明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月27日 13:00:09
He only had himself to blame, Mike Weston thought ruefully as he strapped a Fitbit to his wrist one cold February morning. His company was about to start tracking him 24 hours a day, gathering data on everything from his sleep quality and heart rate to his location and web browsing habits.在今年2月的一个寒冷的早上,迈克#8226;韦斯顿(Mike Weston)把一个Fitbit手环套在手腕上,沮丧地想这只能怪自己。他将受到自己公司全天候的追踪,并被采集从睡眠质量和心率到所处位置和上网习惯等各种数据。“I was really quite grumpy about it, I didn’t want to put myself on display like that,” he says. But as chief executive of Profusion, a data science consultancy, he had been urging his team of number crunchers to plan more ambitious internal projects — and this was the one they had come up with.韦斯顿说道:“我真的感到非常不爽,我不想这么展示自己。”但作为数据科学咨询公司Profusion的首席执行官,他一直在敦促自己的数据分析团队策划一些更具雄心的内部项目,于是他们就提出了这个项目。For 10 days, Profusion’s data scientists used Fitbits and other apps to track 171 personal metrics for 31 staff who volunteered (including the somewhat reluctant Mr Weston). Combing through the data, the analysts found they could group the staff into clusters, based on shared patterns of behaviour. They labelled one group “Busy and Coping”; another “Irritated and Unsettled”.在十天时间里,Profusion的数据科学家们使用Fitbit和其他应用来追踪31名员工志愿者(包括有些不情愿的韦斯顿)的171项个人指标。分析师们通过整理这些数据发现,可以按照一些共同的行为模式对这些员工分组。他们把一组员工称为“忙于应对型”,将另一组称为“烦躁不安型”。Technology has made it possible for employers to monitor employees more closely than ever, from GPS trackers for delivery drivers to software that tracks which websites office workers visit. Companies such as Profusion think wearable gadgets could open a new frontier in workplace analytics, albeit one that would further blur the lines between our work and private lives.从跟踪送货司机的GPS定位仪到追踪办公室员工浏览网站习惯的软件,技术让雇主能够比以往更严密地监控员工。Profusion等公司认为,可穿戴设备可能为办公场所分析开辟了新的前沿阵地,虽然它将会进一步模糊工作和私人生活之间的界限。“I think there’s an inevitability that it will gain ground, and there’s a backlash risk that will follow if the data get abused,” says Mr Weston.韦斯顿表示:“我认为,可穿戴设备普及开来是势所必然的,而如果数据被滥用,就有引起强烈反弹的风险。”For employers, the simplest way to use wearable gadgets (and so far the most common) is to give them to staff and try to nudge them into healthier lifestyles — a financially worthwhile goal if the company is on the hook for their health insurance. BP, for example, gives Fitbits to workers in North America and offers them rewards if they meet activity targets. Indeed, one of Fitbit’s five strategic goals is to “further penetrate the corporate wellness market”, according to its IPO prospectus. Wearables could also be straightforward tools.对雇主来说,使用可穿戴设备最简便(也是迄今最常见)的方法是,把它们发给员工,设法让他们选择更健康的生活方式——如果公司负责员工医疗保险的话,这个目标从财务上来说是有价值的。例如,英国石油公司(BP)向北美员工发放Fitbit可穿戴设备,如果他们完成了活动目标,还会给予他们奖励。实际上,按照Fitbit的IPO招股说明书所示,该公司的5个战略目标之一是“进一步渗透企业福利市场”。可穿戴设备也可能是直接的工具。But the bigger prize is to use the data from such devices to make the workforce safer or more productive. Some warehouse workers aly wear wristbands or headsets that measure their productivity and location in real-time.但更大的作用是利用此类设备获得的数据来让工作场所变得更安全或者提高生产效率。一些货仓工人已经戴上腕带或耳机来衡量他们的工作效率和进行实时定位。Kronos, the “workforce management” company whose customers include Apple, Starbucks and Ikea, makes annual revenues of more than bn by selling scheduling and real-time data tools that minimise salary bills and maximise productivity. Brenda Morris, who runs Kronos’s UK business, says the company sees applications for wearables in blue and white collar work.Kronos是一家“工作场所管理”公司,它的客户包括苹果(Apple)、星巴克(Starbucks)和宜家(Ikea),销售可以最小化薪资成本和最大化生产效率的排班和实时数据工具,年收入超过10亿美元。Kronos英国业务主管布伦达#8226;莫里斯(Brenda Morris)表示,该公司看到在蓝领和白领职员身上应用可穿戴设备很有效。“If you’re monitoring where people are, what their stress levels are, what their fatigue levels are#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.[that’s] really important when operating machinery#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Or [in an office] you can see that person’s getting stressed because they’ve been working on that legal contract for too many hours and they don’t have enough support.”“如果你在监控人们所处位置、他们的压力水平,以及他们的疲劳程度……在操作机器时,(这)真的非常重要……或者(在办公室),你可以看到某个人因长时间研究法律合同,而且没有获得足够持而变得焦虑不堪”。Chris Brauer, a senior lecturer at Goldsmiths, University of London, who runs experiments with workplace wearables, predicts a future in which managers have dashboards showing real-time employee biometrics such as sleep quality that are leading indicators for performance. “It becomes a predictive tool and possibly also a prescriptive one.”伦敦大学金史密斯学院(Goldsmiths, University of London)高级讲师克里斯#8226;布劳尔(Chris Brauer)负责有关工作场所可穿戴设备的试验,他预计未来经理们将会用仪表盘显示员工睡眠质量等实时生物指标,这些是预示业绩表现的先行指标。“它会成为一种预测性工具,可能也会成为一种规定性的工具”。But that vision is a long way off — and there are a number of practical, legal and ethical hurdles in the way.但这一设想距离实现还有很长的路要走,面临着许多实践、法律和道德方面的障碍。First, no one seems to have worked out yet how to analyse or draw useful conclusions from wearables data. Profusion plans to do more trials in larger companies, overlaying the personal metrics with workplace performance data. But so far, the experience of Rob Symes, co-founder of a London start-up called The Outside View, is typical. He tracked all his employees with wearables last year, only to realise: “Right, I’ve got all this data, what the hell does it mean?”