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Books and Arts; Book Review; Culture on television; The cruellest cut;文艺;书评;电视上的艺术;最粗鲁的裁汰;The South Bank Show: Final Cut. By Melvyn Bragg.《南岸秀:最终裁汰》Melvyn Bragg著。The “South Bank Show” has for years been almost the only serious regular culture programme on ITV, Britains main commercial broadcaster, the intellectual conscience of an increasingly tacky network. Now, after profiling artists of all persuasions for 32 years, it has been axed, and the pretence of intellectual respectability abandoned. In his new book Lord Bragg, the shows presenter, looks back at 25 of his subjects, weaving excerpts from their interviews into fuller artistic portraits.“南岸秀”作为英国主要的商业广播机构ITV的一档固定节目,多年来一直秉承严肃的文化主题风格。在这么一个日渐俗套的电视网络中,它还留有知识分子的良知。32年来它描绘了持有各种信念的艺术家,现在,ITV将该节目连同它那受人尊敬的知识分子外衣,一并抛弃了。“南岸秀”的主持人Bragg阁下在他的新书中,回顾了他所做的其中25期节目,并力图从那些访谈摘录中编织出更加完整的艺术人像。The “South Bank Show” has been a long-running answer, indeed rebuke, to the hoary old question about the relative merits of John Keats and Bob Dylan. Its ethos has been that quality should be recognised in popular as well as elite culture, an approach that led to it being criticised as at once worthy and trivial. This collection, like the programmes run, opens with Paul McCartney: “I led with McCartney”, Lord Bragg writes, “because I wanted to show I was serious.” Several of his interlocutors—such as David Puttnam and David Hockney—are of his generation, and like him came from the British provinces to London in the 1960s and 1970s to explore and exploit “a new classless culture, sexy and delighted with itself”.“南岸秀”一直在回答(事实是在非难)约翰济慈和鲍勃迪伦孰优孰劣这个老调的问题。它的一贯主张就是节目品质既要为精英文化所接受,又应该被普罗大众所认知,这也使得人们批评它是“良莠并存”。这本汇编集和节目一样都是从保罗麦卡特尼开始的,“我之所以把麦卡特尼当做头条”Bragg阁下说道,“是因为我想向大家表明我严肃的态度。”他的一些访谈对象——如大卫普特南和大卫霍克尼——与他是同时代人,和他一样在1960和1970年代从英国其他省份来到伦敦,来探索开拓一种“新的性感的自我愉悦的无阶级文化”。Probably the most affecting profiles, however, are of more exotic figures: Luciano Pavarotti (“He gives a good name to ‘simple and ‘spoiled”), Rudolph Nureyev (“one of the most dramatic and unlikely personal journeys in art in the 20th century”), and a twin depiction of Barry Humphries and Dame Edna that brilliantly draws out the co-dependency of comedian and character. The books many biographical curiosities—such as the fact that Sir Harold Pinter once worked as a chucker-out at the Astoria ballroom—make it an entertaining volume to dip into. But it also offers some cumulative lessons.最动人的艺术肖像,也许是那些更具异国情调的人:卢西亚诺 帕瓦罗蒂(他给“简单”和“过分”作出了优秀的定义),鲁道夫 纽瑞耶夫(20世纪艺术领域最具有戏剧性和最不可思议的个人历程之一),还有对巴里 汉弗莱斯和埃德娜女爵士几乎相同的描述,精辟地诠释了喜剧演员和戏剧角色之间的互相依存。本书收录了很多令人好奇的人物轶事——例如哈罗德品特先生曾经在阿斯托利亚舞厅当保镖的一段经历——令览阅时意趣盎然。不过它当然也提供了一些经验教训,令人开卷有益。One is about Lord Bragg. In Britain he is the target of much backbiting, often motivated by ill-disguised envy for his success and his sheer industry (he is a prolific writer and radio presenter, among other commitments). Here he comes across as a lucid, supple and valuable analyst of many artistic genres and their varying different potential; he is good on the relative merits of television and film, for example, and on the alchemy of acting. He is a fine er of faces, and a useful tutor in the craft of interviews: when to press, when to sit back, when to needle and when to leave be.