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2019年07月17日 22:58:38 | 作者:华中文 | 来源:新华社
Russia has blocked a Facebook page calling for a protest in support of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, as the Kremlin tightens its control of the internet and social media.The move capped a week of drama in Russia, where a collapse in the value of the rouble triggered widesp alarm and rattled the population’s confidence in President Vladimir Putin.The Facebook page was set up after prosecutors on Friday asked for a 10-year jail sentence for Mr Navalny on embezzlement charges that critics say are politically motivated.As of Sunday afternoon, 12,000 people had said they would attend the protest, which was called for January 15, the date of the verdict in Mr Navalny’s case. A separate Facebook page, set up after the first one was blocked, had attracted 15,700 promises of attendance.Mr Navalny, an anti-corruption blogger sharply critical of Mr Putin, was a central figure in the 2011-12 protests that shook Moscow after the most recent presidential elections. Last year he ran unsuccessfully for Moscow mayor, but since February has been living under house arrest amid a series of investigations into his affairs.Vadim Ampelonsky, a spokesman for communications regulator Roskomnadzor, told Interfax on Saturday that the prosecutor-general had requested that access be blocked “to internet pages on Facebook which contain calls to unauthorised mass events”.The move comes amid a growing crackdown on the Russian opposition and paranoia in the Kremlin about the possibility of a popular revolution in the mould of Ukraine’s Maidan square or the Arab Spring.At his annual press conference on Thursday, Mr Putin said “the border line between the opposition and the fifth column is very thin”, using a Stalin-era term to describe traitors within Russia that Mr Putin has repopularised.翻译仅供参考俄罗斯加大了对互联网和社交媒体的控制力度,封禁了一个呼吁开展抗议活动、持反对派领导人阿列克谢#8226;纳瓦尔尼(Alexei Navalny)的Facebook网页。周五,俄罗斯检方以贪污罪提请判处纳瓦尔尼10年监禁,这个Facebook页面是在那之后设立的。批评者认为,检方这一指控带有政治目的。有人呼吁在纳瓦尔尼案判决当日,即2015年1月15日举行这一抗议活动。截至周日下午,已有1.2万人表示会参加该抗议活动。此外,在第一个Facebook网页被封之后,有人在Facebook上另外设立了一个网页。后者吸引了1.57万人表态,承诺将参与该抗议活动。纳瓦尔尼是一名对俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)持尖锐批评态度的反腐败主。他是2011年到2012年期间俄罗斯多起抗议活动的核心人物。这些抗议活动发生在俄罗斯最近一次总统选举之后,它们令俄罗斯政府十分不安。去年,他还曾竞选莫斯科市长,但并未成功。不过,自今年2月以来,他因多起事件遭到一系列调查,并一直处于软禁之中。周六,俄罗斯通信监管部门Roskomnadzor发言人瓦季姆#8226;安佩龙斯基(Vadim Ampelonsky)告诉俄罗斯国际文传电讯社(Interfax),俄罗斯总检察长要求“对含有呼吁开展未经批准的大规模事件的网页予以封禁”。这一举措的推出,正值俄罗斯加大对反对派打击力度之际。同时,俄罗斯政府还十分偏执地认为,俄罗斯可能发生乌克兰独立广场(Maidan square)模式或阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring)模式的人民革命。今年,俄罗斯加大了对互联网的管控。今年2月,俄罗斯生效了多项法律,令总检察长可以在无需法院命令的情况下,下令封禁网站或社交媒体账户。 /201412/350213From the outside it looks like an art gallery. But this is a gallery of toilets, brought to the residents of Shanghai by Roca, the Spanish bathroom people. It has loos disguised as stacks of books and conveniences that flush with grey water from the sink. The best seller is a sleek commode designed by a former Audi stylist, with a leather seat made by the people who supply BMW with motorcycle perches.从外面看上去,这像是场艺术展,但实际上它是西班牙卫浴品牌乐家(Roca)为上海市民带来的一场卫浴展。其中有外形像一堆叠在一起的书本的马桶,还有用洗手池中的污水冲水的一体式马桶。最畅销的是一款奢华时尚的马桶,设计者为前奥迪(Audi)设计师,它的真皮垫圈由宝马(BMW)托车座椅供应商打造。The best-selling colours? A striking deep red, viewed as lucky, and a deliciously understated champagne gold known as tuhaojin, or “nouveau riche gold”. Roca’s China manager says the tuhaojin toilet became popular after Apple launched a golden iPhone in China last year. “People apparently wanted a toilet like their iPhone,” he says.最畅销的颜色呢?是醒目的深红色(象征幸运),以及一种低调而悦目的香槟金色(即所谓的“土豪金”)。乐家中国的管理人员表示,苹果(Apple)去年在华发布金色iPhone后,土豪金马桶就开始走红了。他说:“看样子人们想要一个跟他们的iPhone颜色一样的马桶。”