首先,似乎还没有人研究出,如何对可穿戴设备产生的数据进行分析,或者如何从中得出有用的结论。Profusion计划在较大型公司开展更多试验,将个人指标和整体工作场所业绩表现数据叠加起来。但到目前为止,通常会看到的情况是伦敦初创公司The Outside View的联合创始人罗布#8226;赛姆斯(Rob Symes)的经历。去年他利用可穿戴设备追踪了所有员工,最后意识到:“好吧,我掌握了所有数据,但这些数据到底意味着什么?”Meanwhile, wearable devices crossing over corporate “digital perimeters” every day are an obvious target for hackers, says Dave Palmer, who spent 13 years at GCHQ and MI5 before joining cyber security company Darktrace as head of technology. “You might think that’s a bit alarmist — what are the chances of my watch or heartrate monitor getting hacked — but this idea of the ‘internet of things’ is racing farther ahead in terms of functionality than in terms of security.”另一方面,每天穿越企业“数据边界”的可穿戴设备明显会成为黑客的目标,在英国政府通信总部(GCHQ)和军情五处(MI5)工作13年后加入网络安全公司Darktrace担任技术主管的戴夫#8226;帕尔马(Dave Palmer)表示。“你可能会认为这有点危言耸听——我的手表或者心率监测器被黑客入侵的几率能有多大呢——但‘物联网’这个概念在功能性方面已经走在了安全性的前面。”The gadgets are also easy to game. Adam Miller’s employer gives him cash rewards if his Fitbit shows he has taken a certain number of steps a day. But it registers “steps” when jolted, so if he has not met his daily target, “I might watch TV and wave my arm around#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or my kids will grab it and start shaking it to see what the numbers get to.”这些小玩意也很容易糊弄。对于亚当#8226;米勒(Adam Miller)来说,如果Fitbit显示他一天走到了一定的步数,他的雇主就会给予他现金奖励。但Fitbit是在摇晃的情况下记录“步数”的。因此如果米勒没有完成每日的目标,“我可能一边看电视一边挥舞我的手臂……或者我的孩子们会抓着它摇晃,看上面的数字会到多少。”For Dane Atkinson, chief executive of tech company Sumall, this highlights a serious problem with workplace metrics. “It has a law of physics — as soon as people know it’s being observed it changes the outcome.” His solution as a young CEO was to come up with a secret metric his employees did not know about: he tracked the volume and length of their work emails, which he found a surprisingly good indicator of who was in “professional distress”.科技公司Sumall的首席执行官戴恩#8226;阿特金森(Dane Atkinson)认为,这凸显了工作场所指标存在的一个严重问题。“这其中存在物理法则——一旦人们知道一个指标在被观测,结果就会改变。”作为一名年轻的首席执行官,阿特金森的解决方案是提出一个他的员工不知道的秘密指标:追踪员工工作邮件的数量和长度,他发现在显示谁处于“职业困难期”方面,这种指标效果好得惊人。“I was struggling with empathy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;the data really helped me catch up,” he says. “In watching those patterns I could start a conversation and say, hey, what’s going on, and there was almost always a huge unload.”“我之前难以对员工感同身受……数据的确帮助我弥补了这一点,”他说,“看到那些情况后,我就可以与员工交谈,并且对员工说,嗨,怎么了,几乎总是会听到大量倾诉的话语。”He thinks it is reasonable for an employer to monitor work emails, “but there’s a moral line that’s not been navigated by public conversation yet”.他认为雇主监视工作邮件是合理的,“但这其中有一条道德的界线,公共舆论还没有找到这条线的位置。”The legal line has not been navigated yet, either. Lawyers say companies would have to gain the explicit informed consent of employees before gathering personal data from wearables — and further consent to correlate it with other data, such as performance metrics.法律的界线也还没有确定。律师们表示,企业通过可穿戴设备收集个人数据前,应该在员工知情的情况下取得员工的明确同意——在将这些数据与工作表现指标等其他数据进行关联前,还要进一步取得员工的同意。Even then, there is a risk employees would feel implicit pressure to agree, says Daniel Cooper, head of the data privacy team at the law firm Covington.科文顿#8226;柏灵律师事务所(Covington and Burling)数据隐私小组主管丹尼尔#8226;库珀(Daniel Cooper)表示,即使如此,还存在员工因感到隐性压力而勉强同意的可能性。“Historically European regulators in the data protection area have been very sceptical you can ever get a valid employee consent — they feel that for existing employees, [the relationship] is almost inherently coercive.”“欧洲在数据保护领域的监管机构历来对此抱着非常怀疑的态度,认为你根本得不到切实的员工同意——他们觉得对于现有员工来说,(雇佣关系)几乎有一种固有的强制性。”How many workers would say yes, uncoerced, and under what conditions? PwC asked 2,000 people recently: 40 per cent said they would wear a workplace wearable, rising to just over half if they knew it would be used to improve their wellbeing at work.在不强制的情况下,有多少员工会同意,又需要什么条件呢?普华永道(PwC)最近询问了2000人:有40%的人表示他们会佩戴工作场所可穿戴设备。如果他们知道这将用于改善他们的工作状况,这个比例会提高到略高于一半。Employers and employees might share the same goals (less stress in the workplace, say) but then again, they might not. Many of those who said “no way” did not trust their employer not to use the data against them. A promise to anonymise the data and only analyse them in aggregated form would help win people over, PwC found.雇主和员工或许有一些相同的目标(比如降低工作压力),但他们也可能意见相左。许多回答“不行”的人不相信雇主不会用这些数据来针对他们。普华永道发现,匿名收集数据,只从整体上分析数据的承诺有助于争取人们的持。For Mike Weston of Profusion, the reaction of his staff to their wearables experiment was as interesting as the data it produced. Some found it enlightening and useful, while others found it “quite disturbing.” One ended up “the most stressed I’ve ever seen her”.对于Profusion公司的迈克#8226;韦斯顿来说,员工对可穿戴设备试验的反应和试验产生的数据一样有趣。一些人觉得可穿戴设备很有用,富有启发性,另一些人则认为这些设备“相当令人烦恼”。其中有一个人到最后变成一副“我认识她以来最焦虑的样子”。As for him? “I still don’t know if I love it, but I haven’t taken it off.”他本人怎么看?“我还不知道自己是否喜欢可穿戴设备,不过我没把它脱下来。” /201506/381521

