时间:2019年06月16日 15:01:36

If you struggle to know when it is appropriate to give someone a hug or even simply pat them on the arm, help is at hand。如果你不知道何时与人拥抱或轻拍对方手臂比较合适,这里就有现成指南帮你解决这一难题。Oxford University scientists have created a series of body maps that show just where we are comfortable to be touched。牛津大学的科学家制作出了“身体地图”系列,告诉人们别人碰我们哪些部位会感觉舒。The ‘touchability index’ provides colour-coded information for everyone from our nearest and dearest to extended family, casual acquaintances and complete strangers。该图表通过不同的颜色来显示“可触碰指数”,范围包括最亲密的人、家人、点头之交以及陌生人。Not surprisingly, the study of five European countries found that buttoned-up Britons were the least touchy-feely。这个针对五个欧洲国家的研究发现:不出所料,沉默寡言的英国人是最不喜欢被别人触碰身体的人群。It also showed – again, unsurprisingly – that the less we know someone, the less comfortable we are to be touched by them。该研究还显示,同样在意料之中的结果还有——越不熟悉的人触碰我们,越让我们感到不适。However, there was one noticeable exception。然而,有个例外值得引起人们关注。Men, it seems, have no areas which would be completely off limits to a touch from a total stranger – as long as the stranger is a woman。对男性而言,只要对方是女性,即使是陌生人也没有触碰禁区。Working with Finnish scientists, Oxford University psychologist Professor Robin Dunbar set out to investigate where we are comfortable to be touched and just how much the answer depends on who is doing the touching。牛津大学心理学教授罗宾-邓巴与芬兰科学家合作,调查何种程度的触碰可以被我们所接受,以及触碰人身份不同对这一行为的影响有多大。Almost 1,500 men and women from Britain, Finland, France, Italy and Russia were given a series of outlines of the human body and asked to colour in which parts they would allow someone to touch, front and back。他们给来自英国、芬兰、法国、意大利和俄罗斯等国家约1500名男性和女性发了一系列人体图谱,让他们将可触碰区域用颜色进行标记,包括前身和后身。Each person created touchability maps for 13 members of their social network, including their partner, their parents, their siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins and acquaintances。每位参与者针对13种不同社会关系制作了可触碰身体图,包括配偶、父母、兄弟、阿姨、叔叔、表亲和熟人等。They also coloured in two more shapes, one for a stranger of each sex。受访者还标出了针对同性与异性陌生人的可触碰图。In general the closer the relationship, the fewer areas of the body that were taboo, although people tended to be uncomfortable about letting anyone except their nearest and dearest touch their erogenous zones。通常情况下,关系越亲密,可触碰的雷区就越少。但人们普遍不愿意让最亲密的人以外的人触碰自己的性感带。This meant that while a woman might be happy for her uncle to stroke her back, her front would be off limits。 And male strangers should note that almost all parts of the female body are to be avoided, other than the hands。这意味着,一名女子可能乐意让自己的叔叔拍她的后背,而前身则为禁区。男性陌生人应注意,除了手,女性几乎所有部位都是碰不得的。Interestingly, the men studied had a different viewpoint。有趣的是,受访男性对此持不同观点。They didn‘t want another man touching them, with even the head and the feet no-go zones。男性不希望同性碰触他们,甚至连头和脚都是禁区。However, almost the entire male body was up for grabs to a female stranger or acquaintance, with no part considered taboo。然而,几乎所有男性都愿意让陌生女性或熟人触碰身体的任何部位,没有禁区一说。In fact, for men, a woman they barely know has similar ‘touching rights’ to a parent and more than a brother or sister, the journal Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences reports。 Although the reason for this is not clear, the study did find that the more pleasurable a touch was believed to be, the larger the body area that person was allowed access to。英国皇家科学院(Royal Academy of Sciences)在《论文集》(Proceedings)杂志发布的报告称,事实上,对于男性而言,一位几乎不认识的女性拥有与其父母和兄弟几乎等同的“触碰权利”。虽然原因尚不明确,但研究发现,触碰令人越愉悦,此人被允许触碰的区域就越多。Despite their tactile reputation, the Italians were only slightly more comfortable with touching than the British。 The Finns were the most relaxed about being touched。 However, the differences were small and the results were broadly similar across all the countries studied。撇开触觉方面,意大利人的可触碰程度只比英国人稍高,而芬兰人是最愿意被触碰的人群。但这种差别很微小,且几乎所有国家的研究结果都非常相似。Professor Dunbar, a leading evolutionary psychologist, said touch helps maintain relationships by triggering the release of endorphins, the feel-good brain chemicals usually associated with exercise。顶尖进化心理学家邓巴教授称,人们在触碰时会促使内啡肽分泌,可产生愉悦情绪,有助于维系人际关系。内啡肽这种物质通常与运动有关。He said: ‘Touch is universal。 While culture does modulate how we experience it, generally we all respond to touching in the same way。他表示:“触碰是非常普通的动作。虽然文化使人们对感触的感觉不同,但通常我们会通过相同的方式来回应别人的触碰。”‘Even in an era of mobile communications and social media, touch is still important for establishing and maintaining bonds between people。’“即使在移动通讯和社交媒体的时代,触碰仍是建立和维持人际关系的重要方式。” /201510/406697