Nothing would be easier than to caricature China’s golden water closets as symbols of a civilisation in decline. But that’s not what I see in them. Because development is always, when it comes right down to it, about just such everyday intimacies: is the loo half a football field away or right next to the bedroom? Does it reek or sit there quietly conserving water? Does it open automatically, play music and let you trade stocks from the comfort of its heated surface? Proper pundits mutter darkly about rule of law and universal suffrage, shadow banking and debt defaults. But I prefer to tell a tale of toilets.将中国的金色抽水马桶讥讽为文明衰落之象征,是一件再容易不过的事情,但我却不这么看。因为真正说起来,发展总是要落实到这类日常生活的舒适感受上:厕所是离卧室有半个足球场那么远,还是紧挨着卧室?是臭气熏天,还是静音又节水?能否自动翻盖,播放音乐,让你舒地坐在加热马桶垫圈上炒股?真正的专家们严肃地讨论着法治和普选、影子和债务违约,我却宁愿讲一个关于马桶的故事。When I first came to live in China in 2008, mainland loos said “developing country” loud and clear. On our first train journey, to the home town of my then eight-year-old adopted Chinese daughter Grace, the rail car’s potty ponged so much that we could not stomach our picnic.2008年,我第一次来到中国内地生活时,内地的厕所响亮而清楚地宣告着自己“发展中国家”的身份。我们第一次乘火车去我的中国养女(当时8岁)格雷丝(Grace)的老家时,列车上的厕所臭到我们连盒饭都吃不下去。But very soon all that began to change. The train loos stopped stinking. Prefabricated stainless steel commodes showed up on all newer rolling stock, complete with staff to sluice them down at regular intervals. The only odour on Chinese trains these days is freshly brewed coffee from the dining car.但这一切很快就发生了改变。火车上的厕所不再臭气熏天,所有比较新的列车上都装了带盥洗台的预制不锈钢马桶,列车员会定期冲刷。如今在中国的火车上,唯一的气味就是餐车飘来的现煮咖啡味。Closer to home, there was “Pipi Road”, the nickname we gave to the lane just next to our house, where dozens of Shanghai taxi drivers would every day choose to relieve themselves, after dining at one of the neighbourhood dumpling emporia. The stench nearly put me off moving there in the first place. In winter the wet patches froze and in summer they steamed.我家附近有条“尿尿路”,这是我们给紧挨着我家的那条小巷起的绰号。每天都有几十个上海出租车司机在附近饺子馆用过餐后,到这条小巷里解手。臭气让我一开始差点不想搬到那儿。冬天尿液在地上冻成一块一块,夏天空气里散发着尿骚味。And then one morning, a spanking new government porta-potty turned up on Pipi Road. It was staffed from 5am to 10pm every day by a government sanitation worker charged with keeping it smelling like a Swiss meadow. Who said you need democracy to have responsive government? I can’t think of anything more responsive than putting a public convenience where it’s needed. Pipi Road has had to be rechristened.后来在一天早晨,“尿尿路”上出现了一个崭新的移动公厕。它配有专人打扫,每天从凌晨5点到晚上10点,一名环卫工人负责让它闻起来总是像瑞士的草坪一样芬芳。谁说要有民主才能有积极响应民众需求的政府?我想不出有什么比在民众需要的地方设立公厕,更能体现出政府积极响应民众需求的了。“尿尿路”现在必须得改名了。Even motorway service areas have done their bit for the toilet uprising. On a long bus journey back in 2011 I withdrew to a loo on one of eastern China’s newest superhighways, to find a room with one long ceramic trough for use by all females in need. But on a family road trip on the same motorway last month I found stalls with doors, and even loo roll. Travelling in China just isn’t what it used to be.就连高速路务区都完成了自己的厕所革命。2011年我经历过一次长途汽车旅行,在中国东部的一条崭新的高速公路的务区,我下车去方便,结果发现厕所里有一条长长的陶瓷槽,所有需要方便的女性都在那里解决。但上个月我们全家自驾出行,就在同一条高速公路上,我发现务区的厕所不但是单间,有门,甚至还有卫生纸。在中国出行已经跟过去完全不是一回事儿了。Back at the Roca bathroom gallery, the marketing manager Guillem Pages Giralt says he’s seen big changes in how private customers buy water closets too: “Five years ago a customer would just come in and say ‘which is your most expensive toilet’.” That doesn’t happen any more, he says, though Chinese shoppers do like to lie down in Roca’s bathtubs or sit on its commodes for 20 minutes or so before buying, “to make sure it doesn’t hurt the back of their legs”. But the sheer fact that they have 20 minutes (and up to Rmb30,000, or ,900) to spend making a loo purchase is good news in itself, surely. Only those who no longer worry about the necessities of life can take the time to worry about buying golden ones.