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2019年06月27日 04:02:37 | 作者:妙手助手 | 来源:新华社
Grassroots Effort Emerges to Fight Russian Corruption俄罗斯草根组织齐心协力反腐败  A group of private Russian citizens is seeking to establish a network of corruption victims as a means of advancing President Dmitri Medvedev's plans to battle the country's oppressive bureaucracy and courts. Participants at an organizational meeting in Moscow defined the extent of the problem, but raised questions whether citizens can fight corruption if government employees not only benefit from it, but actively undermine reform efforts.一群俄罗斯平民正在寻求建立一个腐败受害人网站,做为推动俄罗斯总统梅德韦杰夫打击国内专制官僚作风和法庭计划的一种手段。在莫斯科举行的筹备会上,与会者对上述问题的严重性进行了说明,不过他们也提出这样的问题,即如果政府雇员不仅从腐败行为中渔利,而且还积极破坏改革工作,公民是否可以打击这种腐败行动。Activists from several civic groups held a roundtable at Moscow's Independent Press Center to discuss the extent of Russian corruption and what could be done about it. A few victims of corruption gave personal accounts of bureaucrats who cheat the system to deprive people of property, money and rights. 几个公民组织的活动人士在莫斯科独立媒体中心举行圆桌会议,讨论俄罗斯腐败的程度以及可能的对策。几位腐败行为的受害者亲自向人们讲述了官僚官员的做法,他们欺骗目前的社会制度,以夺取他人的财产、金钱并剥夺他们的权利。Yuri Arkhipov of the independent Corruption Commission said some people in Russia's notoriously corrupt bureaucracy are interested in reforms, but they are hounded by a majority that abuses authority to make money.尤利.阿尔希波夫为独立的反腐败委员会工作。他说,俄罗斯臭名昭著的腐败官僚机构里的一些人,尽管关心改革,不过他们受到机构里大多数滥用权力捞取金钱的人的威逼。Arkhipov says honest bureaucrats are outcasts who are surrounded by an atmosphere of intolerance, because they are not convenient to bureaucrats or embezzlers, whose main goal is to cast the minority aside. The main question, to Arkhipov, is whether the bureaucratic apparatus wants someone to document corruption.阿尔希波夫说,诚实的官员是不受欢迎的,他们周围的气氛令他们无法忍受,因为,对于官吏或者侵吞公款的人来说,他们是不受欢迎的,这些人的主要目标是排除异己。阿尔希波夫认为,主要问题是政府机构是不是希望有人为腐败提供书面明。At the same, time, Yuri Zinichev of the All-Russian Corruption Witness Network, says Russia can blossom if a connection is made between the country's government and people.同时,全俄罗斯腐败见人组织的尤利.金尼切夫认为,如果俄罗斯政府跟人民建立联系,俄罗斯就能够繁荣起来。Zinichev says if Russians combine efforts then no special organizations will be needed. He notes there aly are government institutions - the executive, legislative and judicial branches, and also non-commercial organizations that receive government funding to solve such problems. Zinichev says all that is needed is the establishment of effective relations among these institutions.金尼切夫说,如果俄罗斯人能够把各种努力联合在一起,那么,就不需要特别的组织。他提到,政府的行政机构、立法机构和司法机构,以及非盈利机构都已经从政府那里得到资助,以设法解决腐败问题。金尼切夫说,现在所需要的就是在这些机构之间建立有效的联系。Valeriy Gabisov of the independent Civil Rights Committee noted that corruption exists everywhere and can at best be minimized, not eliminated. Gabisov chided participants for failure to discuss more specific measures, and noted the brutal lengths to which corrupt officials go if they are exposed in the press.俄罗斯独立的公民权利委员会的加比索夫指出,腐败现象随处可见,因此充其量只能将其减少,而不可能完全杜绝。加比索夫责怪与会者没有能够讨论比较具体的措施,他还提到,如果腐败官员被媒体曝光,这些官员就会做出极度残忍的事情。Gabisov says that as soon as an editor in the regions begins to say reasonable things, they smash his head, declare him mentally ill or put him in prison on whatever charges.加比索夫说,各个地区的编辑一开始对事情做公正报导,腐败分子就会砸烂他的头,要不就宣称他有精神病,或者以任何罪名将他投进监狱。The only government official at the meeting was a young Interior Ministry representative who was asked to convey the group's documents to his superiors. Whether anything happens remains to be seen. President Medvedev said on Tuesday that no one is dizzy with success over Russia's struggle with corruption and that Russians are at the very, very beginning of the road in the fight against it.与会的唯一一位政府官员是来自内政部一位年轻代表,与会者要求他向上级传达腐败受害人组织的文件。是否会发生什么改变,我们仍需拭目以待。