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Classic of Mountains and Seas《山海经》Shan Hai Jing(Classic of Mountains and Seas)was an important geo-graphical literature on geography in ancient China. The currently availa-ble version includes 18 volumes,among which 5 volumes are Shan Jing(Classic of Mountains),8 volumes are Hai Jing(Classic of Seas),4 volumes are Da Huang Jing(Classic of Big Land)and 1 Volume Is Hainei Jing(Classic of Mainland).It is said that Shan Hai Jing was written by Yu,one of the forefathers of ancient Chi-na,but the saying is quite doubtful.《山海经》是中国古代的重要地理文献。现在的版本有十八卷,包括《山经》五卷、《海经》八卷、《大荒经》四卷、《海内经》一卷。传说是禹所作,不太可信。In this book, Shah Jing and Hai Jing form their own specific systems accord-ingly,while they were finished in different periods,Share ,Zing contains the descrip-tion of famous mountains and great rivers,propagation and minerals on the main-land. It is estimated that this part of the book was finished in the early or mid peri-od the Warring States Period. Hai Jing contains a great deal of alien legends,fairy tales home and abroad,and was written in the Qin Dynasty ( 221 一206 ) or atthe beginning of the Western Han Dynasty.《山海经》的《山经》和《海经》各成体系,成书的时代也不一样。《山经》涉及巫术较多,记载了海内名山大川、动植物产、祯祥怪异等内容。写作年代一般推测为战国初期或中期。《海经》则是方士用书,记载海内外怪异传闻,还有大量神话传说,写作时代是秦(前221一前206)或西汉初年。Shan Hai Jing,containing rich legends and fairy tales,is very valuable for historical study,especially helpful for research on primitive society in China,and the primitive surname,tribes,and knowledge and understanding of the universe,nature and social development.《山海经》中有丰富的神话传说资料,具有重要的史学价值,这有助于研究中国的原始社会和上古的姓氏、部族,及上古人对宇宙、自然和社会历史的认识状况。According to the records in Shan Hai Jing,the Yellow Emperors is the heavenly emperor of the west. He was the great grandfather of Zhuan Xu(a legendary ancient emperor),the grandfa-then of Guan. He was also the ancestor of many tribes inside and outside China. Di Jun has no re-cords in other books and is not listed among San Huang Wu Di(Three Emperors and Five Gods),and is the only heavenly emperor in Shan Hai Jing.In this book, he was the inventor of farming,craft, vehicle,boat, musical in-struments,singing and dancing. Together with Xi(the legendary goddess),he gave birth to 10 suns and 12 moons,which relate to the astronomy and the calen-dar. There are still many legends about the water-control of the Great Yu,battle between the Great Yu and Gong Gonq .and so on.根据《山海经》的记载,黄帝是西方的天帝。他不仅是撷项的曾祖、稣的祖父,还是中国境内和四裔许多部族共同的祖先,这对研究中国民族史有着重要价值。帝俊在其他书中没有记载,也没有列人三皇五帝之中,他是《山海经》中独有的天帝。《山海经》把农、工、车、舟、琴瑟、歌舞的发明权都归于他,还说他和羲和生了十个太阳,又生了十二月,这又和天文历法有了关系。《山海经》中还有关于大禹治水、禹攻共工等神话传说。 /201512/410683。

The moment Google announced it was letting users download their entire search histories, I clicked — and downloaded a cache of 128,948 searches, the sum total of my last 12 years, five months, one week and three days online. I fully expected to be reminded of those repeated requests for ‘‘Finnish gymnastics’’ and ‘‘comorbidity of insomnia and brain lesioning,’’ but what surprised me was how regularly I searched for other search engines: ‘‘alternative search engines,’’ ‘‘alt search engines,’’ ‘‘search engines that aren’t Google,’’ ‘‘search engines better than Google.’’谷歌(Google)刚一宣布用户可以下载完整的历史搜索记录,我就去点了——于是下载了128948条搜索缓存,这是我过去总在网时长——12年5个月1周零3天——的搜索量。我期待着被一些重复的词条提醒:“芬兰体操”、“失眠共病与脑损伤”。然而让我感到惊讶的是,我搜索其他搜索引擎的频率竟如此之高:“其他搜索引擎”、“替代搜索引擎”、“除谷歌以外的搜索引擎”、“比谷歌好用的搜索引擎”。That’s how I first found my way to Mystery Google, a site that within a year of its introduction in 2009 rebranded itself as Mystery Seeker, the name under which it still operates. The site, in any iteration, has always been an enigma. It’s not clear who founded it, or who runs it, or whether it changed its name because Google threatened legal action or just acquired the domain. By contrast, what the site does is remarkably transparent. You type what you please and click Search; what you get in return are the results for the last query given to the site.