Ming Dynasty明朝The Recapture of Taiwan by Zheng Chenggong郑成功收复台湾As an island in East Asia, Taiwan (台湾)is located off the coast of mainland China, south of Japan and north of the Philippines.作为东亚的一个小岛,台湾位于中国大陆沿海地区,日本的南部和菲律宾的北部。It is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the South China Sea, to the west by the Taiwan Strait and to the north by the East China Sea.台湾东临太平洋、南临中国南海、西接台湾海峡、北接中国东海。The island is 245 miles long and 89 miles wide and consists of steep mountains covered by tropical and subtropical vegetation.小岛长245英里、宽89英里,岛上布满了覆盖着热带和亚热带植被的崇山峻岭。Evidence of human settlement in Taiwan dates back 30000 years.台湾岛上的居民区可追溯到30000年前。Records from ancient China indicate that Han Chinese might have known of the existence of the main island of Taiwan since the Three Kingdoms period, having assigned offshore islands in the vicinity names like Greater and Minor Liuqiu (琉球),though none of these names have been definitively matched to the main island of Taiwan.中国古代的记录显示中国人早在三国时期就已经知道了台湾本岛的存在,并把其周边沿海的岛屿命名为大琉球和小琉球,尽管这些名字没有一个与台湾本岛完全相配。It has been claimed but not verified that Zheng He (郑和 Ming Dynasty) visited Taiwan between 1403 and 1424.据称郑和曾在1403到1424年间到访过台湾,不过这个信息并没有得到实。In 1624, the Dutch established a commercial base on Taiwan and began to import workers from Fujian and Penghu as laborers, many of whom settled.1624年,荷兰人在台湾建立了一个商业基地并开始从福建和澎湖征收劳动力,这些人大部分都在台湾定居了。The Dutch made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Tainan.荷兰将台湾变成了自己的殖民地,首都位于台南。In 1661,Zheng Chenggong (郑成功)led his troops to a landing at Lu’ermen to attack Taiwan.1661年,郑成功带领军队驻扎在鹿耳门攻打台湾。By the end of the year, he had chased out the Dutch, who had controlled Taiwan for 38 years.到这一年的年末,他赶走了控制了台湾38年的荷兰人。Following the fall of the Ming dynasty (明朝),he retreated to Taiwan as a self-styled Ming loyalist, and established the Kingdom of Dongning (东宁王国 1662—1683).明朝灭亡后,郑成功撤回台湾,在当地自封为反清复明之人并建立了东宁王国(1662——1683)。Zheng Chenggong establishing his capital at Tainan and he and his heirs continued to launch raids on the east coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty, in an attempt to recover the mainland.郑成功定都台南,他和他的继位者们依旧从中国大陆东岸向清朝发动袭击,企图光复大陆。At the age of 39, Zheng Chenggong died of malaria, although speculations said that he died in a sudden fit of madness upon hearing the death of his father under the Qing.郑成功39岁那年死于疟疾,尽管有传言说他是在听到自己的父亲被清朝迫害后死于突然的发疯。His son, Zheng Jing (郑经),succeeded as the King of Taiwan.他的儿子,郑经,继承了他的位子。In 1683,the Qing dynasty (清朝)defeated the Zheng holdout, and formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province.1683年,清军战胜了郑家军的顽强抵抗,官方宣称台湾为附属国,归于福建省管辖。Following the defeat of Zheng’s grandson to an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang, Zheng’s followers were expatriated to the farthest reaches of the Qing empire, leaving approximately 7 000 Han on Taiwan.自从郑成功的孙子被施琅大将军的无敌舰队击败后,郑成功的追随者被大清帝国流放到了最偏远的地区,台湾岛上大约有7000汉人留下了。The Qing government wrestled with its Taiwan policy to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, which led to a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights.清朝为了减少这个地区的海盗和流浪者就实行了台湾本土的政策,这带来了一系列管理移民和尊重当地原住民的法令。Illegal immigrants from Fujian continued to enter Taiwan as renters of the large plots of aboriginal lands under contracts that usually involved marriage, while the border between taxpaying lands and “savage” lands migrated east, with some aborigines while others retreated into the mountains.来自福建的非法移民不断进入台湾,这时纳税人的土地和蛮人的土地之间的界限向东迁移,他们作为原住民大部分土地的合约承租人通常都与当地人结婚,而其他一些原住民已经退回了山中。During this time, there were a number of conflicts involving Han Chinese from different regions of China, and between Han Chinese and aborigines.在这段时期,来自中国不同地区的汉人之间有矛盾,汉人和当地的原住民间也有矛盾。The bulk of Taiwan’s population today,the “native” Taiwanese,claim descent from these migrants.今天我们所说的台湾的“当地”人其实是指这些移民的后裔。 /201512/412261

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