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2019年08月24日 22:20:06 | 作者:健康生活 | 来源:新华社
Prevail of Taoism and Buddhism道教与佛教的盛行During the Northern and Southern dynasties, since most emperors believed in it, Buddhism grew rapidly despite the demolition incidents.南北朝期间,尽管存在拆除毁坏,佛教仍然发展迅速。Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned.当儒家思想的影响逐渐减弱时,佛教在中国被群众广为接受。During Northern Wei period, the rulers were the most generous patrons in both the north and south.北魏期间,帝王们是南北朝时期最慷慨的资助者。They took Buddhism as a nationwide religion in order to enforce his dominion.他们将佛教看作国教以加强自己的统治。In the north, large amounts of Buddhist caves and temples were built.在北方,佛教石窟与僧人寺庙被大量建立。Mogao Grottoes in today’s Dunhuang, Yungang Grottoes in Datong and Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were three flourishing centers of Buddhist culture in its glory.今天敦煌的莫高窟,大同的云冈石窟和洛阳的龙门石窟是佛教灿烂的历史中三大繁盛的中心地区。Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly at that time.佛教修道院在那个时候也被迅速建立。By 477 there were reportedly 6478 Buddhist temples and 77258 monks and nuns in the north.据传,到477年,北方出现了6478座寺庙和77528为僧人尼姑。The south was said to have 2846 temples and 82700 clerics some decades later.据称南方在几十年后有2846座寺庙和82700位传教士。Emperor Wu of Liang had even contributed himself to experience as a Buddhist disciple in a temple for three times.凉武王甚至曾三次亲自到寺庙中体验佛教学徒的生活。In Jiankang (present Nanjing city in Jiangsu Province), Buddhist temples added up to 500 with 10000 monks.在建康(今江苏南京),寺庙数量增至500座,其中共有10000名僧人。Women turned to Buddhism as ily as men.女人和男人一样乐意投身于佛教。Originally one philosophy school of dozens schools in the Spring and Autumn Period, Taoism grew up into a religion in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220 AD).道教起初是春秋时期拥有一些学院的哲学学派,东汉(公元25——220年)末年它成为了一种宗教。At first, it only gain the popularity among civilians and during the Jin Dynasty (265—420) it became a prevalence in the upper society一开始,它只在平民中受到欢迎,晋朝(265——420)时它在上层社会得到广泛流行,and in the succession of Northern Qi and Northern Liang, Taoism gained good graces of the ruler and once play a critical role in court.在之后的北齐和北凉道教得到了当权者的恩惠并一度在朝堂之上扮演重要角色。Taoist activities and ceremonies were held for worship purpose.道教活动和仪式被用来祭拜天神。 /201510/398425

Perhaps one of the best and most recent examples showing the potential of the Chinese market involves the humble Canadian lobster.不起眼的加拿大龙虾也许是展现中国市场潜力的最佳、最新范例之一。When you visit the high-end restaurants of Shanghai#39;s Pudong district, you learn that restaurants here dish up lobster, and plenty of it.当你前往上海浦东区的高档次餐厅的时候,你会发现这些餐厅都供应龙虾,而且数量不少。That being said, according people in the business, lobster more than five years ago wasn#39;t even popular in China. Somehow, things started to take off.话虽这么说,但是商界人士表示,就在五年多以前,龙虾在中国并不受热捧。不知何故,龙虾开始大热。In fact, the market has exploded far beyond the walls of splashy restaurants with their succulent dishes.实际上,龙虾市场规模呈爆发式增长,已远远不局限于提供美味菜肴的高档餐厅了。All of a sudden, Chinese consumers were ordering Canadian lobster directly through online vendors like Alibaba. In 2014, Chinese people bought 100 tonnes of Canadian lobster on Alibaba. In 2015, Chinese people bought more than 300 tons of Canadian lobster on Alibaba.一时间,中国消费者通过阿里巴巴等在线供应商直接订购加拿大龙虾。2014年,国人从阿里巴巴平台购买的加拿大龙虾达到了100吨。而在2015年,国人从阿里巴巴平台购买的加拿大龙虾甚至突破了300吨。 /201602/427120