The EU’s top environmental official alerted his colleagues that motor manufacturers were gaming European emissions tests more than two years before US authorities uncovered widesp cheating by Volkswagen, according to internal European Commission documents obtained by the Financial Times.据英国《金融时报》得到的欧盟委员会(European Commission)内部文件,欧盟最高环境官员早就曾提醒他的同僚,汽车制造商们在操纵欧洲尾气排放检测,他发出这番警告的时间比美国监管机构发现大众汽车(Volkswagen)存在普遍作弊行为早了两年多。Despite the warning sounded by Janez Potocnik, the then EU environment commissioner, Brussels did not take swift action to crack down on the practice but instead left in place an earlier plan that allowed the emissions loopholes exploited by Volkswagen to remain through to 2017.尽管时任欧盟环境专员的乔纳兹珀多尼克(Janez Potocnik)发出了警告,但欧盟并没有迅速采取措施打击汽车制造商的这种做法,而是继续实施一项到2017年截止的计划,该计划使大众得以利用排放检测的漏洞。Volkswagen has now suspended about 10 senior executives as part of its inquiry into the crippling emissions scandal that has rocked Europe’s biggest carmaker. VW last month admitted, in response to the US investigation, to using an illegal piece of software in its diesel engines to cheat in tests for dangerous nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.在对排放造假丑闻进行调查的过程中,大众已暂停了大约10名高管的职务。丑闻已使这家欧洲最大汽车制造商元气大伤。作为对美国方面的调查的回应,大众上月承认在柴油发动机中使用了非法软件,在氮氧化物(NOx)排放检测中作弊。In a letter to Antonio Tajani, the European commissioner in charge of industrial policy, written in February 2013, Mr Potocnik said ministers from several EU countries believed the “significant discrepancy” between how cars performed in the real world compared with in the testing laboratory was the “primary reason” air quality standards were not falling to levels required by EU law.在2013年2月写给负责工业政策的欧盟专员安东尼奥吠贾尼(Antonio Tajani)的一封信中,珀多尼克表示,几个欧盟国家的部长们认为,汽车在实际上路驾驶中的表现与在检测实验室中的表现存在“巨大差异”,是空气质量标准没有降至欧盟法律规定水平的“主要原因”。“There are widesp concerns that performance [of cars] has been tailored tightly to compliance with the test cycle in disregard of the dramatic increase in emissions outside that narrow scope,” Mr Potocnik wrote. Cars are required to comply with EU emissions limits “in normal driving conditions”, he wrote.珀多尼克写道:“人们普遍担心,(汽车的)表现严格遵照检测周期进行调整,而不顾在这一狭窄周期以外排放量的大幅增加。”他写道,汽车在“正常驾驶状况”下应遵守欧盟排放限制。He urged Mr Tajani to quickly propose new measures to strike back at carmakers, such as withdrawing emissions approvals for entire model lines and requiring “remedial action” from manufacturers.他敦促塔贾尼迅速提出新的措施打击汽车制造商,例如取消全部汽车型号的排放许可,要求制造商采取“补救措施”。People involved in the talks said concerns at the time centred on legal techniques used by manufacturers to improve their results, rather than on the possibility carmakers might be breaking a 2007 EU law using software, known as “defeat devices”, that VW has admitted using.参与讨论的人士表示,当时主要担忧的是汽车制造商利用合法技术改善排放结果,而非汽车制造商可能利用被称为“欺诈装置”的软件,触犯欧盟2007年出台的一项法律。大众汽车承认利用了这种欺诈软件。At the centre of the internal commission wrangling was the discrepancy between NOx emissions recorded in laboratory tests conducted by regulatory authorities and the much higher levels detected during road tests.欧盟委员会内部争议的核心是监管部门的实验室检测中所记录的氮氧化物排放水平与实际道路检测出的排放水平存在差异,后者要高得多。The discrepancies were highlighted as early as 2011 by the commission’s joint research centre . Those same irregularities, when uncovered by US investigators earlier this year, led the US Environmental Protection Agency to confront VW directly, leading to the admission it had been cheating.欧盟委员会的合作研究中心早在2011年就强调了这一差异。今年早些时候,美国调查人员发现了这些不法行为,致使美国环保署(Environmental Protection Agency)与大众汽车正面对抗,促使大众汽车承认存在欺诈行为。 /201510/406155




  “Close, but no cigar. This time.”“这次离成功也就一步之遥。”Behold the words of SpaceX founder Elon Musk, offering a post-op summary of the fiery crash-landing of one of his company’s first stage rocket boosters aboard a floating barge in the Atlantic earlier this month. It smacked of the billionaire entrepreneur’s typical comedic understatement. Video accompanying the comment, delivered in a tweet, shows the rocket coming in too fast and too steep before exploding in a magnificent fireball. It was a far cry from the soft landing Musk and SpaceX had planned.请留意SpaceX公司创始人埃隆o穆斯克说的这句话。1月初,该公司一枚一级火箭助推器拖着熊熊烈焰,坠落在大西洋的一个钻井平台上,他随后发表了一番“行动总结”。它听起来倒是很符合这位亿万富翁一贯的语言风格——很有喜感地轻描淡写。这条发布于Twitter的还附带一段视频。从中可以看出,这枚火箭降落得太快太陡,随即爆炸起火,变成熊熊火球。这与穆斯克和SpaceX公司当初计划的软着陆相去甚远。Most of the press called it a failure. Musk called it “close.” Experts familiar with the commercial spaceflight industry are calling it what it is: evidence that 2015 will be the year SpaceX manages to successfully bring a first stage rocket booster and its nine rocket engines safely back to Earth for reuse, potentially cutting the cost of space launch in half and upending the commercial launch industry.多数媒体认为,这次发射彻底失败,但穆斯克认为它“接近成功”。熟知民用航天业的专家则给出了一个恰当:很明显, SpaceX公司将在2015年竭力回收一枚一级火箭助推器和它的9个火箭引擎,以重新使用。一旦成功,这将使得航天发射的成本减半,从而彻底颠覆商业发射业。But lost in the whiz-bang awesomeness of rocket launches (and crashes) is the way SpaceX’s reusable rocket technology could impact industries beyond those associated with space, such as telecommunications and imaging. The cost of space access could drop from its current range of between million and million to something more like million, or even million, putting it within reach of companies and industries that couldn’t consider it before.火箭发射(及坠毁)时惊心动魄的轰然巨响背后,隐藏着巨大的成本,而这正是Space X公司的可循环火箭技术不仅将影响航空业,还将影响通讯和卫星成像等其它行业的原因所在。依靠这种技术,太空探索的成本可能会从现在的6500万到7000万美元降至3000万美元左右,让那些此前从未考虑过这种事情的企业和行业也能尝试一下。“When launch costs drop, new customers will emerge,” says Dick “Rocket” David, CEO of space industry information provider NewSpace Global. “But most of the customers that will be interested don’t even realize today what impact access to space will have on their business models.”NewSpace Global公司是一家航天信息供应商,该公司首席执行官迪克o戴维称:“一旦发射成本下降,新客户就会涌现。