再回到乐家卫浴展的话题上,营销经理吉列姆#8226;帕赫斯#8226;希拉尔特(Guillem Pages Giralt)表示,他也见了个人客户购买抽水马桶的巨大变化:“五年前顾客只会走进来问,‘你们最贵的马桶是哪个’。”他说,如今再也见不到这种事了,现在中国消费者倒是挺喜欢在购买之前,先在浴缸里躺上个20分钟,或者在马桶上坐上个20分钟之类的(“以确定他们的腿后面会不会硌到”)。当然,他们能腾出20分钟(也能拿出最多3万元人民币,合4900元美金的钱)来购买马桶,本身就是个好消息。只有那些无须再为生活必需品操心的人,才会花时间去操心购买金色马桶的事。So call me puerile, and unworthy of the pundit’s pen for pointing it out, but this is the stuff that revolutions are really made of. In my six-plus years in Shanghai, China has undergone an economic, social, cultural and technological transformation, in the water closet. A trifle, in the grand sweep of history. But it’s the trifles that count.所以,说我幼稚也好,说此事不值得费笔墨书写也罢,但这才是革命的真正组成元素。我在上海生活了六年多,在抽水马桶这件事上,中国经历了一场经济、社会、文化和技术的变革。在历史的长河中,抽水马桶只是件小事,但小事才是重要的事。 /201501/3522103.Driverless Cars3.自动驾驶汽车Worldwide, roughly 1.3 million people are killed in car accidents each year. And then there#39;s the evil of traffic itself; the American commuter is trapped in his or her car for an average of 38 hours each year. That#39;s a full week of lost productivity!每年,全球大约有130万人死于车祸。而交通本身就是罪魁祸首,一个美国上班族每年平均被困于车上38小时,这就浪费了整整一个星期的生产力。Enter the Google self-driving car, an autonomous vehicle that promises to steer clear of accidents and keep traffic flowing smoothly via algorithm. Powered by Google Chauffeur software, the car uses GPS and a rooftop scanner to stay on course and respond to nearby vehicles. As of 2013, the car was still in its beta testing phase, but dozens of robotic cars were aly on the road in California and Nevada.进入谷歌自动驾驶汽车时代,就能通过其系统运算法则减少车祸的发生,使交通流量保持平稳。车内装有强大的导航驾驶系统,它可以通过GPS 导航保持车辆在规定路线上行使,通过车顶扫描仪对临近车辆做出反应。直至2013年,这款车仍在进行第二阶段测试。但在加利福尼亚州和内华达州,一批自动驾驶车已经准备行驶上路。One of the biggest concerns about driverless cars isn#39;t a software glitch, but the awkward transition from robot mode to human mode. The soothing voice of Google Chauffeur alerts its human driver of upcoming situations that require hands-on control, like a tricky merge or a tollbooth. But Google engineers are still working out how much warning time is needed before the hand-off, or what to do if the driver has done something understandably human like doze off. No one wants to wake up behind the wheel of an SUV barreling down on a tollbooth at 65 mph (105 kph). And even fewer people want to be in that tollbooth.对于这款汽车,人们最担心的并不是软件失灵的情况,而是自动模式与手动模式之间转换的灵活性。在遇到需要手动驾驶的情况,如棘手的合并路段和进入收费站时,自动驾驶系统会用舒缓的声音通知车主。但是,谷歌的工程师们仍在测试究竟多长的缓冲时间才是合理的?或是驾驶人出现打瞌睡这样的常见行为时,该怎么办?谁也不想一觉醒来就发现自己正以65英里/时(105公里/时)的车速跟在一辆SUV的后面快速驶入收费站,甚至没有人想在收费站看到这种场景。2.Geoengineering2.地球工程The most important engineering innovations of the industrial age — motorized vehicles, electricity generation and industrial manufacturing — are the greatest sources of CO2 emissions. Since world leaders appear unwilling or unable to take meaningful action to reduce greenhouse emissions, some maverick scientists are proposing a risky solution called geoengineering.机动车辆、发电机和工业制造业是工业时代的三大重要创新工程,也是二氧化碳的主要来源。对于减少温室气体的排放,世界各国领导人都没有表现出足够的意愿及能力采取行之有效的行动,因此一些特立独行的科学家就提出了一个风险极大的解决方案:地球工程。Geoengineering uses science and technology to ;hack; the planet back into shape. Since global warming is the biggest threat, scientists are proposing creatively creepy (and very expensive) ways to artificially cool the atmosphere by either blocking the sun#39;s rays or sucking up excess CO2. Among them:地球工程是指通过科技手段像黑客一样“侵入”地球,使其恢复常态。鉴于全球变暖已成为对人类最大的威胁,科学家们提出了一些极具创造力又令人毛骨悚然(还非常昂贵)的怪招,通过阻挡太阳光或是吸收二氧化碳的方法来降低大气温度。其中有:Spraying chemical aerosols like sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere to bounce a fraction of sunlight back into space喷洒化学气雾剂(如二氧化硫)到大气中,将一部分太阳光线反射回太空。Pouring iron into the ocean to spur algae blooms that consume CO2将铁质注射入海洋,催生浮游植物繁殖以吸收二氧化碳。