People can understand a country or a nation from its movies because films can be seen as carriers of culture.通过电影,人们可以走近了解一个国家。因为,一部部影片就好似文化的承载者。China#39;s President Xi Jinping expressed his love towards American films like Sleepless in Seattle, at the welcoming dinner hosted by the local government of Washington State and friendly organizations of the US on the night of Sept.22, 2015.2015年9月22日,在由华盛顿州政府和美国友好组织共同筹备的欢迎晚宴上,中国国家主席习近平表示他非常喜欢像《西雅图夜未眠》这样的电影。;The film Sleepless in Seattle has made the city almost a household name in China,; Xi said when describing China#39;s familiarity with his host city.在谈及中国对于这座城市的熟悉度时,习主席表示,“《西雅图夜未眠》这部电影让西雅图这座城市在中国家喻户晓。”Commenting on China#39;s ongoing anti-corruption campaign, Xi said China will further promote anti-graft drive and ;this has nothing to do with power struggle. It#39;s nothing like what you see in House of Cards.;谈及中国目前开展得如火如荼的反腐运动,习主席表示,中国会进一步加大反腐力度,而且“这和权力斗争毫无关联,这和你们在美剧《纸牌屋》里看见的可不同。”Thirty years ago in 1985, when Xi first visited the US, he stayed with the Dvorchaks, an ordinary US family in Muscatine, Iowa. The Dvorchaks#39; daughter asked Xi whether he watched American films, Xi recalled. The girl was surprised when she learned that Xi had watched several films including The Deer Hunter and The Godfather.习近平回忆道,1985年,也就是三十年前,在他第一次到访美国的时候,曾在德沃夏克一家住了几天,他们是一户来自爱荷华州马斯卡廷的美国普通家庭。那时他们家的女儿还问过他有没有看过美国电影。当女孩听说他看过《猎鹿人》和《教父》等好几部美国电影时非常惊讶。So, which American films have Xi watched?那么,习主席看过哪些美国电影呢?Sleepless in Seattle《西雅图夜未眠》Sleepless in Seattle is a 1993 American romantic comedy-drama film directed and co-written by Nora Ephron. In the film, a single father got contact with a female reporter through a radio talk show. They eventually got married after several talks through letters. The romantic plots have touched so many viewers in China.《西雅图夜未眠》是一部1993年上映的美国爱情喜剧片,诺拉·埃芙恩是本部电影导演兼编剧。在影片中,一位单身父亲通过电台谈话节目认识了一位女记者。后来他们通过书信联系并最终走进婚姻的殿堂。电影浪漫的情节感动了大批中国观众。 /201509/401413

Don’t blink or you’ll miss the next “new” San Francisco. This is a city that’s reinventing itself with every refresh of your Twitter feed, with cranes rising all over downtown and an army of young tech workers pouring into neighborhoods across the city. In the ’60s, San Francisco was synonymous with the hippie counterculture; in the ’90s, it was the dot-com boom (and eventual bust, in the early 2000s); more recently, it was the ripening of the Bay Area food movement. Now it’s home to such new-establishment icons of the digital economy as Airbnb, Uber and, yes, Twitter. But don’t be fooled by the shiny patina: San Francisco is more than just the physical headquarters of our virtual world. There are some things that haven’t changed, and by themselves, are reason enough to revisit: the mind-boggling views along that glorious waterfront; the Mission’s still-feisty, freaky, welcome-all-comers character; the meandering natural pleasures of Golden Gate Park. Even when classic San Francisco rubs up against new San Francisco, the friction, though at times contentious (Google bus protests, the anti-eviction fight), is also where the community-conscious activist roots of this city are as vital and visible as ever.别眨眼,否则你就会错过“下一秒的”旧金山。你的Twitter首页每刷新一次,这座城市就会自我更新一次。高耸的起重机遍布市区,年轻的科技工作者成群结队地涌入城市的各个角落。上世纪60年代,旧金山是“嬉皮反主流文化”的代名词;到了90年代,这里成为了网络爆炸的发源地(这股热潮最终在21世纪初衰落);近年,湾区的食品运动在这里发展成熟。如今,旧金山是新兴数字经济的大本营,其中的代表包括Airbnb、Uber,当然还有Twitter。不过,别被它光鲜的外表蒙蔽了:旧金山不仅仅是网络虚拟世界的“实体总部”。这里仍有一些始终没变的元素,而这些元素足以成为你故地重游的理由:海滨沿岸令人惊叹的壮丽景色;教会区(Mission)那依旧活跃、古怪又好客的个性;漫步于金门公园(Golden Gate Park),体会大自然的乐趣。当传统与现代碰撞之时,尽管这些擦有时存在争议(比如抵制谷歌员工班车、反驱逐运动),但这正是这座城市中具有社区意识的激进分子的根基所在,它的重要性和显著性也从未消减。 /201512/414905