梅德韦杰夫总统星期二说,谁都不要为俄罗斯打击腐败取得的成功沾沾自喜。他说,这项工作刚刚开始,俄罗斯今后还有很多工作要做。05/70065Obama Names Richardson as Next US Commerce Secretary理查森将出任奥巴马政府商务部长 President-elect Barack Obama has chosen yet another former political rival to join his incoming cabinet. Mr. Obama has announced that New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson will be his Secretary of Commerce and that Richardson will be a key member of his economic team. 美国当选总统奥巴马星期三宣布了他的经济团队的又一位关键人物:新墨西哥州州长比尔.理查森将出任下届政府的商务部长。理查森曾经作为奥巴马的竞争对手角逐过民主党的总统候选人提名。President-elect Obama announced the Richardson appointment at a news conference in Chicago. 奥巴马在芝加哥举行的一个新闻发布会上宣布了他对理查森的任命。Mr. Obama said Governor Richardson's experience in Congress and in the cabinet of former President Bill Clinton makes him uniquely qualified to be the top U.S. "economic diplomat" as head of the Commerce Department. 奥巴马表示,理查森州长在美国国会的经历以及他在前总统克林顿内阁中扮演的角色,使他具有独特的资格来担任商务部长,充当美国最高级别的“经济外交官”。"It is time to not just address our immediate economic threats, but to start laying the groundwork for long-term economic prosperity to help American businesses grow and thrive at home, and expand our efforts to promote American enterprise around the world," he said. 他说:“时至今日,我们不仅需要对付那些迫在眉睫的经济威胁,还要开始为我们长期的经济繁荣奠定基础,帮助美国企业不仅在国内成长壮大,而且要在全世界扩大努力推动美国企业。”Earlier this year, the 61-year-old Richardson was one of Mr. Obama's political rivals when he sought the Democratic Party's presidential nomination. Richardson dropped out of the race after poor finishes in the early contests and later endorsed Mr. Obama. 今年早些时候,61岁的理查森一度成为奥巴马的政治对手,谋求民主党的总统候选人提名。不过由于在最初的竞选中就连连败北而退出竞选,转而持奥巴马。Richardson joins two other former Obama rivals in the incoming administration, Vice President-elect Joe Biden and Secretary of State-designee Hillary Clinton. 其实在下届政府中,由竞选对手变成奥巴马下属的人并不只是理查森,副总统当选人拜登和被任命为国务卿的希拉里.克林顿都曾经致力于入主白宫。Richardson said he was pleased to join a strong team in the incoming Obama cabinet. 理查森表示,他对加入阵容强大的奥巴马内阁深感欣慰。"There are some who speak of a team of rivals, but I've never seen it that way," he said. "Past competitors? Yes. But rivals implies something harder edged and less forgiving, and in the worlds of diplomacy and commerce, you open markets and minds not with rivalry, but instead with partnership and innovation and hard work." “有人说这是一个由对手组成的团队,我可从来没这么看。过去的竞争者?一点不错。然而对手这个词却暗示某种针锋相对、互不相让的意味。就像在外交和商务世界,你并不是以对抗的态度来开放市场和心胸,取而代之的是伙伴精神、创新和勤奋。”Richardson served in Congress for 15 years before joining the Clinton administration as U.S. Ambassador to the ed Nations and later as Energy Secretary. He was elected New Mexico's governor in 2002 and was re-elected two years ago. 理查森在加入克林顿内阁,先后出任美国驻联合国大使和能源部长之前,曾经担任了差不多15年的国会议员。2002年他被选为新墨西哥州州长,两年前又当选连任。Richardson has also served as an envoy on several international missions over the years to countries such as Iraq, North Korea, Cuba and Sudan.  在过去的这些年中,他还担任过负责伊拉克、北韩、古巴和苏丹等国际事务的特使。Richardson is the first Hispanic-American named to the Obama cabinet. Mr. Obama won roughly two-thirds of the Hispanic vote in last month's election. 理查森是奥巴马任命的第一位拉美裔内阁成员。在上个月举行的总统大选中,奥巴马赢得了拉美裔选民三分之二的选票。Some Richardson supporters had hoped he would be named secretary of state, but Mr. Obama said Richardson will play a key role on his economic team as Secretary of Commerce. 有些理查森的持者曾经希望他能被任命为国务卿,但是奥巴马说,作为商务部长,理查森将在他的经济团队中扮演一个关键的角色。"His mixture of diplomatic experience, hands-on experience as a governor, experience in the cabinet and experience in Congress means that he is going to be a key strategist on all of the issues that we work on," he said. “他的外交经验、作为州长的第一手经验、担任内阁成员的经验和在国会的经验,这些经验加在一起意味着:在我们要努力解决的所有问题上,他都将是一个关键的战略家。”Since his election on November 4, Mr. Obama has chosen more than half of his cabinet as well as several key White House positions in advance of his inauguration on January 20. 