始陷入收购争夺战,当时私人所有的保险公司宝能(Baoneng)的关联企业开始增持万科股份,现已持有万科四分之一股份。Although the largest shareholder, Baoneng’s position has been weakened. 不过最大股东宝能的地位已被削弱。Last week China’s insurance regulator said it would lower the limit on equity investment by insurers from 40 to 30 per cent of their portfolios. 上周中国保险监管机构表示,将权益类资产占保险公司总资产比例上限从40%下调至30%,Individual holdings cannot amount to more than 5 per cent, half the previous level. 单一股票投资不得超过5%(比原规定上限水平减少一半)。The intention of authorities, which have upbraided Baoneng for using leverage to buy into Vanke, is clear.曾斥责宝能利用杠杆收购万科的有关部门的意图很明显。Baoneng is not alone in having its ambitions curbed. 野心受到外力抑制的并不止宝能一家。Hong Kong-listed China Evergrande owns 14 per cent of Vanke through subsidiaries. 在香港上市的中国恒大(China Evergrande)通过子公司持有万科14%股份。Its insurance arm has had product sales halted and it has been barred from investing in China’s stock markets. 恒大旗下保险公司的产品销售已被叫停,且被禁止投资中国股票市场。Evergrande said on Chinese state TV it had no interest in the control of its peer, suggesting it will not side with Baoneng. 恒大在中国国家电视台上表示,自己无意、也不会做万科的控股股东,暗示自己不会与宝能联手。Fortunately, too, cancelling the Shenzhen Metro deal will bring China Resources, the state-owned enterprise which owns 15 per cent of Vanke, back on side with management.幸运的是,深圳地铁交易的取消,将令持有万科15%股份的国有企业华润(China Resources)重新与万科管理层站到同一战线。Not a moment too soon. 时机不早不晚。In the first half of 2016, skittish partners began to back away from Vanke projects; Samp;P in August downgraded its outlook from stable to negative. 2016年上半年,紧张不安的合作伙伴们开始纷纷退出万科项目,标准普尔(Samp;P)在8月份将万科评级展望由稳定降为负面。And after a stellar run, China’s property market is softening. 而且经过一轮高速增长后,中国房地产市场已开始疲软。Yesterday, official data showed that prices have stalled, in response to cooling measures including mortgage restrictions. 昨日官方数据显示,由于按揭限制等楼市降温措施的作用,房价已开始停滞。Vanke can now focus on the problem thanks to its real white knight: officialdom.万科现在可以集中精力解决自己的问题了,这都要感谢真正的白衣骑士——官方。 /201612/484955“Our goal is to build the perfect personalised newspaper for every person in the world,” said Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg in 2014. This newspaper would “show you the stuff that’s going to be most interesting to you”.2014年,Facebook的马克?扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)曾表示:“我们的目标是为世界上每个人打造完美的个性化报纸。”这份报纸将“让你看到最令你感兴趣的内容”。To many, that statement explains perfectly why Facebook is such a terrible source of news.在许多人看来,这番话完美说明了为什么Facebook是一个如此糟糕的新闻来源。A “fake news” story proclaiming that Pope Francis had endorsed Donald Trump was, according to an analysis from BuzzFeed, the single most successful item of news on Facebook in the three months before the US election. If that’s what the site’s algorithms decide is interesting, it’s far from being a “perfect newspaper”.BuzzFeed的一项分析显示,美国大选前的3个月,Facebook上最热门的单条新闻是一则宣称教皇方济各(Pope Francis)已表示持唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)的“假新闻”。如果这就是该网站算法选定的令人感兴趣的内容,那么它根本称不上是一份“完美的报纸”。It’s no wonder that Zuckerberg found himself on the back foot after Trump’s election. Shortly after his victory, Zuckerberg declared: “I think the idea that fake news on Facebook, which is a very small amount of the content, influenced the election in any way?.?.?.?is a pretty crazy idea.” His comment was greeted with a scornful response.难怪扎克伯格在特朗普当选后发现自己陷入了不利境地。特朗普胜选后不久,扎克伯格就宣布:“有人认为Facebook上的假新闻——只占内容极小一部分——多少影响了大选……我觉得这是一个相当愚蠢的想法。”他此番遭到了公众的嘲讽。