但很多潜在感兴趣的客户直到现在都还没意识到,太空探索将对其商业模式产生什么影响。”SpaceX wanted to bring its first stage booster back to Earth for a simple reason: the rocket boosters that are typically jettisoned after their fuel runs out cost millions of dollars to develop and manufacture. If the company can return a stage to Earth intact for refurbishment and reuse, it can dramatically reduce what has long been considered a cost of doing business.SpaceX公司想回收一级火箭助推器的原因很简单:推进器的研发和制造过程都耗费了巨资,燃料用尽后,它们就会被当做垃圾丢弃。如果该公司能完整回收推进器,翻修后重复使用,就能显著降低航天业历来被认为高不可攀的巨额成本。There remain questions: how much it costs to refurbish a rocket booster and how many times a single booster can be reused, for example. And space industry analysts think costs could go lower still. Musk has suggested that he’s eventually shooting for a sub- million launch price. But merely halving the cost of launch could stoke increased demand for launch services and bring a flood of new entrants into the orbital domain.不过人们仍有很多疑问:比如,翻修要花多少钱?一枚推进器能重复使用多少次?而航天业分析师认为,成本还会不断下降。穆斯克曾表示,他将全力以赴,最终让发射价格降到1000万美元以下。但仅仅让发射成本减半,就会带动发射务的需求大幅增长,从而使太空轨道迎来大批新成员。How all this impacts the average Fortune 500 firm remains to be seen, but two things are almost certain to happen in the near term. First, the services that companies and individuals currently get from space will become better, less expensive, and more accessible, says Carissa Christensen, managing partner at defense, space, and technology consultancy Tauri Group. That’s not necessarily a groundbreaking development, but it’s certainly a meaningful one. Companies spend a whole lot of money on communications, imagery, and other data collected and relayed by orbiting satellites. In some industries, the high cost of satellite services keep smaller companies from competing as effectively with their larger counterparts. “Cheaper, cooler, and better things from space is kind of a big deal,” Christensen says. “The benefit of much cheaper satellite services is not trivial.”这些情况会对《财富》500强公司产生何种影响还有待观察,但近期肯定会出现两大新动向。首先,国防、航天及科技咨询公司金牛座集团执行合伙人卡瑞萨o克里斯滕森称,企业及个人所获得的航天技术务会变得更加质优价廉,也更容易获取。这也许不是什么巨大的突破,但一定是意义深远的进步。目前凡是由轨道卫星采集并传送的通讯、影像及其他数据,各公司都要花大价钱才能获得。在某些行业,卫星务的高昂成本使一些小型公司无法与大型企业有效抗衡。克里斯滕森称:“由航天技术提供的更便宜、更先进、也更优质的务将是一桩大买卖。价格更低的卫星务带来的好处不容小觑。”Second, a huge number of new entrants and new dollars will pile into the orbital domain—and in fact aly are. Just last week, SpaceX announced plans to build out a network of micro-satellites over the next five years that would blanket the globe in internet. This week the company announced that Google GOOG -3.10% and investment bank Fidelity FNF -0.80% have invested billion in the project,valuing SpaceX at billion. Another satellite internet startup known as OneWeb—launched by Google’s former satellite internet project lead, Greg Wyler, who left the company in September—also announced last week that it has secured funding from Richard Branson’s Virgin Group and Qualcomm QCOM -1.16% to create a satellite network of its own. The billion project plans to launch 648 small satellites weighing 285 pounds each starting in 2018, each of which will require a ride into an orbit.其次,大批新面孔和大量资本将涌入轨道领域——其实已经是这样了。就在上周,SpaceX公司宣布将在未来五年打造一个覆盖全球的微型卫星网络。本周该公司又宣布,谷歌公司和投资富达投资公司已对该项目投资10亿美元,使SpaceX公司估值达到100亿美元。另一家名为OneWeb的卫星网络初创公司——由去年九月从谷歌离职的前卫星网络项目负责人格里戈o惠勒创立——上周也宣布,该公司已获得理查德o布兰森的维珍集团和高通公司的投资,并且将打造自己的卫星网络。这个耗资20亿美元的项目计划从2018年开始发射648颗小型卫星,每颗重285磅,而且每颗都需要进入一个运行轨道。Analysts are optimistic that space launch activity will create new opportunities that could in turn further boost investment in the space.分析师们乐观预计,航天发射将会创造各种新机会,这反过来又会进一步促进航天领域的投资。“Keep in mind that whenever you start launching more satellites, when you make launch services cheaper and bring new players into the market, you have a lot of spinoff effects,” Marco Caceres, director of space studies at aerospace and defense consultancy Teal Group. “You have an expanding market, you have submarkets. And you have investors taking a second, a third, a fourth look at companies like SpaceX and the ones that will follow. Venture capital will start flowing back into the market like it did in the 1990s.”航天及国防咨询公司蒂尔集团航天研究总监马可o卡塞雷斯称:“请牢记,无论什么时候开始发射更多卫星,只要能大幅降低发射务的价格,带来更多新入行的企业,就会产生大量连带效应。这样就能获得一个规模不断扩大的市场和各种细分市场,还能使投资者认真考量SpaceX及其他类似公司。风投就会像1990年代那样重新涌入这个市场。”Emerging space companies are aly baking lower launch costs into their business plans. Space is to the decade ahead what the Internet was to the 1990s, NewSpace Global’s David says. It’s not necessarily going to upend your revenue streams tomorrow. But if you’re not thinking about how space access impacts your business and how to leverage it to your advantage, you’re setting yourself up as the Barnes and Noble BKS -0.16% to someone else’s Amazon AMZN -0.94% .新兴航天公司已在自己的商业计划里大幅降低了发射成本。戴维表示,在未来十年中,航天业的重要性就好比1990年代的互联网。它并不会立刻颠覆传统产业的收入模式。但如果不认真思考航天探索将对自己商业模式产生的影响,以及如何充分利用这一趋势,就会将自己置于巴诺书店当年面对亚马逊崛起时所处的那种境地。“The challenge is understanding the impact something like a reusable first stage booster will have upon a very terrestrial business model today,” NewSpace Global’s David says. “If you’re Coca-Cola, if you’re Walmart, if you’re Toyota, if you’re Lukoil—what does a satellite have to do with your business model today? What will falling launch costs have to do with your business model in the future? From our perspective, the companies capable of connecting those dots will be able to capture tremendous financial growth opportunities. Those who fail to understand that connection to their very terrestrial business models could end up on the wrong side of financial evolution in the next decade.”