自从11月4日赢得总统大选以来,奥巴马已经任命了一半以上的内阁成员以及一些关键的白宫顾问。他将在明年1月20日宣誓就职。George Mason University government expert James Pfiffner says Mr. Obama is wise to put his new team in place as soon as possible. 乔治.梅森大学的政府事务专家詹姆斯.菲夫纳教授说,奥巴马的精明之处在于他能刻不容缓地组建新班子。"The best chance for a president to get things through Congress is in his first several months in office," he said. "And so hitting the ground running is crucial with respect to the policy agenda."A number of cabinet posts remain to be filled, including the heads of the Departments of Interior, Transportation, Labor, Energy and Education, as well as a Director of National Intelligence and a new chief for the Central Intelligence Agency, the CIA. 奥巴马政府还有几个内阁职位有待填补,其中包括内政部长、交通部长、劳工部长、能源部长和教育部长,以及国家情报总监和中央情报局的新局长。200812/57896Chinese soldiers used anti-tank weapons to blast away rocks and mud, holding back waters in an earthquake-formed lake that threatens more than 1 million people living downstream. Soldiers fired at rocks to dislodge enough debris to speed the drainage of waters in Tangjiashan Lake in Sichuan Province. CCTV reported that the runoff channel was getting wider and deeper, helping to reduce the water level in the lake that was formed after last month's devastating earthquake. "We fired at the rock from a closer distance to make sure that the water gets through the channel. Usually we shoot from about 100 meters away, but this time we did it from 50 meters, gives a better result than shooting from further away." Other troops have been deepening the channel and digging on a second spillway. Officials fear that the so-called quake lake could burst its banks and cause catastrophic flooding if the water level is not brought down soon. Authorities were on alert both for increased rainfall and new aftershocks that could weaken the dam, or send more debris plunging into the lake. More than 250, 000 people downstream have been evacuated in recent weeks, adding to the turmoil created by last month's massive earthquake in Sichuan Province. Government officials have downplayed the threat of imminent flooding, though a variety of factors such as rain and aftershocks could set off a dam collapse. The Tangjiashan Lake is the largest of more than 30 created by last month's quake. The lake was formed when rubble from a massive landslide set off by the deadly May 12th earthquake, blocked the flow of the Tongkou River, also known as the Jianjiang.200811/56365Intellectual property知识产权Many patents, still pending悬而未决的专利Congress tweaks, but does not overhaul, America’s patent system国会将对美国专利制度进行小幅修改Sep 10th 2011 | NEW YORK | from the print edition AFTER years of dithering, America is set for patent reform. On September 6th a bill proposing to change the system passed its highest procedural hurdle in the Senate. With Barack Obama supportive, this means the America Invents Act could soon be signed into law.徘徊犹豫了多年,美国终于着手专利改革。9月6号,整改议案过了最艰难的一关——参议院。得到总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马的持,美国发明法规将很快能正式写入法律。Instead of the “first to invent” principle, which America currently uses, patents will be awarded to inventors who are the “first to file”. This is similar to the system most other countries use. The aim is to avoid long and difficult legal arguments over who was the first to come up with an idea.美国专利目前遵循“第一发明”原则,将改为授予第一个申请注册的人。目前大部分国家都实行这种规定,这样可避免对第一发明人的确定争论不休,难以确定。As in most cases of patent law it is not going to be that simple. One criticism is that being first-to-file gives big and sophisticated organisations, highly experienced at the difficult job of filing for patents, an advantage over smaller outfits that may be technically brilliant but not legally savvy. Another problem is that first-to-file may make companies rush to put in for a patent before their invention is truly y.如专利法中涉及的案例很多都不能简单的界定。有一种批评意见是,申请注册专利会造成庞大复杂的机构,特别是申请过程更是项困难的工作,小型机构的优点在于技术上的优越而不只是合法的专业知识。另一个问题是专利的申请可能促使一些公司在一些发明尚未成型时就急于将其注册。201109/154473