Almost any amount and type of physical activity may slow aging deep within our cells, a new study finds. And middle age may be a critical time to get the process rolling, at least by one common measure of cell aging.一项新研究发现,不论运动量如何,几乎所有种类的体育活动都能延缓深藏于我们细胞内部的衰老过程。而中年可能是让这一机制继续运行下去的关键时段,至少,就衡量细胞衰老的一个常用指标而言确是如此。Dating a cell’s age is tricky, because its biological and chronological ages rarely match. A cell could be relatively young in terms of how long it has existed but function slowly or erratically, as if elderly.确定细胞的年龄可是个棘手差事,因为它们的生物学年龄(表明其组织结构和生理功能的状态)和实际年龄基本上对不上号。有些细胞论其存在时间可能还算年轻,但它们执行起生理机能来却十分缓慢或者不稳定,就如同衰老的细胞一样。Today, many scientists have begun determining a cell’s biological age — meaning how well it functions and not how old it literally is — by measuring the length of its telomeres.如今,许多科学家开始通过测量细胞的端粒长度来确定它的生物学年龄。For those of us who don’t know every portion of our cells’ interiors, telomeres are tiny caps found on the end of DNA strands, like plastic aglets on shoelaces. They are believed to protect the DNA from damage during cell division and replication.我们中的一些人对细胞内部的各个结构并不都那么了如指掌,那么,打个比方来解释一下,端粒是DNA链末端的小帽子,就像鞋带上的塑料箍一样。科学家们认为,它们可以防止DNA在细胞分裂和DNA复制过程中受到损伤。As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. But the process can be accelerated by obesity, smoking, insomnia, diabetes and other aspects of health and lifestyle.随着细胞的衰老,其端粒自然也会磨损和缩短。但这一过程可能会因肥胖、吸烟、失眠、糖尿病等健康和生活方式问题而加快。In those cases, the affected cells age prematurely.在这种情况下,受影响的细胞就会过早衰老。However, recent science suggests that exercise may slow the fraying of telomeres. Past studies have found, for instance, that master athletes typically have longer telomeres than sedentary people of the same age, as do older women who frequently walk or engage in other fairly moderate exercise.然而,最近的科学研究表明,锻炼身体可以减缓端粒的磨损。例如,既往的研究发现,运动健将们的端粒通常比同龄的久坐者更长,在经常步行或从事其他适度运动的老年妇女中也有同样的现象。But those studies were relatively narrow, focusing mostly on elderly people who ran or walked. It remained unclear whether people of different ages who engaged in a variety of exercises would likewise show effects on their telomeres.但是,这些研究的面相对较窄,主要集中在经常跑步或步行的老年人身上。目前尚不清楚在不同年龄段的人群当中,从事多种运动是否也会对他们的端粒造成影响。So for the new study, which was published this month in Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise, researchers from the University of Mississippi and University of California, San Francisco, decided to look more broadly at the interactions of exercise and telomeres among a wide swath of Americans.于是,在这项10月发表在《运动与锻炼中的医学与科学》杂志(Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise)上的新研究中,来自密西西比大学(University of Mississippi)和加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)的研究人员们决定在广大的美国人群中更广泛地探讨一下运动与端粒之间的相互作用。To do so, they turned to the immense trove of data generated by the ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, for which tens of thousands of adults answer questions annually about their health, including their exercise habits, and complete an in-person health exam, providing a blood sample.为此,他们把目光转向了正在进行的美国健康与营养调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)所产生的巨大的数据宝库。在这项调查中,成千上万的成年人每年都会回答有关他们自己的健康状况(包括运动习惯)的问题,接受体检,并提供血液样本。In recent years, those blood samples have been tested for, among other markers of health, telomere length in the participants’ white blood cells.近年来,研究人员对这些血样进行了化验,检测了参与者白细胞的端粒长度等多种健康标志物。The researchers gathered the data for about 6,500 of the participants, ranging in age from 20 to 84, and then categorized them into four groups, based on how they had responded to questions about exercise.研究人员收集了约6500名年龄在20岁到84岁的参与者的数据,然后根据他们对运动相关问题的回答,把他们分为四组。