其中一些就是关于 Bragg阁下的,在英国他是众多谗言攻击的目标,那些诋毁他的人经常毫不掩饰地表现出对他的成功和他所从事的纯粹行业的嫉妒(除了其他工作,他还是一个多产作家和电台主持人)。在这里他看上去似乎是一个思路清晰柔顺的分析者,对不同艺术流派及其变化发展有着颇具价值的看法;他了解电视和电影的相对优势,例如,两者表演方法的各自魔力。他善于察言观色,是访谈技巧方面的大师:有张有驰,亦紧亦松,收放自如。Together his essays offer some intriguing generalisations about the making and methods of artists. The backgrounds of the people Lord Bragg examines are often humble but disciplined; typically they are exposed to art, or encouraged into it, by some fortuitous incident or acquaintance.总体来看,书中文章对艺术家的成功之道和创作方法做出了有趣的概括。Bragg阁下的受访者并非都是身世显赫,但是家教严明;他们因为偶然的机遇与艺术结缘,或是在熟人的鼓励下跨入艺术的殿堂,这样的情况很有代表性。He looks for turning points in lives and careers (Tracey Emin being abused by her ex-lovers during a dance competition; Pavarottis mother siding with her son when his father wanted him to find another job). Writing of David Lean, he summarises the pattern as “a very early passion which quickly became an adolescent obsession which became an adult, single-minded struggle to have it realised.”他寻找着艺术家生活和职业的转折点(特雷西 艾明在舞蹈比赛中受到前恋人的辱骂;当帕瓦罗蒂的父亲要他换一份工作时,他的妈妈站在了儿子这一边)。写到大卫里恩时,他这样总结大卫里恩的成功轨迹:“从早期的喜爱很快过渡到青少年时期的狂热,最后转变为成年后一心一意奋力地去实现。”The subjects are mostly less exercised by meaning than by form. And, for many—Eric Clapton, Francis Bacon, Ingmar Bergman, Pinter and others—there is ultimately a sense of mystery and spontaneity; of art coming from elsewhere.“南岸秀”的节目对形式的雕琢大都重于对意义的挖掘。而且很多的艺术家——埃里克 克莱普顿、弗兰西斯 培根、英格玛 伯格曼、品特和其他的一些艺术家——存在着一种终极的神秘感和与生俱来的艺术感觉,他们的艺术天赋好像并非来自这个俗世。 /201306/242787。

Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科学出版The price of information信息的价格Academics are starting to boycott a big publisher of journals学术界开始联合抵制某个大型期刊出版商SOMETIMES it takes but a single pebble to start an avalanche.有时一块小卵石就足以使冰山崩裂。On January 21st Timothy Gowers, a mathematician at Cambridge University,一月二十一日,剑桥大学数学家Timothy Gowers写了一篇文,wrote a blog post outlining the reasons for his longstanding boycott of research journals published by Elsevier.其中陈列了其长期抵制埃尔塞维尔科学出版社的研究期刊的原因。This firm, which is based in the Netherlands, owns more than 2,000 journals, including such top-ranking titles as Cell and the Lancet.这个总部位于荷兰的公司主营的期刊就有2000多,包括《细胞》和《柳叶刀》等世界一流的刊物。However Dr Gowers, who won the Fields medal, mathematicss equivalent of a Nobel prize, in 1998, is not happy with it, and he hoped his post might embolden others to do something similar.然而菲尔兹奖得主Gowers士对它不满,并希望其文可以鼓励他人联合抵制。It did.他目的达到了。More than 2,700 researchers from around the world have so far signed an online pledge set up by Tyler Neylon,Gowers士的同事Tyler Neylon受到该文的鼓舞,在网上发起请愿,a fellow-mathematician who was inspired by Dr Gowerss post, promising not to submit their work to Elseviers journals,目前已有来自世界各地的2700多名研究者签名,他们承诺不会投稿到Elsevier的期刊,or to referee or edit papers appearing in them.也不会推荐或编辑上面刊登的文章。That number seems, to borrow a mathematical term, to be growing exponentially.签署的人数—借用数学术语来说—似乎呈指数增长。