Spraying a mist of seawater into low-lying clouds to make them brighter, reflecting more sunlight将海水喷洒到大气中,以增加云层的亮度,反射更多太阳光线。Planting forests of artificial trees that use chemical reactions to absorb and store CO2种植“人造树”,利用化学反应来吸收和储存二氧化碳。Even geoengineering promoters warn of unintended side effects. Out-of-control algae blooms could create massive dead zones in the ocean; one nation#39;s seawater spray could cause monsoons halfway around the world; chemical reactions could cause widesp damage to natural habitats and human life. Geoengineers argue there#39;s just as much danger in doing nothing. By researching these techniques now, at least we#39;ll have some hard data when it#39;s time to push the panic button.地球工程的发起人曾警告过世人这可能会带来意想不到的副作用:失控的浮游植物会导致大量海洋生物死亡;在一个国家上空喷洒海水可能会影响到大半个世界的季风情况;化学反应会对自然环境和人类生活造成巨大损害。然而,即使听到了这样的警告,地球工程的持者们仍然认为不采取任何行动的危害更大。不过通过目前对这些技术的研究,至少在情况变得令我们不知所措的时候还能按下应急开关启动这项技术。For our last scary technology, we consider a little thing called the Internet.至于最后一项吓人的科技,我们考虑将互联网这项新兴科技纳入清单。1.Internet Surveillance1.互联网监视More than 380 million people visited Web sites owned by Google and Yahoo in an average month in 2013. Every e-mail sent through Gmail, every spsheet saved in Google Docs and every chat conversation held on Yahoo Messenger is stored in ;the cloud,; a global network of servers and data centers. You might assume that all of this private information and personal data is encrypted and protected from prying eyes. But now we know better.谷歌和雅虎网站2013年的月平均浏览量超过三亿八千万人次。每一封通过谷歌邮箱发送的邮件,每一份储存在谷歌文档的电子表格,还有每一段在雅虎通上发生的对话,都记录在云务器上—一个全球性的务器和数据中心网络。可能你还以为“窥探魔眼”这个程序可以加密保护自己的私人信息和数据,但事实不是这样的,现在真相就裸地摆在我们眼前。Thanks to the leaked revelations of former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden in 2013, we learned that the U.S. intelligence agency is actively sifting through e-mails, search histories and phone records of millions of innocent people, looking for potential terrorist activity. As part of a secret program called PRISM, the NSA won court approval to force companies like Google and Yahoo to turn over records on foreign Web users. If that wasn#39;t enough, the NSA also secretly tapped into Google and Yahoo#39;s cloud servers without the companies#39; knowledge or approval. Critics call it blatantly unconstitutional to submit every unwitting Web user to blanket surveillance.感谢前国家安全局(NSA)承包商爱德华#8226;斯诺登于2013年的透露,让我们能够了解到,原来美国情报机构一直在积极筛选数百万无辜者的电子邮件、搜索历史和电话记录,以此查找潜在的恐怖活动。作为“棱镜”这个秘密计划的参与者,美国国家安全局获得了法庭的批准,可以强行要求像谷歌和雅虎这样的公司上交外国网络用户的记录。如果这还不足以得到足够的信息,那么在没有告知相关企业并得到批准的情况下,美国国家安全局还能悄悄进入谷歌和雅虎的云务器查看信息。批评者们认为,在用户毫不知情的情况下全面监测其网络信息,这样的行为是公然违反宪法的。As scary as it is, you should assume that all your online activities are being collected by someone, whether it#39;s your Internet provider, Google or a secret government spying program. Sleep tight and don#39;t let Big Brother bite!假设你自己的网络活动正在被某人监视着,这个人可能是你的互联网务提供商,也可能是谷歌或执行着秘密监视计划的政府,想想这是多么可怕的事啊。希望你还能睡个好觉,可别被监视的大佬吓到了!审校:Fiona 校对:落花生 Freya然 /201507/385685

MUMBAI, India — If Mark Zuckerberg hopes to deliver on his vision of bringing the Internet to the four billion people who lack it, the Facebook chief will first need to make his plan more appealing to salesmen like Shoaib Khan.印度孟买——倘若马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)想实现给全球40亿上不了网的民众带去互联网的愿景,那这位Facebook的首席执行官首先要做的,是让自己的计划在绍义卜·汗(Shoaib Khan)这样的摊贩眼中显得更有吸引力。Mr. Khan’s perfume and cellphone shop in one of this city’s many slums recently displayed a large blue banner advertising Mr. Zuckerberg’s project, called Internet.org, in the back. Another sign for the free package of Internet services — offered in India through the cellphone carrier Reliance Communications — was posted prominently in front.