“挑战在于,要理解可循环一级推进器这类装备对目前世界上盛行的商业模式的影响。如果你恰好是可口可乐、沃尔玛、丰田、卢克石油这样的企业,卫星和你目前的商业模式有何关系呢?发射成本大幅下降与你未来的商业模式有何关系?在我们看来,那些能在这两者之间建立联系的企业将抓住大量增长机遇,而那些无法理解这种关系的企业在未来十年可能会走下坡路,” 戴维称。Most companies don’t think of themselves as “space companies,” David says. But it’s hard to find a company on the Fortune 500 that isn’t intimately connected to terrestrial assets—real estate, agriculture, transportation infrastructure, energy infrastructure, brick and mortar facilities. The ability to connect all those assets in a proprietary way, to monitor them in realtime and generate accurate and instantaneous information about them will ensure a competitive edge for companies in the 21st century.戴维表示,多数公司并不认为自己是“航天公司”。但在《财富》500强企业中,很难发现有几家是和陆上资产无关的——不管是房地产、农业、交通基础设施、能源基础设施还是实体建筑。能用独有方式连接所有这些资产,实时监控它们并实时获得精确的信息,将确保21世纪的企业获得竞争优势。That’s especially true for firms who rely on fast, accurate information—and proprietary access to that information—to generate revenue. “Is it obvious that someone like BlackRock or Apollo would care about having their own satellites?” David says. “I think if you were to poll most PE firms and IBs on Wall Street they would say, ‘Space? You gotta be kiddin’ me.’ But what we’re going to see in the near term as launch costs come down, as more satellites are lifted, is an increase in knowledge at higher frequency. That’s going to lead to results that could change the very nature of financial analysis.”对那些依靠快速准确的信息,并能独家获取这些信息才能获得收入的企业来说,这更是真切无疑。戴维表示:“像贝莱德集团和阿波罗公司这样的企业想拥有自己的卫星,这难道不是显而易见吗?我想,如果去问华尔街上大多数基金公司和投行对此事的看法,他们肯定会说,‘航天?开什么玩笑。’”但在不久的将来,我们就会看到,随着发射成本降低,更多卫星上天,信息量将更快增长。这将导致一些可能深刻改变金融分析本质的结果。”Whether or not Stamford-based energy traders will soon find themselves jockeying for the choicest orbits from which to count oil tankers in the Strait of Malacca is anyone’s guess. But the takeaway from SpaceX’s most recent rocket recover “failure” is this: access to space is access to knowledge, and the next space race will be among companies vying to be a “space company.”位于斯坦福德市的能源贸易商们是否会竞相争取最好的轨道来监测马六甲海峡的油轮数量,这谁也说不准。但SpaceX公司近期火箭回收“失败”的启示是:占领太空就能获得信息,下一轮太空竞赛将来自于那些竞相成为“航天公司”的企业。(财富中文网) /201502/359901

  Two of Japan’s biggest carmakers are expanding recalls to replace potentially faulty airbags made by Takata, deepening a safety crisis that will now affect more than 30m vehicles worldwide.日本三大汽车制造商丰田(Toyota)、日产(Nissan)和本田(Honda),扩大了召回汽车的范围,以更换可能有问题的高田(Takata)安全气囊,此举意味着这一目前影响全球逾3000万辆汽车的安全危机进一步深化。Toyota and Nissan said on Wednesday they will collectively recall another 6.6m vehicles globally. Honda, the carmaker most affected by the airbag problems, with more than 14m vehicles recalled so far, said it was considering taking similar action to its rivals.周三,丰田和日产表示,它们一共会在全球再召回660万辆汽车。而受安全气囊影响最大的本田,则成为本周第三家扩大汽车召回范围的日本汽车制造商,新涉及的装有高田安全气囊的汽车达480万辆,其中172万辆位于日本。此举令本田因这一安全气囊事件召回的汽车数达到1920万辆。Carmakers are investigating the cause of incidents in which some Takata airbags have exploded when deploying, scattering shrapnel inside the car — the problems are linked to at least six deaths in the US and Malaysia.此前,部分高田气囊曾在使用中发生爆炸,导致碎片在车内四处溅射——这一问题与美国和马来西亚发生的至少6起死亡事件有关。目前,汽车制造商正在调查事故原因。Recalls of vehicles with potentially faulty airbags began in 2008, but the bulk of these actions took place over the past two years, and Takata, the Tokyo-based manufacturer, has been strongly criticised by US regulators for its response to the safety crisis.对可能有问题气囊的汽车的召回是从2008年开始的。不过,多数此类举措还是发生在过去两年。总部驻东京的安全气囊制造商高田(Takata),已因对这一安全危机的回应方式,受到了美国监管机构的强烈批评。Takata declined to comment on the expanded recalls, saying the decisions were made by the carmakers.高田拒绝置评丰田及日产扩大召回汽车数量的举动,表示此举是汽车制造商作出的决定。Toyota said it will expand its recalls to include 35 car models produced between 2003 to 2007.丰田表示,该公司将把召回范围扩大至包括2003年至2007年间生产的35款车型。“Among the parts collected from the Japanese market, certain types of airbag inflators were found to have a potential for moisture intrusion over time,” Toyota said.丰田表示:“在日本市场收集的部件中,部分型号的安全气囊气体发生器被发现时间久了会受潮。”Toyota said it did not know whether there was a relationship between moisture getting into the airbag and the possibility of the inflator rupturing.丰田表示,该公司并不清楚进入安全气囊的水分与气体发生器炸裂的可能性是否有关。Takata has previously admitted that, in the event of an accident, the front passenger side airbag inflators can rupture and spray metal shrapnel.此前,高田曾经承认,在发生事故时,前排副驾侧安全气囊的气体发生器可能会炸裂,并喷溅出金属碎片。A Japanese transport ministry official said the expanded recalls were a precautionary measure. Both companies said no accidents or injuries had been reported.、一名日本国土交通省官员表示,这次扩大召回范围是一种预防性措施。两家企业均表示没有出现相关事故或伤亡的报告。 /201505/375314