If it really takes off, established academic publishers might find they have a revolution on their hands.如果这真的形成一股风气,那已成立的学术出版社可能面临一场大变革。A bundle of trouble麻烦不断Dr Gowerss immediate gripes are threefold.Gowers士的不满可以分为三点。First, that Elsevier charges too much for its products.首先,Elsevier的产品要价太高。Second, that its practice ofbundling journals forces libraries which wish to subscribe to a particular publication to buy it as part of a set that includes several others they may not want.其次,它将几种刊物捆绑出售,这就让想要订阅其中某种刊物的图书馆不得不将囊括了他们不想要的刊物的系列刊物全买下。And third, that it supports legislation such as the Research Works Act, a bill now before Americas Congress that would forbid the government requiring that free access be given to taxpayer-funded research.第三,它持研究工作法等立法,该法案无须通过美国国会,就可以阻止政府为纳税人资助的研究小组提供免费通道。Elsevier insists it is being misrepresented.Elsevier坚称自己是被误解了。The firm is certainly in rude financial health.无疑该公司的财务状况很强健。In 2010 it made a 724m profit on revenues of 2 billion, a margin of 36%.2010年其收入有20亿欧元,热利润只有7.24亿欧元,利润幅度达36%。But it charges average industry prices for its products, according to Nick Fowler, its director of global academic relations,然而其全球学术关系部门领导Nick Fowler认为其开价属于行业平均价格,and its price rises have been lower than those imposed by other publishers over the past few years.而且过去几年来,其价格涨幅要比其它出版商要低。Elseviers enviable margins, Dr Fowler says, are simply a consequence of the firms efficient operation.Fowler士称,Elsevier那让人眼红的盈利幅度,只是该公司高效运转的结果。Dr Neylons petition, though, is symptomatic of a wider conflict between academics and their publishers—a conflict that is being thrown into sharp relief by the rise of online publishing.然而,Neylon士的请愿不过是学术及其出版商之间矛盾扩大化的一种象征——由于网络出版业的崛起,这种矛盾已经得到大大的缓解了。Academics, who live in a culture which values the free and easy movement of information have long been uncomfortable bedfellows with commercial publishing companies,学术,能生长于一个重视信息传播的自由性与方便性的文化环境中,同时也是一个愿意无偿编辑和评判文章的事物。which want to maximise profits by charging for access to that information, and who control many of the most prestigious scientific journals.但长期以来,学术与商业化出版商就格格不入,后者希望通过向信息获取者收费从而使利润最大化,此外还掌控着大多数最负盛名的科学刊物。This situation has been simmering for years.这种局面已经酝酿多年了。In 2006, for example, the entire editorial board of Topology, a mathematics journal published by Elsevier, resigned,比如,2006年Elsevier出版一本数学期刊《地志学》时,整个编辑委员会都提出辞呈,citing similar worries about high prices choking off access.并对高价掐断信息来源的行为表示类似忧虑。And the board of K-theory, a maths journal owned by Springer, a German publishing firm, quit in 2007.而德国某出版公司Springer旗下的一本数学期刊《扭结理论》的编辑委员会也于2007年辞职。To many, it is surprising things have taken so long to boil over.酿就一件事花费如此长的时间让很多人大跌眼镜。Academics were the internets earliest adopters, with all the possibilities for cutting publishers out of the loop which that offers. And there have indeed been attempts to create alternatives to commercial publishing.学术界是最早采纳互联网的。却是有人试图为商业出版提供更多选择。Cornell Universitys arXiv website was set up in 1991.康奈尔大学的arXiv网站于1991年成立。Researchers can upload maths and physics papers that have not been published in journals.研究员可以上传一些还没在期刊上发表的数学及物理文章。Thousands are added every day.