I should confess my own biases here. I despise Facebook for all the reasons people usually despise Facebook (privacy, market power, distraction, fake-smile social interactions and the rest). And, as a loyal FT columnist, I need hardly point out that the perfect newspaper is the one you’re ing right now.在此,我应该坦白自己心中的偏见。人们常常因隐私权、市场配力、分散注意力、假笑社交等原因瞧不上Facebook,这些也都是我瞧不上Facebook的原因。而且,作为英国《金融时报》忠诚的专栏作家,我几乎不需要指出,您此刻正在读的就是一份完美的报纸。But, despite this, I’m going to stand up for Zuckerberg, who recently posted a 5,700-word essay defending social media. What he says in the essay feels like it must be wrong. But the data suggest that he’s right. Fake news can stoke isolated incidents of hatred and violence. But neither fake news nor the algorithmically driven “filter bubble” is a major force in the overall media landscape. Not yet.但即便如此,我还是要持扎克伯格,他最近发表了一篇5700字的文章为社交媒体辩护。他在文章里讲的给人的第一感觉是,他一定讲错了,但文中数据表明他是对的。假新闻可以激起个别的仇恨和暴力事件。但在整个媒体版图中,无论是假新闻,还是算法驱动的“过滤气泡”(filter bubble),都并非主要力量——至少暂时不是。“Fake news” is a phrase that has aly been debased. A useful definition is that fake news is an entirely fabricated report presenting itself as a news story. This excludes biased reporting, satire and lies from politicians themselves.“假新闻”本就是一个贬义词。一个贴切的定义是:假新闻是一种将自身包装为新闻故事的完全捏造的报道。这排除了偏见报道、讽刺作品和政客们的谎言。At first glance, such hoaxes appear to be ubiquitous on Facebook. The BuzzFeed analysis finds that the five most popular hoax stories were more successful than the five most popular true stories. (This list of true stories includes the New York Post’s “Melania Trump’s Girl-on-Girl Photos From Racy Shoot Revealed”, a reminder that not all mainstream journalism is likely to win a Pulitzer.)乍看之下,此类假新闻在Facebook上似乎无处不在。BuzzFeed的分析发现,最热门的5篇虚假报道比最热门的5篇真实报道影响力更大。(这些真实报道包括《纽约邮报》(New York Post)刊登的《梅拉尼娅?特朗普(Melania Trump)女女不雅照流出》(Melania Trump’s Girl-on-Girl Photos From Racy Shoot Revealed),提醒人们不是所有主流新闻都可能赢得普利策奖(Pulitzer)。)But hoax stories are less significant than this analysis suggests — partly because Facebook is not the main source of news for Americans (that’s still television news), and partly because true reports will generally be covered in some form by dozens of outlets, which will dilute the popularity of any one version. Each hoax, however, is unique. No wonder the most popular hoaxes outperform the most popular true reports.但假新闻也并不像上述分析显示的那么影响重大,部分原因在于Facebook并非美国人的主要新闻来源(主要来源仍是电视新闻);另一部分原因是,真实新闻通常被几十家媒体以不同形式报导,这将稀释任一版本报道的普及度。但每条假新闻都是独一无二的。最热门的真实报道敌不过最热门的假新闻就不足为奇了。In January 2017, two economists, Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, published research studying exactly how prevalent fake news had been before the election. Their clever method tested people’s recall of fake news, as compared with true news stories and “placebo” stories — fake fake news, invented by the researchers. People didn’t remember many fake news stories, and claimed to remember quite a few placebos. Overall, there just didn’t seem to be enough fake news to swing the election result — unless it was potent stuff indeed, even in small doses.2017年1月,经济学家亨特?阿尔科特(Hunt Allcott)与马修?根茨科(Matthew Gentzkow)发表了一项针对大选前假新闻究竟多么泛滥的研究。他们用巧妙的办法测试了人们对假新闻的,并与真实新闻报道和“安慰剂”报道(两位研究人员编造的假新闻)进行比较。人们并未记住多少假新闻,而且声称记住了不少安慰剂报道。总而言之,似乎没有足够多的假新闻来左右选举结果——除非内容的确劲爆,即便剂量很小。“The average voter saw one fake news story before the election,” Gentzkow told me. “That number is a very different picture from what you might get from watching the public discussion.”根茨科告诉我:“大选前,平均每个选民会看到一条假新闻报道。这一数字可能与你从公共讨论中得到的印象大相径庭。”