2019年06月17日 20:44:47|来源:国际在线|编辑:预约常识
Scientists have warned that rapid strides in the development of artificial intelligence and robotics threatens the prospect of mass unemployment, affecting everyone from drivers to sex workers.科学家们警告称,人工智能和机器人技术的快步发展可能酿成大规模失业,影响从司机到性工作者的各行各业劳动者。Intelligent machines will soon replace human workers in all sectors of the economy, senior computer scientists told the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Washington at the weekend.周末在华盛顿举行的美国科学促进会(AAAS)会议上,资深计算机科学家表示,智能机器很快将在各个经济部门取代人类劳动者。“We are approaching the time when machines will be able to outperform humans at almost any task,” said Moshe Vardi, computer science professor at Rice University in Texas. “Society needs to confront this question before it is upon us: if machines are capable of doing almost any work humans can do, what will humans do?“我们正在接近这样一个时刻,机器将能够在几乎所有任务上超越人类,”德克萨斯州莱斯大学(Rice University)计算机科学教授西瓦迪(Moshe Vardi)表示,“在这个时刻来临之前,社会需要直面一个问题:如果人类能够做的工作,机器几乎都能够做,那么人类该做些什么?“A typical answer is that we will be free to pursue leisure activities,” Prof Vardi said. “[But] I do not find the prospect of leisure-only life appealing. I believe that work is essential to human wellbeing.”“一个典型的回答是,我们将自由地从事休闲活动,”瓦迪教授表示,“但是我不觉得只有休闲的人生前景有吸引力。我相信工作对于人类的福祉是不可或缺的。”“AI is moving rapidly from academic research into the real world,” said Bart Selman, professor of computer science at Cornell University. “Computers are starting to ‘hear’ and ‘see’ as humans do... can start to move and operate among us autonomously.” He said companies such as Google, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft were scaling up investments in AI systems to billions of dollars a year.“人工智能正从学术研究快速进入现实世界,”康奈尔大学(Cornell University)计算机科学教授巴特帠尔曼(Bart Selman)表示,“计算机正开始像人类一样‘听’和‘看’……系统可以自主地移动和操作,跻身于人类行列。”他表示,谷歌(Google)、Facebook、IBM以及微软(Microsoft)等公司纷纷加大对人工智能系统的投资,使其达到每年数十亿美元。Professors Vardi and Selman said governments — and society as a whole — were not facing up to the acceleration of AI and robotics research. Prof Selman helped draft an open letter issued last year by the Future of Life Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, urging policymakers to explore the risks associated with increasingly intelligent machines.瓦迪教授和塞尔曼教授都表示,政府以及整个社会没有正视人工智能和机器人研究的加速。塞尔曼教授去年曾帮助起草由马萨诸塞州剑桥的生命未来研究所(Future of Life Institute)发出的一封公开信,敦促政策制定者探察智能含量越来越高的机器所带来的风险。Among the 10,000 or so signatories to the letter is Elon Musk, the tech entrepreneur whose company Tesla Motors has a large AI research programme aimed at developing self-driving cars.这封公开信有大约1万人签名,包括高科技企业家埃隆氠斯克(Elon Musk),他旗下的特斯拉汽车公司(Tesla Motors)有一个大规模人工智能研究项目,旨在开发自动驾驶汽车。Mr Musk will fund research at Cornell University “on keeping AI beneficial to humans”, said Prof Selman. The project will predict whether and, if so when, “super-intelligence” — all-round superiority of machine to human intelligence — might be achieved.塞尔曼教授说,马斯克将资助康奈尔大学以“确保人工智能造福于人类”为课题的研究。该项目将预测“超级智能”(机器相对于人类智慧的全方位优势)能否实现?如果是肯定的,它将在何时实现?According to Prof Selman, one of the fastest advancing areas of AI is machine vision, and particularly facial recognition. “Facebook can recognise faces better than any of us,” he said. Machine vision is key to the self-driving vehicles that scientists predict will take over our roads in the next 25 years. Prof Vardi said automated driving would cut accidents by 90 per cent or more, compared with vehicles driven by error-prone people.据塞尔曼教授介绍,人工智能进展最快的领域之一是机器视觉,尤其是人脸识别。“Facebook识别人脸的能力比任何人类都更好,”他说。机器视觉是自动驾驶汽车的关键;科学家们预测,此类车辆将在未来25年陆续上路。瓦迪教授称,相比容易出错的人类司机,自动驾驶将减少90%或更多的事故。“With so many lives saved and injuries prevented, it would be hard morally for anyone to argue against it,” he said. Yet around 10 per cent of all US jobs involve driving a vehicle, he added, “and most of those will disappear”.“如果能够拯救那么多人命,防止那么多受伤,反对者在道德上将会很难说得过去,”他说。然而,他补充说,美国10%左右的工作岗位涉及驾驶车辆,“这些工作岗位中的大多数将会消失”。Prof Vardi said it would be hard to think of any jobs that would not be vulnerable to robotics and AI — even sex workers. “Are you going to bet against sex robots?” he asked. “I’m not.”瓦迪教授称,面对日臻完善的机器人技术和人工智能,很难想象有任何工作不会面临消失风险,就连性工作者也不例外。“你会打赌性机器人不可能盛行吗?”