每天添加的文章成千上万。The Public Library of Science was founded in 2000.公共科学图书馆于2000年成立,It publishes seven free journals which cover biology and medicine.它会免费出版7种涵盖生物学和医学的刊文。But despite the enthusiasm for such operations, there are reasons for the continued dominance of traditional publishers.然而,尽管人们有热情去做类似事情,但传统出版商主导地位依旧屹立不倒也有其理由。ArXivs papers, though subject to merciless post-publication commentary, are not formally peer-reviewed before they are posted.ArXiv的文章,尽管遭受到出版后的无情抨击,但他们在发表之前并没有接受同行审评。Their quality is thus rather uneven.因此其质量相当不平衡。PLoS relies partly on donations, but also charges publication fees of up to ,900 per paper.PloS的部分经济来源于捐赠,但每篇文章也收取高达2900美元的发表费。These must be paid by the authors, a significant expense for cash-strapped university departments.这些费用必须由作者承担,对于囊中羞涩的大学部门来说这是笔很大的费用。And there is also a lingering prejudice against electronic-only publishing.此外,关于只有电子版的刊物的偏见一直存在。Web-based alternatives often seem less respectable than their dead-tree counterparts.通常,相比网络版刊物,人们更尊重那些过时了的纸质版刊物。That matters, because university departments are rated both by the number of papers they publish and the reputation of the journals those papers appear in.这至关重要,因为大学部门是以他们所发表的文章数量及其所在刊物的名气程度来评级的。Youngsters, who might be expected to embrace new ways of doing things, must therefore publish in existing, reputable journals if they want recognition and promotion.因此,可能接受新方式的青年如果想要得到承认与升迁,就必须在有名气的实体刊物上发表文章。And the definition ofreputable changes slowly, since journals with the best reputation get the pick of new papers.由于新报刊能够成为最有名气的报刊,名气的定义也在逐渐改变。Commercial publishers have begun to experiment with open-access ideas, such as charging authors for publication rather than ers for ing.商业化出版商已经开始尝试开放式获取理念,比如收费对象从读者转向发表文章的作者。But if the boycott continues to grow, things could become more urgent.然而,如果抵制情绪持续增长,问题将变得更为紧迫。After all, publishers need academics more than academics need publishers.毕竟,需要学院的出版商多过需要出版商的学院。And incumbents often look invulnerable until they suddenly fall.而且往往出版商在倒下的前一刻还看起来坚不可摧。Beware, then, the Academic spring.那么,当心学术的春天到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245146。

Yeal: What would you say your attitude is toward celebrities, Don?雅艾尔:你对明星持什么态度呢,唐?Don: Do you mean whether I like them?唐:你的意思是我是否喜欢他们?Yeal: I mean are you obsessed? Do you spend hours on the Internet trying to find out what their favorite nail polish color is and whether they believe in hypnosis?雅艾尔:我是说你是否对他们着迷?你是否会花很多时间上网查看他们喜欢什么颜色的指甲油,还有他们是否相信催眠术。Don: Im fond of The BeeGees, but I dont think they wear nail polish and I could care less what they think about hypnosis.唐:我喜欢比琪乐队,但是我想他们不会用指甲油,并且我对他们如何看待催眠不怎么感兴趣。Yeal: Okay, do you believe in a just world, that life is fair?雅艾尔:那好,你是否相信在一个公正的世界里,生活是公平的呢?Don: I cant pick up a newspaper without ing evidence that life is not only unfair, but often cruel.唐:如果报纸上没有迹象表明生活不仅不公平而且是残酷的话,我也不会去读它们了。