Of more concern is that Facebook — and its “most interesting to you” algorithm — simply supplies news that panders to each user’s ideological biases. It’s undoubtedly true that we surround ourselves with people who agree with us on social media. But it’s not clear that Facebook’s algorithm is the biggest problem here. Twitter was politically polarised even in the days when it used no algorithm at all. And newspapers have ideological biases too.更令人担心的是,Facebook(及其“令你最感兴趣的”算法)提供了迎合每位用户意识形态偏见的新闻。毫无疑问,我们在社交媒体上把自己包裹在与我们持相同看法的人群里。但这并不能说明Facebook的算法是这方面的最大问题。即便在没有使用任何算法的时候,Twitter在政治上也处于两极分化。而报纸同样也存在意识形态偏见。One recent study of online news ing was conducted by Seth Flaxman, Sharad Goel and Justin Rao, who had access to browser data from Microsoft, and used it to examine how people consumed news online. They found a mixed picture: social media did seem to push stories that were further from the centre of the political spectrum but they also exposed people to a greater variety of ideological viewpoints. That makes sense. Reading the same newspaper every day is a filter bubble too.塞思?弗拉克斯曼(Seth Flaxman)、沙拉德?戈埃尔(Sharad Goel)和贾斯汀?拉奥(Justin Rao)最近就在线新闻阅读进行了一项研究,他们获取了微软(Microsoft)的浏览器数据,并据此研究人们如何在线阅读新闻。他们发现了一个复杂现象:社交媒体的确似乎在推送那些距离政治谱系中心较远的报道,但它们也向人们呈现更多样化的意识形态观点。这很有意义。毕竟,每天阅读同一份报纸也是一种过滤气泡。Gentzkow studied the contrast between online and offline news using data from 2004-2009, working with fellow economist Jesse Shapiro. They found little evidence then that online news consumption was more polarised than traditional media. But things are changing quickly. “My guess is that segregation is noticeably and meaningfully higher than in the past,” Gentzkow says, “but still quite modest.”根茨科与经济学家同事杰西?夏皮罗(Jesse Shapiro)合作,利用2004至2009年的数据对线上和线下新闻之间的差异进行了研究。但他们发现,几乎没有据表明在线新闻消费比传统媒体消费更加极化。但情况正在飞快变化。“我的猜测是,人们之间的分隔显著而切实地提高了,”根茨科说,“但仍不算严重。”This feels like an important moment. Fake news is not prevalent, but it could become so. Filter bubbles are probably no worse than they have been for decades — but that could change rapidly too.现在感觉像是一个重要时刻。假新闻还未遍地都是,但或许会有这么一天。过滤气泡可能不比过去几十年更糟,但这种状况同样可能迅速改变。“A lot ultimately hinges on what the motivations of American voters are,” says Gentzkow. “Do people actually care at all about getting the truth and having accurate information?”“很多事最终取决于美国选民的动机是什么,”根茨科说,“人们真的那么在乎获知真相、得到准确信息吗?”He’s hopeful that, deep down, people watch and the news because they want to learn about the world. But if what voters really want is to be lied to, then Facebook is the least of our problems.他从心底希望,人们看新闻、读新闻是因为他们想了解这个世界。但如果选民真正想要的是哄骗,那么Facebook最不该成为我们的难题。 /201703/498403

  

  KAMEN-RYBOLOV, Russia — Standing ankle deep in mud in a swampy grassland more than 4,000 miles from his home, Yuri A. Bugaev surveyed a mosquito-infested wasteland that the Russian government is offering to would-be pioneers under its own modern-day version of the 1862 Homestead Act in the ed States.俄罗斯卡缅雷洛夫——尤里#8231;A#8231;布加耶夫(Yuri A. Bugaev)站在一块湿软的草地上,泥深及膝。他审视着这一片离家4000英里(约6437千米)、蚊虫肆虐的荒原。现在,俄罗斯政府正通过一项好比当代版美国1862年《宅地法》(Homestead Act)的法案,把这片荒原许诺给想当拓荒先锋的公民。“This is not really what I had in mind,” said Mr. Bugaev, who had traveled across seven time zones from St. Petersburg, Russia, to scout the possibilities for settlers in the country’s sparsely populated Far East, a territory roughly two-thirds the size of the ed States.“这里和我想的不一样,”布加耶夫说。他跨越了七个时区,从圣彼得堡来到人迹罕至的远东地区,查看在这里开垦定居的可能性。这片地区的面积约有美国的三分之二大。