2019年10月16日 08:17:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:百度分享
Most malnutrition occurs as a result of the intense大多数营养不良是由于高强度的癌症治疗cancer treatments such as chemotherapy. Chemotherapy比如化疗kills rapidly dividing cells and in effect damages化疗迅速杀死分裂细胞破坏小肠粘膜细胞cells lining the intestines. This makes the intestines这使得小肠不能吸收营养和食物unable to absorb nutrients and food. Anorexia,厌食症,黏膜炎 就是消化道内壁mucositis which is the inflammation of the mucous细胞黏膜发炎membranes lining the digestive tract, vomiting,呕吐 腹泻以及味觉改变diarrhea and alterations in taste are important side都是化疗的重要副作用effects of chemotherapy that also contribute to weight从而导致消瘦以及营养不良loss and malnutrition. Because of the side effects由于这些副作用 所以导致了恶病质cachexia can often result. Cachexia, also known as the恶病质也称消耗症wasting syndrome can also result in extreme cases.也可以导致极端病例Cachexia is the loss of weight and the atrophy of恶病质表现为消瘦 肌肉萎缩muscle resulting in an intense fatigue and weakness.会导致强烈的疲惫和虚弱It cannot simply be reversed by eating more calories仅仅靠摄入更多的卡路里是不能恢复的因为because lean body mass is also lost. To avoid cancer身体的瘦体重也减轻了 为了避免癌症恶病质cachexia it is extremely important for children to eat对于孩子在治疗过程中摄入足够多的蛋白质enough protein and calories throughout the treatment.和卡路里是至关重要的The type of cancer itself plays a role in malnutrition癌症自身的类型在营养不良里也扮演了as well, in fact it has been well documented that很重要的角色 事实上记录表明certain tumors and stages of diseases are associated某些肿瘤和疾病的阶段with an increased risk of becoming under nourished.能够增加营养不良的风险In a study conducted in 2011 by Bower and others在2011年有鲍尔及其同事entitled ‘important aspects of nutrition进行的“癌症患儿营养不良的重要方面”in children with cancer’ different types of研究中,比较了不同种类的癌症cancers were compared and their corresponding risk以及处于营养不良时for becoming under nourished were assessed.相应的风险Overall, malnutrition was more prevalent in children总体来说,营养不良在with advanced solid tumors such as neuroblastoma患晚期实性肿瘤孩子中很常见and in aggressive tumors and tumors in the later stages比如成神经细胞瘤,恶性肿瘤of malignancy. Undernourishment was seen less以及恶性肿瘤的后期frequently in children diagnosed with non metastatic被诊断为没有转移性肿瘤的或者是更有利的tumors and diagnosis with a more favorable prognosis.预后诊断的孩子中,营养不足是很少见的We will now turn our attention to the side effects and现在我们将把注意力转移到在癌症治疗期间problems malnutrition causes during cancer treatment.由营养不良引起的副作用和一系列问题上There are many side effects that malnutrition causes癌症治疗期间由于营养不良during cancer treatment, however we will focus on 3引发了很多副作用key side effects; an increased treatment time,我们将关注三个主要的副作用a decreased quality of life after survival and治疗时间愈后生活质量下降a greater chance of becoming underweight or以及以后的生活overweight later in life.身体变得消瘦或超重的可能性增大Studies have shown that malnutrition reduces the研究表明,营养不良会降低化疗的有效性effectiveness of chemotherapy, thus increasing the从而延长了孩子们必须length of time children must spend being treated在医院接受治疗的时间in the hospital. Being malnourished also increases由于免疫系统的减弱the likelihood of developing an infection due to营养不良还可能会使a weakened immune system.孩子们更容易受感染Malnutrition has also been proven to lower the事实明,营养不良还会降低生活质量overall quality of life and lower the chances of以及病人治疗后存活的机率a patient survival post treatment. In children under对孩子来说nourishment has a significant role in survival rates,营养不足对存活率有很大的影响especially in children with solid tumors and特别是患有实体瘤和转移性疾病等metastatic diseases which are children at a high risk.严重疾病的孩子Many studies have also shown that survivors of很多研究已表明specific cancer types are more likely to cause a child如果孩子在治疗过程中营养不良to become underweight or overweight later in life那么某种癌症的幸存者在以后的生活中if the child experienced malnutrition during treatment.更有可能变得消瘦或者超重 Article/201501/351111TED演讲视频:猎寻未知的遗传英雄我们从那些的了遗传性疾病的人那里获知了什么--在大部分遗传病中,只有部分的急停成员发生了疾病,而其他带有同样基因的却能避开它。斯蒂文·弗兰德建议我们应该开始研究那些没有得病的家庭成员。听听这个弹性课题,以巨大的努力来搜集基因资料可以帮助解码遗传性的失调。 Article/201701/488459

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