我就是这样发现了“Mystery Google”。它上线于2009年,在不到一年时间里重新做了品牌推广,更名为“Mystery Seeker”,现在也还叫这个名字。不管叫什么,这个网站一直都是一个谜。创建它的人未知,运营它的人未知,更不知道更名是否是迫于谷歌的法律威胁,还是谷歌吞掉了这个域名。与此相反的是,这个网站的工作机制很容易理解。用户随便敲进去什么喜欢的东西,点击“搜索”,收到的结果是网站收到的最后一个搜索请求的结果。For example, just now I typed “Who runs Mystery Seeker?” and received results for ‘‘lesbian kittens’’ — apparently the request of the user just before me. The site is an exercise in collective perversion, an antisocial yet communitarian prank. You have to give before you receive, so while I began every session trying to baffle the subsequent seeker, I always ended up off-site, having been outclassed by a stranger: pages on Lincoln-assassination conspiracy theories, Nazi time travel, Mesoamerican apocalypse prophecies and, inevitably, pornography.举个例子,现在,我打入“运营Mystery Seeker的人是谁?”,收到的结果是关于“同性恋小母猫”的搜索内容——显然,我之前的一个用户搜索了这个词条。这个网站是一个集体变态下的行为,一种反社会但又彼此相交流的恶作剧。收到结果之前,你必须给予结果,每次我开始想要给下一个搜索者制造点困惑,我都被陌生人比下去,以出局收场:刺杀林肯阴谋论的文献资料,穿越到纳粹,中美洲末日预言,还有无法避免地,色情。Whenever the results I got were smutty, or racist, I’d respond — I flattered myself that I was responding — by searching for ‘‘feminism’’ or ‘‘peculiar institution.’’ If I got results pertaining to ‘‘Mad Men’’ or ‘‘The Office,’’ the next search I’d log would be for Shostakovich or Goya. These were feeble, futile gestures, of course, self-congratulatory exercises in compensatory karma. I was telling my successor to get some culture. I should’ve been telling myself to get a life.只要得到荤一点的结果,或者种族主义的,我都会回应——我让自己觉得我是在回应——通过搜索“女性主义”或者“奴隶制度”。如果我得到了《广告狂人》(Mad Men)和《办公室》(The Office)的搜索结果,我的下一条搜索会是“肖斯塔科维奇”或“戈雅”。这些是羸弱而又无意义的举动,当然,也是一种自吹自擂的自作自受。我是要告诉我的下一位,有点文化吧。其实我也应该告诉自己,有点生活吧。At the same time, I was investigating the more practical, or just more traditional, alternatives to Google: Bing (owned by Microsoft), Yahoo (operated by Google back then and by Bing now), Info.com (an aggregator of Yahoo/Bing, Google and others) and newer sites like DuckDuckGo and IxQuick (which don’t track your search history), Gibiru and Unbubble (which don’t censor results) and Wolfram Alpha (which curates results).与此同时,我确实在深入研究更加实用,或者说更加传统的谷歌替代品:微软所有的必应(Bing),以前由谷歌运营而现在归于必应的雅虎(Yahoo),雅虎、必应、谷歌和其他引擎的集合品Info.com,还有一些新一点的网站,如DuckDuckGo和IxQuick。IxQuick不记载用户的搜索历史,另外还有Gibiru和Unbubble,不审查结果审查,以及对结果进行编排处理Wolfram Alpha。They were all too organized, too logical — the results were all the same, with only slight differences in the order of their presentation. It seemed to me that the Search Engine of Tomorow couldn’t be concerned with the best way to find what users were searching for, but with the best way to find what users didn’t even know they were searching for.不过这些都太过组织化、逻辑化,它们的搜索结果都差不多,仅在展示的顺序上有细微差别。对我来说,未来的搜索引擎不是去搀和着研究什么最好的方式,以知道用户在搜索什么,而是去研究用户自己都不知道他们在搜索的东西。Among the more entertaining challengers was Bananaslug.com: You type in a word and choose a category — Archetypes, Colors, Emotions — from which the site selects its own word to search in tandem. For instance, I typed in ‘‘Guantánamo’’ and chose the category Jargon Words; the site appended the word ‘‘parse.’’ The results of this collaboration comprised two types of hits: op-eds about the effects of closing the Guantánamo Bay prison and op-eds about the effects of keeping it open. Both sides found the future difficult to parse.存在一些更具精神的挑战者,Bananaslug.com是其中之一:你敲进去一个词,选择一个种类——原型,颜色,情绪——从你选择的种类里,这个网站会选择它自己的关键词来叠加搜索。比如,我就敲进去“关塔那”,然后选择“行业术语”这个种类;网站会挑选“分析”。这样的结果是两个,一个是关闭关塔那监狱的观点,另一个是开放的观点。两边都觉得未来很难分析。