The nine Far Eastern regions targeted for settlement in the government’s land giveaway, which began on June 1, encompass more than a third of Russia but are home to only 6.1 million people. This is just 4 percent of the country’s population and compares with the 110 million Chinese living across the border in the three provinces that make up Manchuria.俄罗斯政府自6月1日开始赠送位于远东九个行政区的土地供人屯垦,面积涵盖了超过三分之一的俄罗斯国土,却仅有610万居民,只占人口总数的4%。在国界另一边的中国东北三省则有1.1亿人口。Mr. Bugaev is a dedicated, if largely sedentary, Cossack, a centuries-old fraternity of Slavic warriors, freebooters and freedom-loving rebels. A romantic throwback to earlier generations of Cossacks who settled and secured the borders of the Russian empire.尽管很少走动,布加耶夫仍是个执着的哥萨克人;几百年来,哥萨克人是斯拉夫勇士的一,是一群江洋大盗与爱好自由的反叛军。他有一颗浪漫怀旧的心,想要重返早期哥萨克人定居并保卫俄罗斯帝国边疆的生活。For years, he said, he had dreamed of Russia embracing, or rather re-embracing, the pioneer spirit, and he was delighted by the Kremlin’s backing of a program meant to reassert the country’s manifest destiny as a continent-straddling power.他说自己多年来梦想着俄罗斯能焕发出(或者说重新焕发)开拓者的精神。这项屯垦计划的背后有克里姆林宫的持,意在重新确立俄罗斯作为跨洲强国的天命。All the same, he conceded that not many Russians living in the European side of Russia, who dream of a house in London or Paris, not a shack in a swamp near China, share his zeal for a new life in wild eastern regions that many associate with labor camps and convicts.尽管如此,他也承认,住在欧洲那半边国土上的俄国人大多梦想着一套伦敦或巴黎的房子,而不是中俄边境的沼泽边上的破木屋,他们很少会像他一样有着去东部蛮荒地寻找新生活的热情;很多人会把那样的生活和劳改营与罪犯联系起来。“Most people these days don’t want an adventure,” he said.“这年头,大多数人都不愿意冒险了。”他说。The Russian government, however, is intent on proving otherwise and on giving some substance to a command by President Vladimir V. Putin in 2013 that the development of Siberia and the Far East must be “our national priority for the entire 21st century.”然而,俄罗斯政府想要明事实并非如此,并希望总统普京在2013年发出的一道命令能得到一定程度的落实,也就是西伯利亚与远东地区的发展必须是“我国在整个21世纪的首要任务”。How to get people to settle in the Far East is a question that has preoccupied and confounded Russian rulers since the establishment of a Russian naval base on the Pacific Ocean at Okhotsk in the 17th century. Cossacks, convicts and desperate peasants have often been the only takers.自从俄国领导人17世纪在太平洋沿岸的鄂霍次克(Okhotsk)建立海军基地以来,如何让人民来到远东地区定居便一直是让他们既挂心又头痛的课题。哥萨克人、罪犯与绝望的农民,常是唯一愿意去的人。In Communist times, labor camps, heavy investment in remote industrial sites and the construction of a second railroad across Siberia and the Far East revived the eastward flow of people. But this ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and residents began to drift away. A population of more than eight million dwindled by about two million.在共产党时代,劳改营、对偏远工业区的大笔投资,还有第二条西伯利亚大铁路的兴建,人口东迁再次兴起。然而人潮在1991年苏联解体后停止了。远东地区居民开始外流,原本有800多万的人口减少了约200万。Russia’s Ministry for the Development of the Far East, the agency managing this latest development gambit, cited a survey it commissioned, saying that 20 percent of Russians would be y to move east if given free land. Younger Russians, the ministry said, were even more enthusiastic, with more than 50 percent expressing an interest in heading east to take advantage of the offer — one free hectare, about two and a half acres, a person.俄罗斯远东地区发展部(Ministry for the Development of the Far East)负责最近这次大开发。该部援引本部门指派的调查的结果,声称若能无偿获得土地的话,有20%的俄罗斯人愿意迁往远东。该部还说,年轻一代俄罗斯人的意愿甚至更强,有超过50%的受访者表示,为了每人一公顷免费土地的悬赏——他们有兴趣东进。