汗的香水和手机店开在城中的贫民窟里,不久前挂了一条蓝色的大横幅,给扎克伯格的Internet.org项目做广告。前面显眼的地方还贴着另一张宣传免费互联网务的标牌,而这一务由印度手机运营商信实通信(Reliance Communications)提供。But when a reporter asked Mr. Khan about his experience with Internet.org, he had no idea what it was. After the program was explained to him, he quickly dismissed it.不过,当记者询问汗使用Internet.org的感受时,他却并不知道这到底是什么。听过关于这一项目的解释后,他很快就予以了否定。“The Reliance connection is very patchy,” said Mr. Khan, shaking his head. “I would really have to sell the customer on it.”“信实的信号时断时续,”汗摇着头说。“我得费很大劲向顾客推销。”Facebook’s rocky experience since it brought Internet.org to India in February shows that good intentions and technological savvy are not enough to achieve a noble goal like universal Internet access.自从Facebook今年2月在印度推出Internet.org项目以来,事情进行得并不顺利。此事表明,美好的愿望和运用技术的能力本身并不足以达成全民联网这样的高尚目标。The skepticism of phone sellers like Mr. Khan and the weaknesses of Facebook’s Indian partner are just two of the problems that have bedeviled Mr. Zuckerberg’s project so far.让扎克伯克的项目陷入泥潭的原因很多,而汗这样的手机卖家的怀疑态度,以及Facebook在印度的合作伙伴的不足,不过是其中一二。Internet.org’s free services — which include news articles, health and job information, and a text-only version of Facebook — are deliberately stripped down to minimize data usage and the cost to the phone company. Facebook says the primary goal is to show people what the Internet is all about. But many Indians want more and complain that, contrary to its altruistic claims, the project is simply a way to get them onto Facebook and sign up for paid plans from Reliance.Internet.org提供的免费网络务——包括新闻文章、健康和招聘信息,以及纯文字版的Facebook——被精心缩减过,其数据使用量和通信公司的成本都降到了最低。Facebook表示,其主要目标是向人们展示互联网是什么。但很多印度人想要的不止这些,并抱怨这个项目并不像它所声称的那么无私,而只是吸引他们上Facebook以及和信实通信签付费协议的一种方法。Internet activists have also attacked Facebook for cherry-picking partners to include in its walled garden rather than simply offering a small amount of free access to the whole Internet. Their concerns have struck a chord with the Indian government, which is considering new rules that would govern such free services.互联网活动人士也抨击Facebook是挑选一些合作伙伴进入其“封闭花园”,而非少量提供可以体验整个互联网的机会。他们的担忧引起了印度政府的共鸣,后者正在考虑制定对这类免费务进行管理的新制度。Mr. Zuckerberg declined several requests to discuss Internet.org. But he remains passionate about his crusade. “Internet access needs to be treated as an important enabler of human rights and human potential,” he told the ed Nations last month.扎克伯格多次拒绝就Internet.org置评。但他对自己这场神圣运动依然充满。“连入互联网应该被作为实现人权和人的潜能的重要工具来对待,”上个月他曾如此对联合国表示。The Internet.org suite, rebranded last month as Free Basics, is now in 25 countries, from Indonesia to Panama. Facebook is investing heavily in other parts of the project, including experiments to deliver cheap Wi-Fi to remote villages and to beam Internet service from high-flying drones.上个月更名为“免费基础版”(Free Basics)的Internet.org套餐务,目前已经在包括印度尼西亚和巴拿马在内的25个国家推出。Facebook正在对这个项目的其他部分进行大力投资,包括给边远山村提供廉价Wi-Fi,和通过在高空飞行的无人机发送互联网信号的实验。Mr. Zuckerberg is also determined to win over the Indian public. Last month, he hosted a live-streamed chat with India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, from Facebook’s Silicon Valley headquarters. And this week, Mr. Zuckerberg will be in New Delhi, where he will take questions from some of Facebook’s 130 million Indian users.扎克伯格还下定决心要赢得印度公众的持。上个月,他和印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)在Facebook位于硅谷的总部进行了一场现场直播的对谈。本周,扎克伯格将在新德里回答Facebook1.3亿印度用户中的一些人提出的问题。The magnitude of the task ahead was apparent during a reporter’s visit in August to Dharavi, home to as many as a million of Mumbai’s poor.8月份在居住着多达100万孟买穷人的达拉维采访期间,记者发现,前面的路显然非常艰巨。Several billboards advertised Freenet, Reliance’s version of Internet.org. But in the neighborhood’s narrow alleys, where rivulets of raw sewage competed with sandaled feet, there was little evidence that anyone had taken notice在那里,有好几个广告板上都登着Freenet的广告,后者是信实版本的Internet.org。