他问道,“反正我不会。” /201602/426540It was only a matter of time before the Apple Watch inspired some far-out concept s for new Apple products the faithful would like to see. Strangely, the arrival of the company#39;s first signature wearable has inspired the below bizarre take on an iPhone 7 that borrows the watch#39;s novel dial, called the ;digital crown; by Apple.据美国科技媒体网站The Verge4月21日报道,《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)披露,谷歌即将推出其专属的无线务,并将于4月22日正式公开。正如之前流出的消息所言,该务运行于Sprint公司和T-Mobile公司的网络,而且前期只能兼容谷歌Nexus6(上图)。预计该手机能够根据两个网络信号的强弱进行切换。《华尔街日报》还表示,客户将只需付他们使用的手机流量费用,而不是每月购买固定的手机流量,还会失去未使用的手机流量。Like Google Fiber, Mountain View#39;s foray into high-speed broadband, the wireless service won#39;t be a mainstream offering — at least at first. ;We don#39;t intend to be a carrier at scale,; Google senior VP Sundar Pichai said at Mobile World Congress last month. ;I think we#39;re at the stage where we need to think of hardware, software, and connectivity together. We want to break down the barriers on how connectivity works.;Sprint担忧搭载谷歌的访问量过大,与Google光纤(Google Fiber)及芒廷维尤(Mountain View)的高速宽带相同,谷歌无线务将不会是一个主流的产品,至少在前期会这样。“我们不打算做成运营商的规模。”在三月的移动通信世界大会(Mobile World Congress)上,谷歌高级副总裁桑达尔·皮查伊(Sundar Pichai)说道,“我认为我们如今所在的阶段,正是需要我们考虑硬件、软件,以及如何将两者完美统一的阶段。我们要打破阻碍统一工作的障碍。”Still, Sprint reportedly had concerns about carrying Google#39;s traffic, with chairman Masayoshi Son said to have agreed to the deal under the condition of volume limits that allow for renegotiation if Google#39;s service becomes too big.不过,据报道,Sprint公司担心搭载谷歌的访问量过大,该公司董事长孙正义(Masayoshi Son)表示,其与谷歌达成协议,同意在谷歌务量过大的情况下,进行流量限制。 /201504/371805

Ride-hailing company Uber is willing to pay up to billion for HERE, a Nokia-owned mapping service that competes with Google Maps, the New York Times reports.据《纽约时报》报道,租车务公司Uber有意以30亿美元收购诺基亚旗下的地图务HERE,后者与谷歌地图一直在竞争。Nokia, a Finnish company you probably best know for itstrademark and stubbornly infectious ringtone, is undergoing a highly transformative shift. Once a leading smartphone maker, it’s now focusing networking hardware business. The biggest sign of that shift: Nokia sold its handset division to Microsoft for more than billion last year. So it makes sense for Nokia to want to unload its mapping unit, for which it could earn a pretty penny while also increasing the company’s focus.芬兰公司诺基亚留给人们最深的印象,可能是它的商标和熟悉的手机铃声。该公司正在经历大规模的转型,这家曾经的手机巨头如今正专注于网络硬件业务。最大转型标志是,公司在去年以70亿美元的价格将手机部门卖给了微软。所以,诺基亚想要出售地图部门也不难理解,这不仅能给公司带来一大笔资金,还能提高公司的专注度。But why would Uber want a mapping company? Two reasons.不过Uber为何想买一家地图公司?原因有二。Uber’s backend systems are powered by Google Maps. When you load up Uber’s app and drop a pin for a pickup, that’s Google Maps. When your driver is following GPS directions to your destination, that’s Google Maps too. Uber’s recent moves into shipping packages rather than people signal it’s interested in becoming more of a full-on logistics company, akin more to UPS than your local yellow cab service. For Uber, having its own mapping unit would reduce its dependence on another company — Google — while it continues to evolve.Uber的后台系统由谷歌地图持。当你加载Uber应用,并标示搭车地点时,用的就是谷歌地图。当你的司机按照GPS指示前往目的地时,用的也是谷歌地图。Uber最近将重心转向递送包裹而不是乘客,体现出他们有兴趣成为一家全方位的物流公司——类似于UPS那种,而不是一家出租车公司。对Uber而言,拥有自己的地图部门,可以让公司在不断演变发展的同时,减少对谷歌的依赖。There’s another factor at play here, too. Uber executives haven’t been shy about their fondness for driverless cars; the company is partnering with Carnegie Mellon University to work on the technology. After all, robots don’t strike for higher wages, nor do they assault passengers.还有另一个因素是:Uber的高管从不避讳他们对自动驾驶汽车的热爱。公司正与卡耐基梅隆大学合作研发这项技术。毕竟,机器是不会为了索要更高薪水而罢工的,它们也不会殴打乘客。Driverless cars need two things to work. The first is on-car sensors, which constantly monitor for changing road conditions that require an immediate response, like pedestrians and stop signs. The second is maps, which tell the car where to go on a bigger scale. For driverless cars to be feasible, the maps that power them have to be updated constantly. Imagine a driverless car doesn’t know that construction means a bridge is out, for instance: Dead end. Acquiring HERE, then, would help Uber more quickly realize a future where driverless cars get us all from A to B without us batting an eyelash.无人驾驶汽车运行离不开两样东西。一样是车载感应器,它能实时监控行人或停车信号等需要立即反应的路况。另外一样则是地图,它能纵览全局,告诉汽车该走哪条路。要使无人驾驶汽车成为现实,后端持的地图需要不断地更新。设想一下,假如一辆无人驾驶汽车不知道前方有座桥已经不能走了,就会走进死路。收购HERE以后,Uber就能更快地实现自动驾驶汽车的未来,人们不必双眼一眨不眨地盯着路况就能从A地来到B地了。 /201505/375619

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