Yeal: Good. What I mean is that psychologists have found that people who believe in a just world are more likely to worship celebrities, whereas people more critical of society are less likely to obsess over a celebrity. People who strongly believe in a just world believe that life is fair, that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people. People who believe in a just world are expressing acceptance of society and its institutions. Since the celebrity system is one of these institutions researchers suggest that it makes sense that those believing in a just world would be satisfied with how celebrities are made and thus more likely to admire and even obsess over them. Vice versa, people who do not believe in a fair world might resist worshipping celebrities, and in fact question or criticize the system that produces them and decides who gets to be a celebrity.雅艾尔:很好。我的意思是,心理学家发现相信世界是公平的人更有可能追星,反之,对社会越挑剔的人则不太可能对明星们着迷。那些坚信这个世界是公正的人认为生活是公平的,善有善报,恶有恶报。相信公平的人接受这个社会以及其所有的制度。因为明星也是这个制度里的一份子,所以研究人员指出那些相信世界是公平的人对明星们感到满意,并因此崇拜他们、甚至迷恋他们,这是有道理的。反之亦然,相信这个世界是不公平的人也许不会崇拜名人,他们反而还会质疑或者批判产生这种制度和决定谁可以成为名人的社会。Don: Dont get me started.唐:别让我打开话匣子!原文译文属!201304/236179。

Business商业报道Corporate alumni公司校友Gone but not forgotten离开但不会被忘记More firms are seeking to stay in touch with former staff更多的公司正在积极尝试和以前的员工保持联系COMPANIES do not like to be abandoned any more than lovers do.公司可不喜欢被职工像背叛情人那样背叛它们。Workers who quit are sometimes escorted out by security guards, their smartphones confiscated and their e-mail accounts deactivated.有时候离职的员工是由保安陪同离开公司的,他们的手机会被没收,电子邮件账户也会被注销。But in the professional services, former employees are increasingly treated as assets, not turncoats.但是在一些专业的务领域,先前的职员被越来越多的公司视为资产,而不是背叛者。Borrowing the concept of alumni relations from universities, such firms are trying to stay in touch with departed workers, hoping to turn them into brand ambassadors, recruiters and salespeople.这些公司正是借鉴了大学的校友关系这一概念,试图和离职的职员保持联系,希望他们能够成为自己品牌的宣传大使、招聘者和销售员。The notion was pioneered by McKinsey, a management consultant.这一概念最先被一家管理咨询公司麦肯锡所采用。Its up-or-out promotion system generates a steady stream of staff leaving on relatively friendly terms, many of whom go to work for potential clients rather than rival consulting firms.麦肯锡不升职就离职的晋升体系使得公司定期都会以相对温和的态势流失一批人才,其中的大部分人都选择了去为麦肯锡的潜在客户工作,而不是效力于麦肯锡的竞争对手也就是其他的咨询公司。McKinsey has an online database of 27,000 former consultants.麦肯锡拥有一个由两万七千名前麦肯锡咨询师组成的线上数据库,They are given access to a website which posts alluring job vacancies and regular presentations on business trends from the firms analysts.麦肯锡给予这些前雇员一些权限,让他们能够在网站上看到一些吸引人的空缺职位信息和由麦肯锡分析师所做出的定期商业趋势预测的报告。McKinseys closest competitors have embraced this model.麦肯锡最大的对手也采取了这一策略。The Boston Consulting Group, for example, refers to its leavers as graduates.例如,波士顿咨询,把这些离职者视为毕业生。It helps them to find new jobs, and even to negotiate a good contract with their new bosses.它能够帮助离职者找到新的工作,甚至能够和他们的新老板们建立一个良好的合作关系。Once they have left, they continue getting free strategic advice from the firms partners.虽然他们离职了,但是还是能得到原来公司伙伴的免费战略建议。In return G asks alumni to help it recruit new graduates, and to brief them on the state of the industries they are now working in.作为回报,波士顿咨询希望离职者能够帮助他们招募新的毕业生,并向他们简要介绍各自工作的行业的现状。And of course, it hopes they may send a bit of work in its direction.当然,波士顿咨询也希望离职者能够给他们一些生意。