但是在达拉维那挤满穿拖鞋的人、污水横流的狭窄小巷里,很难讲有什么人注意到了这些广告。A conversation with a dozen cellphone users at a tea shop uncovered no one who had heard of Freenet or Internet.org, but plenty of complaints about Reliance’s sluggish data network and poor customer service compared to the market leaders, Airtel and Vodafone.在一间茶馆里和十几名手机用户聊天后,记者发现没人听说过Freenet或Internet.org,但很多人抱怨,相比通信市场的领军企业Airtel和沃达丰(Vodafone),信实的数据网络非常慢,用户务也很差。At Yahoo Mobilewala, a nearby phone shop named in honor of the American Internet company, the owner Rizwan Khan, offered service from every major carrier. But his stack of Reliance chips — each in a blue Freenet envelope that said “Go free Facebook” — was gathering dust in its display case.在附近一个以雅虎这家互联网公司命名的手机店雅虎Mobilewala里,店主里兹万·汗(Rizwan Khan)提供来自各大通信商的产品。但他那堆摆在展示柜里的信实芯片——每一个都装在蓝色的Freenet 信封里,上面写着“享受免费Facebook”——正在积尘。In India, most cellular service is prepaid. Customers typically buy or refill a special chip, known as a SIM card, often loading it with a dollar’s worth of data or calls at a time. Phone-card vendors are key advisers, educating people about all their options.在印度,大多数移动通讯务都是预付费。用户往往要购买一种名为SIM卡的特殊芯片,或给它充值,他们往往一次充价值1美元的数据流量或通话时长。手机卡商贩是推荐这类卡的关键人物,会给人们介绍各种选项。“New customers don’t come looking for Freenet,” Mr. Khan said, who is no relation to Shoaib Khan. Even if Reliance’s network were good, he said, the package excludes WhatsApp, a popular messaging app owned by Facebook, and users must pay to see the photos in their Facebook feeds. “If you have to pay for data, what’s the point of calling it free?” he said.“新顾客是不会冲着Freenet卡来的,”汗说,他与前文提到的绍义卜·汗没有关系。他说,就算信实的网络真的不错,它提供的套餐中也没有Facebook公司旗下的热门通讯软件WhatsApp,而且用户必须付费才能看到自己订阅的Facebook信息中的照片。“如果用户必须为数据付费,干嘛还要说是免费?”他说。Phone-card sellers also tend to push whatever makes them the most money. Mr. Khan noted that another carrier had recently awarded him his choice of a Hero motorcycle or 45,000 rupees — nearly 0 — for signing up 1,000 customers. Reliance offered nothing similar.手机卡卖家也倾向于鼓励人们购买能让他们赚更多钱的卡,不管它是哪个公司的。汗指出,因为签了1000个用户,另一家通信商最近给他提供了奖励,他可以选择要一辆英雄牌托车或4.5万卢比(约合4450人民币)。信实没有类似的奖励措施。In more than two dozen interviews in poor neighborhoods of Mumbai, a reporter found several people who had tried Internet.org but only one who used it regularly — a 23-year-old man who said he used the free version of Facebook Messenger on the app to chat with friends when he ran out of money on his prepaid account.在孟买的穷人社区进行的20多个采访中,记者发现有好几个人曾试用过Internet.org,但只有一个人会经常使用它,这名23岁的男子表示,当他的预付费账户里的钱用光之后,他会使用免费版本的Facebook Messenger和朋友聊天。Chris Daniels, the Facebook executive who leads Internet.org, said the company is primarily trying to reach people who are completely new to the Internet.负责Internet.org项目的Facebook副总裁克里斯·丹尼尔斯(Chris Daniels)表示,该公司主要是想触及对互联网一无所知的人群。In an interview last week, Mr. Daniels said about a million people had been introduced to the Internet in India because of the program. After their first 30 days online, he said, about 40 percent of them became paying data customers, 5 percent stuck with only free services and the rest left.丹尼尔斯上周接受采访时表示,在印度,大约100万人因为这个项目而接触到互联网。他表示,在首次使用了30天后,大约40%的人会成为付费数据客户,5%的人继续使用免费务,其他人会放弃使用。“This is a program that is working to bring people online, and working incredibly well.” Mr. Daniels said. “Connectivity is something that improves people’s lives. It’s an enabler for people to be able to help themselves find jobs, help themselves improve their health situation, improve their education for themselves and their children.”“这是一个努力帮助人们上网的项目,效果非常好。”丹尼尔斯说。“接入互联网可以改善人们的生活。这能帮助他们找工作,帮助他们改善健康状况,提高他们自身及其子女的教育水平。Gurdeep Singh, the chief executive of Reliance’s consumer business, defended the quality of his company’s network, but acknowledged that it needed to do more to raise awareness of Freenet and persuade retailers to promote it.