Microsoft and Intel微软和英特尔Wintel swings微软和英特尔各觅新欢The marriage that dominated personal computing becomes more open强强联姻主导个人电脑市场之势日趋明朗Sep 17th 2011 | from the print editionTOGETHER Microsoft, the maker of the Windows operating system, and Intel, the world’s biggest maker of semiconductors, used to rule the world of personal computing. Now that new computers are as likely to sit in people’s hands as on their desks or laps, life for the Wintel couple is less comfy. On September 13th, at their annual conferences for software developers, both claimed to have found new zest—not least from dallying with other partners.微软(Windows操作系统的开发者)和英特尔(世界最大的半导体制造商),曾联手统治了个人电脑市场。然时代变迁,如今的电脑已不再局限于放在桌上、膝上,还能持于手上。于是乎,微软和英特尔这两口子也开始心猿意马。就在9月13号,一年一度的软件开发大会上,两口子都宣布已有了新的对象——不仅仅只是和别人眉目传情、暗送秋波了。Gartner, a research and consulting firm, expects that this year only 3.8% more laptop and desktop PCs will be shipped than in 2010. That is partly because people have tightened their belts, but also because they are snapping up tablets and smartphones. Both Microsoft and Intel have struggled to adjust. The phone version of Windows has had good reviews but was installed in only 1.6% of smartphones sold in the second quarter; Google’s mobile operating system, Android, scooped 43%. Windows’ share of tablets is minuscule. And in markets where battery life is prized, economical chips designed by ARM, a British company, have made the running. Intel has made virtually no impression in tablets and none at all in smartphones.研究与顾问咨询公司高德纳预计,今年的笔记本和台式个人电脑的发货量较2010年顶多增长3.8%。这里面部分是因为现在的人都在拉紧裤腰带生活,但也有部分原因是他们都去抢购平板电脑和智能手机了。对此,微软和英特尔都是心急如焚,急于转变。Windows手机综合测评不错,但第二季度只有售出的智能手机只有1.6%是安装其操作系统。而谷歌的安卓操作系统却抱走了43%的市场份额。在平板电脑市场Windows所占份额更可谓是芝麻粒豆。再者,在如今这个极其重视电池续航能力的市场情况下,节能型芯片可谓是前景广阔,而英国ARM公司在这方面已是先拔头筹。可怜的英特尔对平板电脑市场几无影响,对智能手机更是无比汗颜。Both firms boasted this week of liaisons with others. Intel and Google said that future versions of Android would be tuned for Atom, Intel’s family of low-power processors. Phones with Intel inside should be on sale in the first half of next year. Microsoft showed off the next version of its operating system, code-named Windows 8, using ARM chips. It wants to reassure the army of developers who write programs to run in Windows that these will be just as reliable as Intel’s.本周,微软和英特尔都在高调宣传他们的新感情生活。英特尔和谷歌结了姻,英特尔家族的节能处理器凌动未来将会和安卓系统合体,预计将会于明年上半年诞生。另一方面,微软则看上了ARM,并对他们的后代表示出极高的自信,冠以Windows 8的美名。微软此举也就是想消除那些开发Windows系统软件的人们的疑虑,表明此产物会如与因特尔所产的那样稳定可靠。201110/155825

EU Boosts Humanitarian Aid to Pakistan欧盟增加对巴基斯坦人道援助 The European Union has pledged millions of dollars in new humanitarian assistance for Pakistanis displaced by fighting between government troops and the Taliban insurgency in the Asian nation. The EU has also raised chances of closer trade ties during its first summit with Pakistan.欧盟已经承诺再次为巴基斯坦提供几百万美元的人道援助资金,帮助在巴基斯坦政府军和塔利班武装分子的战斗中流离失所的巴基斯坦人。欧盟在与巴基斯坦的第一次首脑会议中还提出双方有进行更紧密贸易的机会。During the talks in Brussels, European Union officials offered both moral and financial support to Pakistan's president Asif Ali Zardari. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said the EU has decided to earmark nearly million in new humanitarian aid for people displaced by the conflict in Pakistan's northwestern Swat valley and other areas where the government is fighting a fierce Taliban insurgency.欧洲联盟官员在布鲁塞尔的会谈中,对巴基斯坦总统扎尔达里提供了道义和资金的双重持。欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐说,欧盟已决定再次拨出近9000万美元的人道援助资金,帮助在巴基斯坦西北部的斯瓦特河谷等地区政府军打击猖獗的塔利班武装分子等战斗中流离失所的平民。"I welcome President Zadari's determination to confront militants who have been challenging the authority of the democratically elected government in the northwest frontier province," said Jose Manuel Barroso. "Of course we are aware of the civilian population, of a large number of people in the area in and around the Swat Valley."他说:“我赞同扎尔达里总统对抗武装分子的决心,这些武装分子挑战西北省边境民选政府的权威。当然我们也注意到在斯瓦特河谷及周边地区有很多平民。”Overall, Barroso said, the EU has decided to boost its humanitarian emergency funding to Pakistan more than tenfold, to about 0 million.巴罗佐说,欧盟已决定把应对巴基斯坦人道紧急需求的资金总额提高到十倍以上,达到约1亿美元。The summit is the first ever between the EU and Pakistan and it was marked by warm words on both sides. President Zardari was quick to thank the 27-member organization for its financial assistance.这次是欧盟与巴基斯坦之间有史以来的第一次首脑会议,特点是对话双方都很热情友好。扎尔达里总统立即对这有27个成员国的组织提供的资金援助表示感谢。"I think all steps have been positive," said Asif Ali Zardari. "The fact that democracy has been acknowledged and the engagement of all the countries of the world with Pakistan and a democratic Pakistan is a relief, a positive step and an assurance that no dictator will ever be welcomed in the halls of the EU."他说:“我认为所有步骤都是积极的。令人欣慰的事实是巴基斯坦的民主已经得到承认、以及世界各国在与民主的巴基斯坦交往,这也是积极的步骤,同时确定的是欧盟会场是不欢迎任何独裁者的。”But Mr. Zardari also pushed for greater access to European markets, saying that what he wanted was trade, not aid.但是扎尔达里也推动巴基斯坦进一步打入欧洲市场,他说他想要的是贸易而不是援助。The EU is aly among Pakistan's biggest trading partners. And Mr. Barroso held out hope that commercial exchanges could be boosted. He said the EU had outlined ways to increase trade between the two sides and suggested they might hold free trade talks at some point in the future.欧盟已经是巴基斯坦最大的贸易伙伴之一。巴罗佐希望商业交流可以促进经济。他说欧盟概述了如何增加双边贸易得途径,并建议他们可以在未来的某一时间举行自由贸易会谈。06/74982

US Congress Hears Views on Domestic Impacts of Recession美国议员听专家谈经济衰退的影响 Days before next Tuesday's U.S. presidential and congressional election, U.S. lawmakers heard from economists and other experts about the impact of recession on Americans, and pros and cons of a new economic stimulus package for the U.S. economy. Majority Democrats are expected to call Congress back into session in mid-November to focus on the U.S. financial crisis and possible new legislation aimed at stimulating the U.S. economy. 在美国即将于下星期二举行总统选举和国会选举之际,国会议员们听取了经济学家和其他专家讨论经济衰退对美国人的影响以及一个新的经济刺激计划会产生哪些正面和负面的效果。预计,国会多数党民主党将在11月中旬召集国会开会,集中讨论美国金融危机以及为刺激美国经济进行新的立法的可能性。This past week, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi pointed to data showing a decline in U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the third quarter of 2008, and an increase in the numbers of Americans applying for unemployment benefits, saying this underscores the need for what she called a fiscally responsible stimulus plan. 在过去这个星期里,国会众议院议长南希.佩洛西提到2008年第三季度美国国民生产总值下滑、美国人申请失业补贴数字增长的数据,她指出,这凸显了制定负责任的财政刺激计划的必要性。Economists and other experts offered projections about just how bad the economic downturn, which many said constitutes a recession, may be. 经济学家和其他专家对经济放缓的程度提出种种预测,很多人说,美国可能已经进入衰退。Appearing before the bipartisan Joint Economic Committee, J. Steven Landefeld, Director of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, says whether it's called a recession or not, the economy is in a dramatic slowdown: 商务部经济分析局局长兰德菲尔德对国会由两党成员组成的联合经济委员会说,不管叫不叫衰退,经济目前是急剧下滑。"We all know there has been a huge loss of consumer wealth during this period. Household's disposable income share going to energy has certainly gone up considerably over time and the economy is growing at a rate too slow to generate new jobs sufficient to keep up with labor force growth, population growth, and growth in productivity," he said. 