  Apple could be testing a technology called Li-Fi, according to code found within iOS 9.1.根据从iOS 9.1系统中发现的代码来判断,苹果公司可能正在测试一种名为LiFi的新技术。Li-Fi was invented by Harald Haas, a researcher at Edinburgh University, and has since been worked on by a number of companies.LiFi技术是由爱丁堡大学的研究员Harald Haas发明的,现在已经被多家公司所采用。The technology is around 100 times faster than Wi-Fi — with speeds of around 224 gigabits per second — because it uses the light spectrum to transmit data.这项技术的传输速度比WiFi快100倍,可以达到每秒224GB,这主要是因为它使用了光谱来传输数据。It#39;s unclear how Apple intends to use the technology or whether it will make it into the rumoured iPhone 7.目前还不清楚苹果将如何使用这项技术或者是否会将该技术应用于iPhone 7中。There is currently no technology on the market that uses Li-Fi, so there is little to compare it to. However, one use could be talking to other devices within the same room, such as the Apple TV. The high data speeds mean a film could be sent from an iPhone to the TV within seconds, y to stream. (This is just speculation, though — it#39;s still early days for the technology.)现在市面上还没有使用LiFi的技术,因此不存在可比性。其中一种应用方案是在同一房间内的设备间通讯比如iPhone与Apple TV之间的通讯。它的高速数据传输能力意味着将一部影片从iPhone传输到电视可能只要几秒钟就行了。(这只是人们的一种猜测,这项技术还处于早期研发阶段。)Apple filed for a patent in 2013 that talked about an ;optical modulation using an image sensor; that used the iPhone#39;s camera to transmit data via light, a technology that could be used with Li-Fi.苹果在2013年提交了一份专利申请,涉及到“一种使用图像感应器的光模块”,它可以利用iPhone的摄像头通过光来传输数据,这种技术可能用到了LiFi技术。 /201601/423655。

  SAN FRANCISCO — On April 19, 1965, just over 50 years ago, Gordon Moore, then the head of research for Fairchild Semiconductor and later one of the co-founders of Intel, was asked by Electronics Magazine to submit an article predicting what was going to happen to integrated circuits, the heart of computing, in the next 10 years. Studying the trend he’d seen in the previous few years, Moore predicted that every year we’d double the number of transistors that could fit on a single chip of silicon so you’d get twice as much computing power for only slightly more money. When that came true, in 1975, he modified his prediction to a doubling roughly every two years. “Moore’s Law” has essentially held up ever since — and, despite the skeptics, keeps chugging along, making it probably the most remarkable example ever of sustained exponential growth of a technology.旧金山——就在50年前的1965年4月19日,《电子杂志》(Electronics Magazine)请当时担任仙童半导体公司(Fairchild Semiconductor)研发负责人、后来成为英特尔(Intel)联合创始人的戈登·尔(Gordon Moore)写一篇文章,预测在接下来的10年里,作为计算核心的集成电路将会经历什么样的发展。在对之前几年看到的趋势进行了研究后,尔预言,单个硅片上安放的晶体管数每年都会增加一倍,因此只需稍微多花点钱,就能获得翻倍的计算能力。当这一点在1975年成为现实后,尔将自己的预测改为大致每两年增加一倍。此后,“尔定律”(Moore’s Law)基本上一直得到应验,而且尽管遭到了一些质疑,它仍在不断推进。该定律因而可能是有史以来反映一项技术持续呈指数增长最著名的例子。For the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, I interviewed Moore, now 86, at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, at a celebration in his honor co-hosted by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Intel. I asked him what he’d learned most from Moore’s Law having lasted this long.在尔定律诞生50周年之际,我在旧金山探索物馆(Exploratorium)采访了现已86岁高龄的尔。那是一场为尔举办的庆祝活动,由戈登与贝蒂·尔基金会(Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation)同英特尔联合举办。我问他,尔定律的有效性持续了这么长时间,他最大的收获是什么。“I guess one thing I’ve learned is once you’ve made a successful prediction, avoid making another one,” Moore said. “I’ve avoided opportunities to predict the next 10 or 50 years.”“我想,我学到的一条是,一旦预测成功了,就要避免再做预测,”尔说。“我回避了预测接下来10年或50年会是什么情况的各种机会。”But was he surprised by how long it has been proved basically correct?但在这么长时间里,尔定律都被明基本正确,他觉得意外吗?“Oh, I’m amazed,” he said. “The original prediction was to look at 10 years, which I thought was a stretch. This was going from about 60 elements on an integrated circuit to 60,000 — a thousandfold extrapolation over 10 years. I thought that was pretty wild. The fact that something similar is going on for 50 years is truly amazing. You know, there were all kinds of barriers we could always see that [were] going to prevent taking the next step, and somehow or other, as we got closer, the engineers had figured out ways around these. But someday it has to stop. No exponential like this goes on forever.”“啊呀,我挺吃惊的,”他说。“最初是预测未来10年的情况,这我都以为是有所发挥了。也就是说,一个集成电路上的晶体管会从大约60个增加到6万个——在10年时间里提升到之前的1000倍。我以为这已经很疯狂了。类似的情形持续了50年,确实不可思议。你知道,我们总能发现,会有各种障碍阻止我们进入下一阶段,可莫名其妙地,当我们越来越接近障碍时,工程师又找到了避开它们的办法。但总有一天得停下来。像这样的指数增长不会永远持续下去。”But what an exponential it’s been. In introducing the evening, Intel’s C.E.O., Brian Krzanich summarized where Moore’s Law has taken us. If you took Intel’s first generation microchip, the 1971 4004, and the latest chip Intel has on the market today, the fifth-generation Core i5 processor, he said, you can see the power of Moore’s Law at work: Intel’s latest chip offers 3,500 times more performance, is 90,000 times more energy efficient and about 60,000 times lower cost.然而,这是一种多么惊人的指数增长啊。在主持当晚的活动时,英特尔首席执行官科再奇(Brian Krzanich)对尔定律对我们的影响行了总结。他说,看看英特尔的1971年发布第一代微芯片4004和目前市场上的最新一代英特尔芯片,也就是第五代酷睿i5(Core i5)处理器,就能看到尔定律的力量:最新一代芯片的性能提高了3500倍,能耗是原来的九万分之一,成本降至先前的六万分之一。To put that another way, Krzanich said Intel engineers did a rough calculation of what would happen had a 1971 Volkswagen Beetle improved at the same rate as microchips did under Moore’s Law: “Here are the numbers: [Today] you would be able to go with that car 300,000 miles per hour. You would get two million miles per gallon of gas, and all that for the mere cost of 4 cents! Now, you’d still be stuck on the [Highway] 101 getting here tonight, but, boy, in every opening you’d be going 300,000 miles an hour!”换个角度来看呢?科再奇表示,英特尔的工程师进行了大致的计算,如果按照尔定律下微芯片的发展速度,1971年推出的一款大众甲壳虫(Volkswagen Beetle)汽车的性能会有怎样的改进:“数据如下:(现在)这款车能开到每小时30万英里(约合48万公里)。