信实通信公司消费业务首席执行官哥迪普·辛格(Gurdeep Singh)为该公司网络质量做了辩解,但他承认需要采取更多举措提升Freenet的认知度,说零售商进行推销。“This is a slow process,” he said in an interview at the company’s sprawling campus in Navi Mumbai, a few miles from Dharavi. “We are fighting this huge battle against digital illiteracy.”“这是一个缓慢的过程,”他在该公司位于新孟买的庞大园区接受采访时说。“我们正在进行一场消除数码文盲的大战。”新孟买距离达拉维只有几英里远。According to Reliance research, 36 percent of phone-card sellers don’t have a phone capable of Internet access, which makes them poor ambassadors for the concept.根据信实通信公司的研究,36%的电话卡销售商没有能够上网的手机,因此,他们无法很好地推广这一理念。But Mr. Singh said Reliance was committed to Freenet, which was initially limited to seven states, and planned to offer it nationally soon. “India is at the stage where everyone must get access to the Internet,” he said.但辛格表示,信实通信公司致力于推广Freenet,计划很快在全国范围内提供务,该务起初仅限于七个邦。他说,“印度还处于让每个人获得上网途径的阶段。”While that is a goal shared by many, Facebook’s approach has run into a buzzsaw of criticism from Internet advocates here, who see it as an attempt by the world’s largest social network to become the gatekeeper to the Internet for a new generation of users.虽然很多公司都以此为目标,但Facebook的方式遭到印度互联网拥护者的猛烈批评,他们认为这是世界最大的社交媒体为了成为新一代网络用户的互联网守门人而采取的举措。“On the open Internet, everyone is equal,” said Nikhil Pahwa, editor and publisher of MediaNama, an Indian news site, who has vociferously opposed Internet.org. “On Internet.org, Facebook is the kingmaker.”“在开放的互联网,人人平等,”印度新闻网站MediaNama的总编和出版人尼克希尔·帕瓦(Nikhil Pahwa)说。“在Internet.org上,Facebook就是拥立国王的幕后主使。”帕瓦强烈反对该网站。Mr. Pahwa helped organize a campaign called Save the Internet, which rallied a million Indians to press regulators to stop Internet.org and establish rules protecting net neutrality. That principle, also a subject of intense debate in the ed States and Europe, says that Internet access providers should give customers equal access to all content.帕瓦参与组织了一场名为“拯救互联网”的运动,该运动已经召集了100万名印度人,向监管机构施压,要求它关闭Internet.org,制定保护网络中立性的规定。这一原则意味着互联网接入提供商应该为客户提供访问所有内容的平等机会。该原则也在美国和欧洲引发了激烈争论。The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India is still mulling potential regulations. In a recent interview, however, the agency’s chairman, Ram Sewak Sharma, was skeptical of Internet.org. “Maybe they have wonderful objectives, but the way it is being implemented, that’s not really appropriate,” he said.印度电信(The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)仍在考虑可能制定的规定。但最近接受采访时,该局局长拉姆·塞瓦克·夏尔马(Ram Sewak Sharma)对Internet.org表示怀疑。他说,“或许他们的目标很美好,但他们落实目标的方式实在是不恰当。”Mr. Daniels said Facebook had been listening to all the criticism and had made many changes to Internet.org, including opening it to other companies that wanted to offer free services on the platform. “We always appreciate feedback, in whatever form it comes,” he said.丹尼尔斯表示,Facebook一直倾听所有批评,而且对Internet.org做出了很多调整,包括向其他希望在该平台提供免费务的公司开放。他说,“我们一直很感谢各种反馈,无论是什么形式的反馈。” /201510/406141

Nvidia wants to do for gaming what Spotify did for music.英伟达打算像音乐界的Spotify一样,在游戏界掀起波澜。Jen-Hsun Huang, CEO and co-founder of the chipset and graphic card maker, says gaming on TV right now is focused on the console. However, he believes Nvidia can expand the reach of gaming 10 to 100 times if it can make gaming more accessible by simplifying delivery of titles to a single click.这家芯片和显卡制造商的首席执行官兼联合创始人黄仁勋表示,目前的电视游戏基本上都是通过游戏机操作的。但他相信,如果英伟达能简化游戏的交付过程,让玩家只需轻轻一点就能获得各种游戏,该公司就能使玩家群体扩大10倍到100倍。Nvidia, based in Santa Clara, Calif., is launching its new Shield console, which is a high-powered Android TV device combined with the Nvidia Grid game streaming service, in May for 0. Unlike other consoles currently on the market, the Shield streams all of its content—no downloads or discs required.总部位于加州圣克拉拉市的英伟达公司,即将于5月份推出全新的“盾”(Shield)游戏机,这是一台高性能的安卓电视设备,将搭载英伟达Grid游戏流媒体务,售价为200美元。