Millionshort.com elides the top 100, 1,000, 10,000, 100,000 or one million results of your search, providing more direct connection to less popular chatter. Wackosearch.com determines pertinence by impertinence: Search for “surrealism,” and get sites for the I.C.B.E. (the International Center for Bathroom Etiquette) and an online pregnancy test; search for “socialism,” get sites called Corpses for Sale or Create Farts, and feel proud that in America even irrelevancy is calculated — and while that irrelevancy is free, its method of calculation is proprietary.Millionshort.com则会忽略用户搜索结果的前100、1000、10000、10000或1000000个,这样,它提供了一种联系,让用户接触到不那么流行的话语材料。Wackosearch.com则以不合理性定义合理性:搜索“超现实主义”,得到国际洗手间礼仪中心(the International Center for Bathroom Etiquette),还有,一个线上怀测试;搜索“社会主义”,得到“待售死尸”(Corpses for Sale)和“制屁”(Create Farts)网站,然后你还会感到骄傲,因为在美国,连非相关结果都被计算了。虽然非相关结果是免费的,但这种计算方法是有专利的。Today, most search engines can differentiate among the meanings of “free,” though I’m not always convinced their users can. Google might cost nothing to use, but it compiles dossiers on consumers that it charges advertisers to access. The hope, and the pleasure, of tinkering around with nonsensical search engines has always been the generation of nonsensical data: a man (me?) clicking links for what he doesn’t need or want (latex lederhosen?) can’t be marketed to. There was joy in this, a pubescent pride in having jammed the system and evaded its consequences. This was recreation as political act — or so it seemed.如今,许多搜索引擎都可以区别“免费”这个词的多种含义,虽然我并不觉得他们的用户都能分辨其中的差别。使用谷歌可能不会花任何钱,但谷歌整理了关于用户的私密数据,并以这种档案的接近性向广告商要价。修改这些无意义的搜索结果的乐趣和希望在于,产生出无意义的数据:一个点击了他并不需要或者想要(上胶的皮短裤?)的链接的男人(我?),无法成为市场推广的目标了。这其中自有快乐,就像是一种青春期时期的自豪,给系统添点堵,并逃离后果。也像是类似政治行为的一种消遣——或者,看上去是吧。But as I immersed myself in the workings of search as research for a novel, I became disabused of the idea. My mode of protest was too quixotic: A number of the alt-search engines I’ve mentioned are built on the Bing platform, or are ‘‘Powered by Google,’’ according to the tagline that such sites are required to display. After all, the biggest companies have the best algorithms; smaller sites merely engineer filters and tack their humor on.不过,随着我慢慢像为一本小说做研究一样沉浸在这些搜索的运行原理中,我开始不这么信任这种想法了。我的反抗模式过于浮夸:从网站上被要求显示的标语中可以看到,好几个我提到的替代的搜索引擎,其实是在必应上建立的,或者由谷歌持的。总之,最大的公司拥有最好的算法。小网站仅能够做些过滤,然后融入他们自己的幽默。Even if the joke was on me, I liked it all the same. Besides, it was worth it for the education. I enjoyed the laughs; let them enjoy the data.就算我自己成了一个笑话,也还是乐此不疲。无论如何,这个过程总值得学习。我享受这些笑点,那么,也让那些人去享受他们的数据吧。 /201508/392906。

It is sometimes cited as proof of Silicon Valley’s “no-holds” war for talent, but America’s technology heartland has evolved a working culture that is simultaneously relaxed and permissive.硅谷已发展出一种轻松宽容的职场文化,它有时被援引为这个美国科技中心 “不择手段”争抢人才的据。Famously, Google offers engineers the freedom to pursue their own projects for up to 20 per cent of their working time. Meanwhile, Netflix allows its staff the unheard-of-in-America privilege of unlimited vacations. The streaming firm also hit the news earlier this month when it offered new parents fully-paid leave for a year after birth or adoption.其中著名的是,谷歌(Google)允许工程师利用他们至多20%的工作时间来自由从事自己的项目。与此同时,Netflix给予其员工在美国闻所未闻的无限休假的特权。这家视频流媒体公司还在本月初上了新闻头条——它允许新晋为父母的员工在生产或是领养孩子后享受一年的全薪休假。It is an approach that seems designed to appeal to a particular type of individualist cum self-starter. Or, as the Harvard Business Review succinctly put it: “Only fully formed adults need apply.”这种方式似乎旨在吸引特殊类型的个人以及积极主动型人才。或者,正如《哈佛商业》(Harvard Business Review)简单说的那样:“只有完全定型的成年人才应该适用。”But dispensing vacation perks along with the air hockey tables is not the only way to run a tech company. A few hundred miles up the west coast in Seattle, a very different style prevails. Where Silicon Valley celebrates the laid-back culture of its pioneering 1960s and 1970s, Amazon has a flavour more evocative of ancient Sparta.