1加仑汽油(约合4升)可以跑200万英里,而且只要花4分钱!时下,虽然今晚你可能还是会在赶来这里的途中堵在101公路上,但天哪,只要能动,你们可是会开到30万英里的时速呢!”What is most striking in Moore’s 1965 article is how many predictions he got right about what these steadily improving microchips would enable. The article, entitled “Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuits,” argued that: “Integrated circuits will lead to such wonders as home computers — or at least terminals connected to a central computer — automatic controls for automobiles, and personal portable communications equipment. The electronic wristwatch needs only a display to be feasible today. ... In telephone communications, integrated circuits in digital filters will separate channels on multiplex equipment. [They] will also switch telephone circuits and perform data processing.”尔1965年的那篇文章中最令人吃惊的是,他对这些稳步改善的微芯片所能带来的变化所做的许多预测都是准确的。题为《让集成电路填满更多元件》(Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuits)的这篇文章称:“集成电路将催生奇迹,比如家用电脑——或者至少是与中央计算机相连的终端——汽车自动控制和个人便携式通信设备。如今电子手表只需要一个显示屏就可以了……电话通信领域,数字滤波器中的集成电路将在多路传输设备上有单独的通道。[它们]还将转换电话线路,进行数据处理。”Moore pretty much anticipated the personal computer, the cellphone, self-driving cars, the iPad, Big Data and the Apple Watch. How did he do that? (The only thing he missed, I jokingly told him, was “microwave popcorn.”)基本上,尔这是预言了个人电脑、手机、自动驾驶汽车、iPad、大数据和Apple Watch的出现。他是怎么做到的?(我跟尔开玩笑,他唯一漏掉的就是“微波炉爆米花”了。)“Well,” said Moore, “I had been looking at integrated circuits — [they] were really new at that time, only a few years old — and they were very expensive. There was a lot of argument as to why they would never be cheap, and I was beginning to see, from my position as head of a laboratory, that the technology was going to go in the direction where we would get more and more stuff on a chip and it would make electronics less expensive. ... I had no idea it was going to turn out to be a relatively precise prediction, but I knew the general trend was in that direction and had to give some kind of a reason why it was important to lower the cost of electronics.”“这个嘛,”尔回答,“我一直在研究集成电路——[它们]当时还是新生事物,刚出现没几年——而且非常昂贵。有很多观点认为,它们永远都不会便宜下来。从一名实验室负责人的角度,我开始发现,这种技术未来的方向是,一枚芯片上会容纳越来越多的东西,而这会让电子产品变得更便宜……我不知道这会是一个比较准确的预测,但我知道大体趋势是这样,而它一定会提供降低电子产品成本的某种理由。”Can it continue? Every year someone predicts the demise of Moore’s Law, and they’re wrong. With enough good engineers working on it, he hoped, “we won’t hit a dead end. ... It’s [a] unique technology. I can’t see anything really comparable that has gone on for this long a period of time with exponential growth.”这样的趋势还会继续吗?每年都有人预测尔定律将被打破,但他们都错了。尔希望,凭借着足够多的优秀工程师的努力,“我们不会走投无路……这是[一项]独特的技术。我没有发现任何能与之类比的技术可以持续这么长时间的指数增长。”But let’s remember that it was enabled by a group of remarkable scientists and engineers, in an America that did not just brag about being exceptional, but invested in the infrastructure and basic scientific research, and set the audacious goals, to make it so. If we want to create more Moore’s Law-like technologies, we need to invest in the building blocks that produced that America.不过,别忘了它是靠一批杰出的科学家和工程师来实现的,而那时的美国也不会只知道炫耀自己的卓越,而是会投资于基础设施和基础科学研究,设置大胆的目标,使之成为现实。如果我们想要创造更多符合尔定律的技术,我们就需要投资于成就了当时的美国的基本要素。Alas today our government is not investing in basic research the way it did when the likes of Moore and Robert Noyce, the co-inventor of the integrated circuit and the other co-founder of Intel, were coming of age.可惜啊,今天的政府不像尔和罗伯特·诺伊斯(Robert Noyce)成长的时代那样投资基础科学研究了。诺伊斯是集成电路的联合发明人,与尔一起创立了英特尔。“I’m disappointed that the federal government seems to be decreasing its support of basic research,” said Moore. “That’s really where these ideas get started. They take a long time to germinate, but eventually they lead to some marvelous advances. Certainly, our whole industry came out of some of the early understanding of the quantum mechanics of some of the materials. I look at what’s happening in the biological area, which is the result of looking more detailed at the way life works, looking at the structure of the genes and one thing and another. These are all practical applications that are coming out of some very fundamental research, and our position in the world of fundamental science has deteriorated pretty badly. There are several other countries that are spending a significantly higher percentage of their G.N.P. than we are on basic science or on science, and ours is becoming less and less basic.”“让我感到失望的是,联邦政府似乎在减少对基础科研的持,”尔说。“基础科研真的是这些想法诞生的地方。它们需要很长时间来育,但最终会促成惊人的进步。要知道,我们整个行业都来自于对一些材料的量子力学的早期认识。我观察了一下生物领域目前的发展,也是来自对生命的原理和基因的结构等一系列问题的细致研究。这些都是一些非常基础的研究带来的实际应用,而我们在基础科学领域的地位在严重下滑。其他一些国家在基础科学或大的科学领域上的投入与国民生产总值的比值,要远远高于我们,而我们的研究越来越脱离基础科学。”How did he first get interested in science, I asked?我问他,一开始是怎么对科学产生兴趣的?“My neighbor got a chemistry set and we could make explosives,” he said. “In those days, chemistry sets had some really neat things in them, and I decided about then I wanted to be a chemist not knowing quite what they did, and I continued my work in a home laboratory for some period of time. Got to the point where I was turning out nitroglycerin in small production quantities and turning it to dynamite. ... A couple ounces of dynamite makes a marvelous firecracker. That really got my early interest in it. You couldn’t duplicate that today, but there are other opportunities. You know, I look at what some of my grandkids are doing, for example, those robotics and the like. These are spectacular. They’re really making a lot of progress.”