他说:“我们都知道,这段时间消费者财富急剧缩水。家庭可配收入中相当大的一部分被用于能源消费。经济增长率是如此之低,以至于无法创造出足够多的新工作来跟上劳动力增长、人口增长以及生产力增长的步伐。”Nuriel Rubini, a former U.S. treasury department official now at New York University, flatly calls it a recession, and predicts it will last 18 and possibly as long as 24 months, involving a cumulative decline in economic output of more than four percent, the worst since World War II. 前财政部官员、纽约大学的鲁比尼干脆就把目前的现状称为经济衰退。他预计,这种状况将延续18个月,甚至24个月之久,经济产出累计下降4%以上,将会是二战以来最糟糕的状况。Rubini urges Congress to act on a second fiscal stimulus of at least 300 billion dollars, saying that without support for Main Street [average Americans], government steps to support financial markets could be undone: 鲁比尼敦促国会采取行动,推行第二个总金额至少为3千万美元的财政刺激计划。他指出,如果不对美国普通老百姓提供撑,政府解救金融市场的步骤可能不起作用。"This action has to be taken right away and soon. We cannot wait until the next Congress in February because three months from now the collapse of spending, consumption and investments will be so sharp that the economic contractions could become even more severe," he said. 鲁比尼说:“必须马上尽快采取措施。我们不能等到明年2月国会下一届会期开始。因为从现在起三个月时间内,出、消费以及投资的下滑幅度将会非常大,经济紧缩的状况可能会更加严重。”Richard Vedder, Professor of Economics at Ohio University and a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute is concerned that an overly-zealous Congress, as he puts it, will craft legislation that could have adverse effects and questions where the money will come from. "In a financially-stressed situation, we're talking about going out and borrowing to add 300 or 400 billion on to what we are aly doing, the better part of at trillion dollars, seven or eight percent of GDP. I think that is a dangerous and somewhat fiscally irresponsible thing to do and I think in the long-run it will inspire a decline in confidence and will lead to inflationary expectations soaring." 俄亥俄大学经济学教授、美国企业研究所访问学者维德则担心一个过于急切采取行动的国会将通过可能产生负面效果的立法。他还对国会的钱从何处来提出了质疑。他说:“面对金融困境,我们在谈论如何走出来,谈论如何在目前的基础上再增加3千亿到4千亿美元,接近一万亿,这是国内生产总值的7%或8%。我认为这是很危险的,是不负责任的财政措施。我认为,长期看来,这会引发信心下跌,抬高通涨预期。”Former International Monetary Fund research director Simon Johnson, now with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, warns of unprecedented global dimensions from a U.S. recession.He urges Congress to act quickly on a package of around 450-billion dollars, to include extending unemployment benefits, job re-training, student and small business loans, and infrastructure projects. "I think we probably have a month or perhaps two months to really see the direction of the economy. I would agree completely with people who think that now is the time to prepare a large fiscal stimulus."In the House Ways amp; Means Committee, state governors, a city mayor, and state and local officials called for another government stimulus plan. 在众议院筹款委员会,各州州长、一名市长以及州和地方官员呼吁再制定一个政府刺激计划。New York Governor David Paterson said his state is among 25 U.S. states facing huge deficits. "There are 25 states in deficit, totaling more than billion of debt. Their projections for 2010 are spiked upward incredibly. There will be 39 states in deficit and the amounts owed total over 5 billion." 纽约州州长佩特森说,纽约州是面临巨大赤字的25个州之一。他说:“有25个州面临赤字,债务总额超过480亿。他们对2010年赤字上涨的预测更是高得令人难以置信。到那时,39个州将有赤字,总金额高达1050亿美元。”Among more dire warnings, Robert Greenstein, of the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, spoke of potential sharp increases in poverty, with Americans facing what he calls holes in the social safety that did not exist during previous deep recessions in the 1970's and 1980's: "I think we are facing a growing prospect of levels of destitution, not just poverty, destitution, severe hardship and increases in homelessness that we haven't seen in several decades," he said. 