An obvious risk is that this makes businesses reluctant to hire ex-consultants, fearing that they will be double agents whose loyalty lies with the old firm.建立公司校友网络的一个显要风险就是,因为害怕这些离开老东家但仍旧对旧主有很高忠诚度的员工会变成为双方务的双重间谍,很多公司不愿意雇佣跳槽过来的咨询师。The consulting firms argue that there is little danger of this:但咨询公司却认为这样做并不存在什么风险:few businesses hire, or buy advice, from just one firm, so it would be hard for one firms alumni to get away with unjustifiably favouring their old employers.很少公司会仅仅从一家咨询公司购买战略建议,所以能让这些公司校友侥幸助老东家一臂之力的机会是非常有限的。I wouldnt say Im blindly loyal, says Jim Whitehurst, a former G partner who runs Red Hat, a big software company.前波士顿咨询合伙人、现红帽子软件公司老板吉姆·怀特赫斯特说:我不会说自己是盲目地忠诚,But I do use G more than any other firm.但是比起其他咨询公司,我的确更偏向波士顿咨询。Among the biggest accounting firms, Deloitte helps departing employees update their curricula vitae in the hope this will encourage them to stay in touch and PwC has launched a recruitment campaign for former staff who want to come back and work part-time or do one-off projects.在规模最大的几家会计事务所中,德勤帮助离职的员工更新他们的简历,希望能以此鼓励他们和德勤保持联系;Linklaters, part of Britains Magic Circle of prestigious solicitors, maintains relations with ex-staff by giving them a card that provides discounts on, or preferential access to, tickets for cultural events.普华永道专门为想要回来工作或兼职或做一次性项目的员工发起了一项招聘会;年利达律师事务所是英国的神奇圈中的知名律师事务所,他们保持与前员工关系的方法是给他们一张卡,这张卡能够提供折扣优惠,或能够给他们优先访问的权利、或是能凭此参与文化活动;Among the banks, Citigroup has held more than 150 alumni gatherings since its programme started in 2011, including golf tournaments and wine tastings. Goldman Sachs has long touted its alumnis public service as a branding tool—its five most recent ex-bosses include two treasury secretaries and a senator.在众多中,自项目2011年启动以来,花旗已经举办了超过150场公司校友聚会,包括高尔夫锦标赛和红酒品酒会。长久以来高盛一直把它的校友公共务看作是一项品牌竞争力—最近的五位前任老板包括两位财政部长和一位参议员。Such close ties can be a double-edged sword. Goldmans brand as Wall Streets leading financial wizard suffered following the collapse of MF Global, a broker led by Jon Corzine, one of its illustrious ex-bosses;这样紧密的联系可谓是一把双刃剑。高盛作为华尔街金融圈的领头羊,在全球曼式金融控股公司破产之后,自己也遭受了很大损失,而促成这桩合作的正是高盛一位出色的前任老板乔恩·科尔津;McKinseys reputation for integrity was sullied when Rajat Gupta, a former managing director of the firm, was convicted of insider trading.麦肯锡因为处事正派在业内享有盛名,但这一名声却被前任董事瑞杰·笈多给玷污了,因为他被人爆出进行内幕交易。The main drawback of running an alumni network used to be its cost.运营成本是维持这样一个公司校友网络的主要缺陷。But thanks to online social media, companies now need just one programme manager for roughly every 3,500 ex-employees.但是多亏了线上社交媒体,公司现在仅仅需要一个项目经理就可以负责大约三千五百名前职员。As a result, the trend is continuing to sp. Alumni at Procter amp; Gamble and Microsoft have set up their own networks, which they administer and fund themselves.所以,建立公司职员关系网络的趋势正逐渐扩散。宝洁和微软的校友们已经成功建立了他们的关系网络,他们自己出资管理运营这一网络。The founder of the Microsoft site, Tony Audino, has started a business, Conenza, that runs other firms alumni websites.微软网站的创始者托尼·奥迪诺正是借此创立他名为科内扎的业务,用以运营其他公司的校友网络。It is hard to quantify the return that alumni networks earn on their costs, but businesses of all kinds are now being urged to set them up—not least by management consultants.事实上我们很难去量化建设公司校友网络的投资回报率,但现在各行各业都被要求快速地将这一网络建立起来—尤其是受到了管理咨询者的鼓舞。Paul Meehan, an executive at Bain amp; Company, says he advises clients that havent done so that they should regard their former staff as an untapped, hidden asset that isnt fully exploited.作为贝恩咨询公司的管理层,保罗·米汉盖尔建议那些还没有这么做的客户应该把先前的员工视为一项未开发的、还没被完全利用的隐性资产。 /201403/278871。