但给出特殊的休假福利并提供空气曲棍球桌,并非是运营科技公司的唯一方式。在美国西海岸位于硅谷以北数百英里的西雅图(亚马逊(Amazon)总部所在地),一种截然不同的风格盛行。硅谷标榜自己开创性的上世纪六七十年代留下的轻松文化,但亚马逊的风格更令人想起古代的斯巴达。Criticisms of its approach are not new and were aired in Brad Stone’s 2013 book, The Everything Store. But they have now been given a fresh outing in a lengthy expose in the New York Times, citing scores of interviews with present and past employees.对亚马逊管理方式的批评并非首次出现,布拉德斯通(Brad Stone)在2013年的著作《一网打尽》(The Everything Store)中就提到过。但现在《纽约时报》(New York Times)在一篇长篇报道中援引对该公司现任及前任员工的数十次采访,对其管理风格进行了全新的揭露。People who do well are said to be those who thrive in an adversarial environment with constant friction. The online retailer’s founder, Jeff Bezos, apparently abhors what he calls “social cohesion”. He prefers the idea of his staff duking it out, using data and the power of argument. And according to the New York Times, employees are encouraged to report each other using a management tool designed to give anonymised feedback both to the individual criticised and their boss.干得好的员工据说是那些能在冲突不断的对抗性环境中平步青云的人。这家在线零售商的创始人杰夫贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)似乎憎恶自己口中的“社会凝聚力”。他喜欢让员工以数据和辩论为武器彼此争斗。根据《纽约时报》的报道,亚马逊员工被鼓励使用一个旨在向被批评员工及其老板发送匿名反馈的管理工具互打报告。Mr Bezos has given a measured response. While declaring the article “doesn’t describe the Amazon I know or the caring Amazonians I work with”, he also urges workers to come forward and contact him directly if they are aware of such practices. Given the gravity of some of the allegations, it leaves an equivocal impression; one he could have dispelled by promising to examine his own company records.贝索斯做出了慎重的回应。在宣称该文“所描述的并非我了解的亚马逊,亦非每天与我一起工作的有爱心的亚马逊人”的同时,他还敦促员工如果知道此类做法,就可以提出来,并直接与他联系。鉴于其中一些指控非常严重,这种回应给人一种模棱两可的感觉;他本可以承诺检查自己公司的记录来消除这种感觉。There is, of course, no excuse for unfair treatment. But when it comes to Amazon’s overall style, it is less clear what Mr Bezos has to justify. Amazon’s employees are not slaves. Many of its managers and engineers are highly employable elsewhere. Nor has its approach damaged the retailer. Now valued at 0bn, the 21-year-old company recently overtook Walmart as the world’s biggest general retailing group. It does not obviously lack for computing or management talent. Indeed it is constructing an enormous campus in Seattle where it plans to bring tens of thousands of them in one place.当然,任何借口都不能用来进行不公平的待遇。但就亚马逊的整体风格而言,看不出有什么是贝索斯必须明合理的。亚马逊的员工并非奴隶。它的许多经理和工程师在其他地方很容易找到工作。这种管理风格也没有对这家零售商造成伤害。现在这家成立21年之久的公司的市值为2500亿美元,最近超过沃尔玛(Walmart),成为全球最大的综合类零售集团。它看起来并不急缺计算或管理人才。实际上,该公司正在西雅图修建一座庞大的园区,计划将数万人才汇聚在一起。People often see the tech world as in some way unique. But there is no reason that it requires a management approach any more homogenised than industries that flourished before the world wide web. Not every investment bank has the work ethic of Goldman Sachs, nor management consultancy the culture of a McKinsey. Employees do not just work for a company because its bosses smile. They do so because they believe in its business model, or think they will derive fulfilment from sharing in its success.人们通常认为科技世界在某种程度上是独特的,但没有理由要求该行业拥有比在万维网出现之前蓬勃发展的行业更为同质化的管理方式。并非每家投行都有高盛(Goldman Sachs)的职业准则,并非每家管理咨询公司都有麦肯锡(McKinsey)的文化。雇员不会仅仅因为老板微笑就为一家公司工作。他们为公司工作是因为他们相信其业务模式,或者认为他们将从分享该公司的成功中获得成就感。Mr Bezos is at the hard-nosed end of US entrepreneurship. But until there is further evidence that his approach is deterring vital staff from joining Amazon, or driving customers to competitors, he is unlikely to change — and there seems little reason why he should.贝索斯属于美国创业家中的强硬派。但在有进一步的据表明,他的做法吓阻了关键员工加入亚马逊,或者促使客户转向竞争对手之前,他不太可能做出改变——他似乎也没有应该改变的理由。 /201508/394834。