预算和政策优先中心的格林斯坦的警告更可怕。他谈到了贫困急剧增加的可能性。格林斯坦说,美国人面临社会保障上的漏洞,而这在1970年代和1980年代发生的深度危机中并不存在。他说:“我认为,我们面临不同程度贫困的可能性越来越大。不仅仅是贫穷,是贫困,是几十年未遇的极度艰难以及无家可归人口的增加。”Democratic Representative Charlie Rangel, chairman of the Ways amp; Means panel, says Democrats and Republicans should work together when Congress returns after the election to help with the economy. "We have to be prepared to put together that will indeed be bipartisan. Quite frankly I don't think that should be very difficult. When someone loses their job, their health insurance, can't pay the mortgage, finds himself not being able to get credit, no one asks whether they are a Republican or whether they are Democrat." 众议院筹款委员会主席、民主党人兰热尔说,大选之后,国会重新开会时,民主党人和共和党人应该共同努力,帮助经济增长。“我们必须准备好,做出真正超越党派的努力。坦率地说,我不认为这会非常困难。当一个人丢掉工作、没有医疗保险、不能付房贷、发现自己无法得到贷款时,没有人会问他是民主党还是共和党。”Republicans such as Representative Jim McRery share concerns about the widesp impacts of recession, but oppose any package that would have little chance of winning congressional and presidential approval. "It would do us little good to draft a package like that if it stands little chance of passing a closely-divided Senate or getting signed by the president," he said. 众议员麦克拉里等共和党人对经济衰退的广泛影响表示担忧,但是反对制定任何可能不会被国会或是总统批准的计划。他说:“如果我们起草一揽子计划,但几乎没有可能得到国会或总统的批准,这样做于事无补。”The White House has so far expressed resistance, at least in public, to any new measure containing the kind of provisions and level of spending Democrats are likely to include.This means Democrats would have to wait until next year and a new congressional session, to work with either Senator Barack Obama or Senator John McCain as president, on the next stage of efforts to help the economy. 这就意味著民主党人不得不等到明年新一届国会开会的时候,与当选总统的奥巴马参议员或是麦凯恩参议员一起,为推动经济发展开始下一个阶段的努力。200811/54785

It can be hard to find a job in the current tight U.S. economy, especially when you have a criminal record. At one prison in the American Northwest, inmates are learning not just how to get jobs, but how to open businesses of their own.如果你有过刑事案件前科,特别在目前美国经济紧缩之际,出狱后找工作就会非常困难。然而在美国西北部的一个监狱里,受刑人不但在学习如何找到工作,并且还学习如何开创自己的事业。A class called LIFE (Lifelong Information For Entrepreneurs), at the Coffee Creek Correctional Facility, teaches inmates how to start their own businesses after they’re released from the Oregon women’s prison. 这个课程的名称是“企业家终生资讯”。英文所写是LIFE,也就是生命的意思。这项课程教导受刑人在刑满释放后,如何开始做自己的生意。MercyCorps Northwest, the local branch of a global development organization, started the program four years ago, based on its experience in international aid.这项教学计划是国际美慈组织在当地的分机构,“美慈西北”四年前创办的。“We were looking for ways that we could apply our expertise around economic development and small business management to populations that could use it," says Doug Cooper, assistant director of MercyCorps Northwest. "It’s identical to what we do internationally, except we apply it here in Oregon and Washington.”教学计划的副主任道格·库珀说,他们根据慈善公司从事国际性援助工作的经验,推行这项计划。他说,“我们一直寻求途径,将我们在经济发展和小型企业经营方面的经验,传授给能够利用这些经验的人。我们在国际上就是这么作的,只是这次我们是在俄勒冈州和华盛顿州。”The eight-month class mixes hardcore small business training with softer skills like goal setting and self care. Student Saresa Whitley is serving five years for assault. She has a job lined up after her release in January, but plans to also start a small business selling handicrafts. 为期八个月的课程,将小型生意的核心经营训练,与软件技能的训练配合,包括目标设定和自我经营。因为攻击罪刑五年的受刑人苏利萨·惠特利是班上的一名学生。她于明年一月获释后,已经有一份工作等着她去做。可是她也计划开始自己的一项售卖手工艺品的小型生意。“When I was talking about knowing if my business is viable or not, through a profit-and-loss model, I was like ‘Wow, I didn’t even know the word viable before, and now I do,’" Whitley says. "I’ve learned a lot, I’ve learned a lot about how to write a business plan, about effective communications skills, how to listen, something I didn’t know how to do before.”她说,“当我经由亏盈计算模式,研究我的生意的可行性时,我说,噢,我原来还不知道‘可行性’一词,现在我明白了。我学到很多东西。我学会很多如何写营业计划的东西,有效的沟通技巧,如何聆听意见。这些都是我过去不知道如何做的事情。”201106/141206