“我的邻居有一套简易化学实验玩具,我们可以做炸药,”他说。“那个时候的实验玩具里有很棒的东西,我大概就是当时决定要当一名化学家,虽然并不知道化学家究竟是做什么的。我后来在家庭实验室里继续倒腾,做了一段时间。然后我就可以少量地生产硝化甘油了,把它们变成炸药……几盎司的炸药就能做成一个很棒的鞭炮。这真的让我早早对它产生了兴趣。你不可能在今天复制这一切,但现在有其他的机会。比如,我看到孙辈在鼓捣机器人之类的东西。这些都很棒。他们的确取得了不少进步。”Looking back on Moore’s Law and the power of computing that it has driven, I asked Moore what he thought was its most important contribution over the past 50 years.我问尔,回过头来看尔定律以及受它驱动的计算能力,他本人认为它在过去50年里的最大贡献是什么?“Wow!” he said. “You know, just the proliferation of computing power. We’ve just seen the beginning of what computers are going to do for us.”“哇!”他说。“这个,就是计算能力的爆炸性增长。关于计算机会为我们做什么,我们目前看到的不过是个开头。”How so?何以见得?“Oh, I think incrementally we see them taking over opportunities that we tried to do without them before and were not successful,” he added. “It’s kind of the evolution into the machine intelligence, if you wish, and this is not happening in one step. To me, it’s happening in a whole bunch of increments. I never thought I’d see autonomous automobiles driving on the freeways. It wasn’t many years ago [they] put out a request to see who could build a car that could go across the Mojave Desert to Las Vegas from a place in Southern California, and several engineering teams across the country set out to do this. Nobody got more than about 300 yards before there was a problem. Two years later, they made the full 25-mile trip across this desert track, and which I thought was a huge achievement, and from that it was just a blink before they were driving on the freeways. I think we’re going to see incremental advances like that in a variety of other areas.”“恩,我想我们会逐渐看到,以前没有计算机时我们试图去抓住但却没能成功的一些机会,现在正被计算机拿去实现,”他补充道。“有点像是逐渐演化出机器智能,如果你希望如此的话;而这个过程并非一蹴而就。在我看来,它是一大堆进步的累积。我以前从没想过会在高速公路上见到无人驾驶汽车。就在没多少年前,[他们]发出征集令,看谁能造出一辆无人驾驶汽车,让它从加州南部出发,穿过莫哈维沙漠,抵达。来自全国各地的几个工程师团队开始着手做这件事。起初,没有哪个团队的车子能开出300码不出问题。两年后,车子就可以在沙漠里整整行驶25英里。我当时认为那是巨大的进步。再一眨眼,它们已经在高速公路上穿行了。我认为,我们会在其他各种领域看到这类日积月累的进步。”Did he worry, I asked Moore, whose own microprocessors seemed as sharp as ever, that machines would really start to replace both white-collar and blue-collar labor at a scale that could mean the end of work for a lot of people?尔的思维看起来与昔日一样敏捷。我问他,是否担心,机器真的开始大规模取代蓝领和白领劳动者,致使一大批人失去工作?“Don’t blame me!” he exclaimed! “I think it’s likely we’re going to continue to see that. You know, for several years, I have said we’re a two-class society separated by education. I think we’re seeing the proof of some of that now.”“别怪我!”他大声说道。“我想,我们可能会持续看到这种现象。你知道,我们的社会以教育程度为界分成两个阶层,这话我已经说了好几年。我想,我们现在看到了这方面的一些据。”When was the moment he came home and said to his wife, Betty, “Honey, they’ve named a law after me?”他第一次回到家告诉妻子贝蒂,“亲爱的,他们用我的名字命名了一条定律”是在什么时候?Answered Moore: “For the first 20 years, I couldn’t utter the terms Moore’s Law. It was embarrassing. It wasn’t a law. Finally, I got accustomed to it where now I could say it with a straight face.”尔答道:“头20年,我一直无法把‘尔定律’这几个字说出口。太尴尬了。它不是什么定律。最后我终于习以为常了,现在我可以面不改色心不跳地提到它。”Given that, is there something that he wishes he had predicted — like Moore’s Law — but did not? I asked.我问,既然如此,有没有什么是他希望自己能预测到——就像尔定律那样——但实际上并未预测到的?“The importance of the Internet surprised me,” said Moore. “It looked like it was going to be just another minor communications network that solved certain problems. I didn’t realize it was going to open up a whole universe of new opportunities, and it certainly has. I wish I had predicted that.”“互联网的重要性让我感到惊讶,”尔说。“当初看来,它不过是会成为一种用于解决特定问题的不太重要的通信网络。我没意识到它会带来无数新机会,但它显然做到了。我真希望自己当年能预测到这种情况。” /201505/375318

  The Chinese conglomerate, whose business interests span banking to aviation, has just snapped up a near 24 per cent stake in Brazilian low-cost carrier Azul for 0m.中国海航集团(HNA Group)周一以4.5亿美元购入巴西低成本航空公司蓝色航空(Azul)近24%股权,成为最新一家利用巴西雷亚尔大幅贬值和公司估值下滑的机会,投资于拉美最大经济体的公司。海航的业务遍及业至航空业。The deal comes just three months after Azul pulled plans for an initial public offering. The airline - created by JetBlue founder David Neeleman - did not give a reason for the cancellation, but deteriorating market conditions most likely played a role.就在3个月前,蓝色航空取消了首次公开发行(IPO)计划,但没有透露取消的原因,不过不断恶化的市场状况最有可能是原因之一。该航空公司由JetBlue创始人大卫尼勒曼(David Neeleman)创建。Although some Brazilian companies - such as meat processor JBS - have benefitted from the sharp depreciation in the real, Azul, like other Brazilian carriers, are being hit by a double whammy of higher fuel costs (which are priced in dollars) and weaker domestic demand.尽管一些巴西公司(例如肉类加工商JBS)受益于雷亚尔大幅贬值,但与其他巴西航空公司一样,蓝色航空正受到燃油价格上涨(价格以美元计)和国内需求较为疲弱的双重打击。Mr Neeleman said HNA#39;s investment values Azul at .9bn and will strengthen the company#39;s balance sheet.尼勒曼表示,海航此次入股对蓝色航空的估值为19亿美元,将增强蓝色航空的资产负债表。For HNA, which owns 14 airlines with a total fleet of 561 aircraft, the deal would allow it to better tap into China#39;s booming overseas travel market.对于海航而言,这笔交易将令其更好地利用中国蓬勃发展的海外旅游市场。海航拥有14家航空公司,共运营561架飞机。Adam Tan, president of HNA Group, said: We are pleased to partner with Azul in order to bring more choice and convenience to our customers traveling to and from Brazil.海航总裁谭向东(Adam Tan)表示:“我们很高兴与蓝色航空合作,这将给我们往来巴西的客户带来更多选择和便利。” /201511/412476


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