But as often happens in Russia, grandiose hopes and plans have run far ahead of the reality on the ground, where bureaucrats, appalling weather and immense distances conspire to smother the Kremlin’s ambitions.不过就像在俄罗斯经常发生的,眼下现实与宏图大愿总有很大差距。官僚体系、严酷的天气,还有千山万水的距离,加在一起扼制着克里姆林宫的雄心。“It is all pie in the sky,” said Vladimir V. Mishchenko, the head of the Khankaisky district, one of nine pilot areas chosen by Moscow to test the free land program. He complained that the whole thing had been dreamed up by people in Moscow who had no understanding of the Far East but needed to show the Kremlin that they were doing something.“这都是画饼充饥,”兴凯斯基区区长弗拉基米尔#8231;V#8231;米申科(Vladimir V. Mishchenko)说。兴凯斯基是莫斯科选中的九个免费屯垦试行区之一。米申科抱怨道,这整个计划都是莫斯科官员凭空想出来的,那些官员完全不了解远东地区,却又要让克林姆林宫看到他们没有闲着。For the moment, the free land is restricted to small areas, like the Khankaisky area around Kamen-Rybolov, an isolated settlement north of Vladivostok, and is open only to Russians aly living in the Far East.目前该计划免费发放的土地仅限于小片区域,像是卡缅雷洛夫邻近的兴凯斯基,这是海参崴北面的一块孤立屯垦区,仅开放给已在远东居住的俄罗斯人。Starting in February, however, all Russian citizens can apply, and Mr. Bugaev wants to make sure he is y to “help save Russia.”不过,所有俄罗斯公民从2月开始都能申请免费土地了。布加耶夫想确定自己已做好“帮助拯救俄罗斯”的准备。At the start of his scouting mission, after a nine-hour flight to Vladivostok from Moscow, he found his hotel packed with Chinese, mostly tourists. Donning his Cossack fur hat, he declared his mission even more urgent than he had thought.他从莫斯科乘飞机九个小时抵达海参崴,开始土地勘查的任务,并发现他落脚的旅馆里满是中国人,其中大多数是游客。头戴哥萨克毛皮帽子的布加耶夫宣称,这项任务比他原本想象的更为迫切。He set off the next day for Kamen-Rybolov to inspect the land on offer, driving for hours in torrential rain through sodden taiga and mostly empty villages.布加耶夫隔天便向卡缅雷洛夫进发,勘查那些可供领取的土地。他在倾盆大雨中开了好几小时的车,穿过浸泡在水气中的针叶林与罕有人烟的村庄。Undaunted, he said he thought there were enough hardy souls y to join his organization, the Far Eastern Hectare Social Movement, a private outfit set up in St. Petersburg to drum up interest in the free land program and to organize new settlements.他毫不气馁,认为应该有些足够吃苦耐劳的人准备要加入他的远东一顷地社会运动(Far Eastern Hectare Social Movement)组织;这个在圣彼得堡创立的私人团体是为了提高众人对免费屯垦地计划的兴趣,并帮助组织移民定居。Its website explains that it is possible to be a pioneer without even leaving home, at least to start with. People can simply apply for free land and pool what they get so a larger plot can be developed by a few adventurous souls.该团体的官网解释道,大家不用离乡背井也能当个拓荒者,至少刚开始时这是没问题的。只要去申请免费土地,再把分到的地块集中形成大片土地,就能让少数有冒险精神的人先去开疆辟土。If this works, those who contribute land but stay behind in St. Petersburg can move east later, after most of the hard work is done.这种做法要是成功的话,那些贡献土地却留在圣彼得堡后方的人,就能等到大部分苦差事都了结以后再东徙了。“Virtually nobody wants to come out here right now,” Mr. Bugaev conceded, complaining that the available plots — about 12,000 square yards a person — cannot possibly support sustainable agriculture or any other business venture. (American pioneers got more than 60 times that amount — 160 acres — under the Homestead Act.)“几乎没人想要现在就进驻远东,”布加耶夫承认。他也抱怨目前可申请的放领地——每人约1.2万平方码(约1公顷)——不可能作为可持续农业的用地,或用于任何其他商业投资。(从前《宅地法》拨给美国拓荒者的土地是这个面积的60倍以上,约合65公顷。)The Russian plan has been derided as a dreamy patriotic stunt cooked up by Kremlin image makers or a scam that will end up enriching officials, who have the right to take back the land after five years if they decide development targets have not been met.俄罗斯当局的这番盘算,被讥为克林姆林宫为粉饰形象所炮制的爱国烟雾弹,亦有可能是让官员最终得以中饱私囊的骗局,因为他们要是认为预定发展目标没达成,有权在五年后收回土地。