Millions of people go to tanning salons, some to get a base tanbefore they go away on a beach vacation.数百万的人在海滨度假之前去日晒沙龙,一些人的皮肤会晒成棕褐色。The idea of the basetan is that it will protect you from burning on your sunexcursion, so that what you end up with is a darker tan ratherthan a lobster face and discomfort.把皮肤晒成棕褐色,是因为它可以保护你免于晒伤,因此最终你的皮肤将变得更黑,而不是变红或是感觉不舒。But does a base tan protect your skin from ultraviolet damageyou cant see?但是棕褐色皮肤真的可以使你的皮肤免遭那些你看不见的紫外线伤害吗?Dermatologists say that just one trip to the tanning salon can produce DNA damage that cancause skin cancer.皮肤病学家称仅仅去一次日晒沙龙就可以引起致皮肤癌的DNA损害。Tanning booths emit about ninety-five percent ultraviolet A light and five-percent ultraviolet B light.人工日光浴场放射出约95%的紫外线A光和5%的紫外线B光。For some time, ultraviolet A light was thought to affect the aging of skin only.有时,人们认为紫外线A光仅仅是影响皮肤老化。Now dermatologistsknow that ultraviolet A light, like ultraviolet B light, also causes genetic damage linked to skincancer.现在皮肤病学家们认识到,和紫外线B光一样,紫外线A光也会产生与皮肤癌有关的遗传性伤害。One study indicated that people who used tanning beds at least once were two-and-a-half timesmore likely to develop squamous cell skin cancer, and one-and-a-half times more likely to developbasal cell skin cancer.有研究表明,至少用过一次日光浴床的那些人得鳞状细胞皮肤癌的可能性要高2.5倍,得基底细胞皮肤癌的可能性要高1.5倍。Tanning bed users are at an increased risk of melanoma too, the deadliestform of skin cancer.日光浴床使用者得黑素瘤的风险也增加了,这是一种最致命的皮肤癌。Not only can tanning inside lead to skin cancer, but the base tan that indoor tanning providescontains a sun protective factor of only about SPF-4.日光浴不仅在内部能让人体得皮肤癌,而且即使是室内日光浴提供的“日晒”防晒系数也只有SPF4。It doesnt offer good protection againstsunburn or the genetic damage that can lead to skin cancer.它们没有提供良好的保护以免受致皮肤癌的晒伤或遗传性伤害。Dermatologists recommend an over-the-counter sunscreen of SPF-15 or higher.皮肤病学家们推荐使用防晒系数15或更高的非处方防晒霜。 201405/297473。

Marmosets are small primates.绒猴是很小的灵长类。Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears.试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。Primatologists have oftenwondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drivewas more like an on/off switch.动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a studyconducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。Male marmosets havingtheir brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did!有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。But guess what elsehappened?但你猜还会发生什么情况?Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, informationintegration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brainthan a simple “have sex now” program.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the malesare evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 201405/296632。