Those questions in this survey tended to be broad, asking people only if, at any time during the past month, they had engaged in weight training, moderate exercise like walking, more vigorous exercise like running, or have walked or ridden a bike to work or school.这项调查只是笼统地询问了受访者在过去的一个月里是否曾进行过任何负荷训练、或步行等中等强度的运动、或跑步等较为剧烈的运动,又或者曾步行或骑自行车上班或上学。If a participant answered yes to any of those four questions, he or she earned a point from the researchers. So, someone who reported walking received a point. If he also ran, he earned another, and so on, for a maximum of four points.在上述四个问题中,参与者的每一个肯定回答都会被研究人员计一分。因此,报告曾经步行过的人可以得一分。如果他还跑步了,就能再得一分,依此类推,最多可以得四分。The researchers then compared those tallies to each person’s telomere length.然后,研究人员比较了这些人的端粒长度及其得分。And there were clear associations. For every point someone gained from any type of exercise, his or her risks of having unusually short telomeres declined significantly.结果发现其间存在明显的相关性。无论受访者从事了何种类型的运动,他每得一分,端粒长度异常缩短的风险都会显著下降。Specifically, someone who participated in a single activity, earning them a 1, was about 3 percent less likely to have very short telomeres than someone who didn’t exercise at all.具体而言,如果某人因为参加某一运动而赢得1分,他的端粒特别短的可能性就会比不锻炼的人低3%左右。That risk declined more substantially if someone exercised more. People who reported two types of exercise were 24 percent less likely to have short telomeres; three types of exercise were 29 percent less likely; and those who had participated in all four types of activities were 59 percent less likely to have very short telomeres.一个人锻炼得越多,这种风险下降的幅度就越大。报告从事两种运动的人端粒特别短的可能性要降低24%;从事三种运动的人风险降低29%;参与了所有四种运动的人风险降低59%。Interestingly, these associations were strongest among people between the ages of 40 and 65, the researchers found, suggesting that middle age may be a key time to begin or maintain an exercise program if you wish to keep telomeres from shrinking, says Paul Loprinzi, an assistant professor of health and exercise science at the University of Mississippi. He was a co-author of the study with Jeremy Loenneke, also of the University of Mississippi, and Elizabeth Blackburn, a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, who shared a Nobel Prize in 2009 for the discovery of the molecular nature of telomeres.有趣的是,研究人员发现,这种相关性在40岁至65岁人群中最强。密西西比大学的健康与运动科学助理教授保罗·罗普林茨(Paul Loprinzi)认为,这表明,要是你不想让端粒缩短,中年可能是开始或者坚持锻炼计划的关键时段。他与密西西比大学的杰里米·伦内克(Jeremy Loenneke)、加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)的伊丽莎白·布莱克本(Elizabeth Blackburn)教授同为本研究的共同作者,而布莱克本教授曾因发现了端粒的分子性质而与其他人分享了2009年的诺贝尔奖。However, as Dr. Loprinzi points out, this study is purely associational, so cannot show whether exercise actually causes changes in telomere length, only that people who exercise have longer telomeres.然而,正如罗普林茨士指出的那样,这项研究只是个纯粹的相关性研究,所以它只表示锻炼的人端粒较长,却无法说明运动是否确实会导致端粒长度的变化。The study also couldn’t tease out the ideal amount of exercise for telomere maintenance, Dr. Loprinzi say, because the survey asked only whether someone exercised at all, not how frequently.罗普林茨士还说,由于调查只询问了受访者是否进行过锻炼,并没有问及锻炼的频率,所以这项研究无法确定要维持端粒长度所需的理想运动量。Perhaps most important, the results don’t tell us whether longer telomeres translate into better health. But, Dr. Loprinzi says, other studies, including from his lab, “have shown that telomeres are predictive of mortality,” with shorter telomeres equating to shorter lives.也许最重要的是,研究结果并没能告诉我们,端粒较长是否就代表着更加健康。但是,罗普林茨士表示,包括他自己实验室的在内的其他研究“显示,端粒对死亡有预测意义”,较短的端粒就等同于较短的寿命。So the message seems clear, he says. “Exercise is good” for your cells, and “more exercise in greater variety” is likely to be even better.因此,个中启示很明确,他说,“运动对你的细胞有益”,且“越多地进行多种锻炼”效果可能就越好。 /201511/411638

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