The Kremlin, however, has thrown its weight behind the program, set in motion this summer with a blitz of publicity on state news media presenting the Far East as an El Dorado of opportunity, and the start of a government website that allows citizens to view plots of land and make online applications.然而克里姆林宫大力持,从今年夏天开始在官营媒体上发动全面宣传,把远东地区说成是遍地黄金的机遇之地,还设立了一个政府网站让俄国公民查看放领地,进行在线申请。The official website went down as soon as it was unveiled, a mishap that Aleksei A. Navalny, the renowned anticorruption campaigner, said was probably a deliberate malfunction engineered by officials so they could grab the best land for themselves.不过这个网站才刚上线就关闭了。知名反腐倡议人士阿列克谢·A·纳瓦尔尼(Aleksei A. Navalny)表示,这很有可能是官员故意安排的技术故障,好让他们能将最好的土地占为己有。Mr. Navalny, in a report last month, noted that coveted plots on the shore of a picturesque lake outside Kamen-Rybolov had been snapped up by the time the website started working again. Yan P. Ovodenko, a local official, denied that the lakeside plots had all been taken.纳瓦尔尼在上月发表的一份报导中指出,在卡缅雷洛夫一个风景如画的湖边上,有一些诱人放领地,而这些土地在该网站重新上线时,都已被抢占一空。当地官员宜安#8231;P#8231;欧沃丹科(Yan P. Ovodenko)则否认这些湖畔放领地已被全数认领出去。A more serious blow to Mr. Bugaev’s hopes was delivered by Mr. Mishchenko, the district head. While the area might look empty, he explained, nearly all the land is aly owned or at least claimed by somebody. And even if Mr. Bugaev were to get allotted land, developing it would require cooperation from 22 different government agencies responsible for enforcing a thicket of rules and regulations.兴凯斯基区区长米申科又给布加耶夫的盼望加上更沉重的一击。米申科解释道,这块地方看来虽然十分空旷,不过所有土地几乎都已经有主人了,或者至少已经有人声称拥有产权。就算布加耶夫能取得政府发放的土地,想要开始开发,还要得到负责执行各类繁复规章的22个行政机关的协调行动才行。“The water code, you have to abide by it; town planning code, you have to abide by it; land code, you have to abide by it; border area rules, you have to abide by them; prescriptions of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance, you have to abide by them; forest regulation, you have to abide by it,” the district chief said.“水资源法、城镇规划法、土地法、边境区域规章、联邦动植物监测局的指示、森林管制条例......这些规矩你全都得照着走。”这位区长表示。Of the 460 people who have applied since June 1, Mr. Mishchenko said, 390 have been rejected outright because they failed to provide the necessary information. In all, only four people, all from Vladivostok, have thus far secured plots.米申科又说,自6月1号起已提交申请的460人当中,有390人因没有提供必要信息,已直接被拒绝了。目前全部申请人里只有四位获得了放领地,且他们都来自海参崴。“For any meaningful agriculture, you need 5,000 hectares to start off,” Mr. Mishchenko said. “And those lands don’t exist. They’ve been snapped up a long time ago.”“想要进行任何有意义的农耕,一开始总需要5000公顷的土地,”米申科表示,“而这样的土地并不存在。它们早在很久以前就被抢光了。”Undeterred by his initial finding in Khankaisky district, Mr. Bugaev pressed on. A Cossack leader in the regional administration in Vladivostok, Oleg Melnikov, assured him that the land giveaway was on track and faced no serious problems.布加耶夫并没有因为最初在凯兴斯基发现的情况而受挫,他继续向前推进。在海参崴地区政府工作的一位哥萨克领导欧雷格#8231;梅尼可夫(Oleg Melnikov)向他保,土地发放计划运作如常,并没有遭遇任何严重问题。A local company involved in agriculture also liked Mr. Bugaev’s plans for an updated version of collective farming and urged him to focus on trying to find people in St. Petersburg y to apply for plots of land.一个涉足农业的当地公司也对布加耶夫的改进版集体农业计划感兴趣,并敦促布加耶夫把精力放在在圣彼得堡寻找有志申请土地的人上面。“I think this will all work out,” Mr. Bugaev said, warily eyeing Chinese tourists crowded in the lobby of his Vladivostok hotel. “This is not just for adventure but to save Russia.”“我想一切会水到渠成,”布加耶夫在海参崴的旅馆里这么说,同时向大厅里成群的中国游客投以警惕的眼光。“这不只是为了冒险,也是为了拯救俄罗斯。” /201607/455642

  

  

  

  

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