President Bush Bids Farewell to the Nation布什告别演说回顾过去展望未来  U.S. President George Bush delivered his farewell address to the nation Thursday night. Mr. Bush used the occasion to reflect on the past and look toward the future. 美国总统布什星期四晚上向全国发表告别演说,利用这个机会回顾过去,展望未来。This has been a week of "lasts" for President Bush - the last press conference, the last cabinet meeting, and the last broadcast speech to the nation.  对布什总统来说,这个星期有许多的“最后一次”-- 最后一次记者会,最后一次内阁会议,还有最后一次向全国发表广播讲话。"Tonight, with a thankful heart, I have asked for a final opportunity to share some thoughts on the journey we have traveled together and the future of our nation," he said. 布什说:“今晚,怀着一颗感恩的心,我要用这最后一次机会,和大家一起回顾我们走过的路程,并展望我们国家的未来。”He reflected on his first national address from the White House, a speech to a country reeling in shock, grief and anger from the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.  布什谈到他在白宫向全国发表的第一次讲话,那是2001年9-11恐怖袭击之后向一个沉浸在震惊、悲伤和愤怒中的国家发表的讲话。"As the years passed, many Americans were able to return to life much as it had been before 9/11," he said. "But I never did." 布什说:“随着岁月的流逝,许多美国人得以基本恢复到9-11之前的生活。但是我一直没能这样做。”Once again, as he has often done during his final days in office, the president defended his record and was nostalgic. "There are things I would do differently if given the chance. Yet I have always acted with the best interests of our country in mind," he said. 和他在总统任期最后这些日子里经常做的一样,布什再次为自己的记录辩护,并表现出对白宫岁月的留恋。他说:“如果有机会,我会以不同的方式处理一些问题。但是,我一直是把国家的最高利益放在心里的。”Most recent past presidents, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton, chose to deliver a farewell address from the Oval Office. But President Bush opted to speak from the East Room of the White House Thursday night, in front of an audience that included members of the military, firefighters and educators whose stories he said touched him during his eight years in office."In citizens like these, we see the best of our country - resilient and hopeful, caring and strong," he said.With only five days left until Inauguration Day, Mr. Bush reflected on the peaceful transfer of power that will occur when Barack Obama takes the oath of office and becomes the first African American President of the ed States. 现在距新总统宣誓就职还有5天,布什谈到,当奥巴马宣誓就任为美国第一位黑人总统时,人们将看到权力的和平交接。"Standing on the steps of the Capitol will be a man whose story reflects the enduring promise of our land. This is a moment of hope and pride for our nation," he said. 他说:“站在国会山台阶上的这个人,他的故事折射出我们国家持久的希望。这将是我们国家一个充满希望和骄傲的时刻。”In recent days, the president has said he is y to return to Texas and life as a private citizen. But aides say they detect a bit of wistfulness in his voice. 最近,布什总统表示,他已经准备好,回到德克萨斯州,开始一个普通公民的生活。不过,他的助手们说,他们察觉到布什的语气中有一丝失落感。Ken Walsh, the veteran White House correspondent for U.S. News and World Report magazine, says there is certain poignancy when a president prepares to leave the spotlight. 肯·沃尔什是“美国新闻与世界报导”杂志驻白宫资深记者。他认为,当一位总统准备淡出公众的视线时,总会对一些问题难以释怀。"And there is always a sense of not only 'what I could have done as president," but also, a sense of 'am I being given the credit for what I did? Am I being treated too negatively,'" he said. 沃尔什说:“除了‘作为总统,我还可能怎样做’之外,还会有一种感觉,就是‘我的努力都得到承认了吗?人们对我是不是负面评价太多了?’”The speech was the president's last public event until next Tuesday - when he welcomes Barack Obama to the White House and the two travel to Capitol Hill for the inauguration of the 44th President of the ed States. 星期四的讲话是下星期二之前布什总统最后一次公开活动。下星期二,布什总统将欢迎奥巴马入主白宫,然后两人一起到国会山,参加美国第44任总统的就职仪式。01/61165

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