与市面上其他游戏机不同,“盾”所有的游戏都是通过流媒体来推送的,也就是说,无需下载或使用光盘。“We don’t see Shield Console competing with PS4 or Xbox One consumers,” says Matt Wuebbling, director of Shield and GeForce marketing at Nvidia. “We see this as a streaming device that delivers both entertainment and gaming in 4K. We look at it as a paradigm shift, rather than a head-to-head competition.” According to Wuebbling, Shield is the only Android TV device and only gaming device that supports 4K (Ultra HD) content on the market.英伟达“盾”与GeForce显卡事业部营销总监马特o维布林表示:“我们并不认为‘盾’是在和PS4或Xbox One争抢用户。在我们眼里,这是一台流媒体设备,它能推送4K格式的节目和游戏。我们认为这是一种模式的改变,而不是一场势均力敌的较量。”据他介绍,“盾”是市面上唯一一台持4K格式内容的安卓电视设备和游戏机。Peter Warman, CEO of game research firm Newzoo, says Nvidia has an opportunity to succeed with Shield in regions where traditional consoles have not, particularly in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Even in the larger markets where Sony and Microsoft have a large foothold, the lower price point and collection of 200 digital games at launch could lure gamers.游戏研究公司Newzoo的首席执行官彼得o沃尔曼称,凭借“盾”这一利器,在那些传统游戏机还未大行其道的地方,尤其是东欧、拉美和亚洲地区,英伟达有望大获成功。就算在那些规模较大,早已被索尼和微软瓜分掉大部分份额的市场,“盾”的低廉售价及其携带的200款数字游戏也能吸引大批玩家。“Nvidia sees first-hand how the traditional consoles are in a gridlock because of their traditional tie-in with retail,” Warman says. “By launching a high-end, completely digital solution, developers will have a lot more freedom in launching and monetizing their content, comparable to what they are used to on PC. As others are investing billions of dollars in acquiring streaming technology, patents and companies, Nvidia might just have the best solution.”沃尔曼表示:“由于跟传统的零售渠道捆绑在一起,传统游戏机往往会遭遇发展瓶颈,英伟达对此深有体会。通过推出高端纯数字化解决方案,游戏开发者推出游戏并设法赚钱时,就有了更大的自由度,这与他们在PC时代所习惯的模式有天壤之别。就在其他厂商纷纷投入巨资收购流媒体技术、专利和公司时,英伟达可能早已利器在手,胜券在握。”This expansion into manufacturing and marketing branded gaming hardware is quite a change for Nvidia. The company is primarily known as the maker of Tegra chipsets, which power everything from smartphones to the entertainment systems in cars, and GeForce graphics cards. Nvidia shipped the Shield portable in July 2013 and the Shield tablet in July 2014. Both of those devices remain on the market today, with prices starting at 0 and 0, respectively.对英伟达来说,拓展到生产领域并直接营销品牌游戏机,是一次重大转变。这家公司早年以生产图睿芯片和GeForce显卡而享誉业界。从智能手机到车载影音系统,都离不开图睿芯片。2013年7月,英伟达推出了便携式“盾”游戏机,2014年7月,它又推出了“盾”平板电脑。这两款产品至今在售,售价分别是200美元和300美元起。Lewis Ward, gaming research manager at IDC, believes Nvidia entered the games hardware space because Sony, Microsoft, and Nintendo all decided to use technology from Nvidia’s competitor AMD for their latest consoles (Sony and Microsoft previously used Nvidia technology for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.)国际数据公司游戏业研究经理路易斯o沃德认为,英伟达之所以进入游戏硬件领域,是因为索尼、微软和任天堂公司纷纷决定在其最新游戏机上使用英伟达的死对头——AMD公司的技术(而索尼PlayStation 3和微软Xbox 360使用的皆是英伟达的技术)。“Nvidia has the chipsets and it’s not a massive Ramp;D investment to transition to a fully commercialized hardware service,” Ward says. “Nvidia is not going to win this console battle, but it’ll carve out a niche of the HD TV gaming experience that will make investors happy and please the rabid gaming fan base.”沃德称:“英伟达本来就自产芯片,要转向完全商业化的硬件务并不需要巨额研发投入。英伟达并不打算赢得这场游戏机大战,但它会开拓出一片高清电视游戏体验的细分市场,这会让投资者满意,也会让游戏迷们大呼过瘾。”Ward sees the Shield console as an innovative product that also serves as an example of what can be done with Nvidia’s Tegra chips and Grid streaming technology. It’s a proof-of-concept that Ward believes Nvidia would ultimately sell to an original equipment manufacturer for the right price.沃德认为“盾”是一款创新产品,也是用来明英伟达图睿芯片和Grid流媒体技术实力的绝佳例。这也是一款带有概念验性质的产品。沃德相信,英伟达最终会以合适的价格把它卖给一家原始设备生产商。 /201504/371644

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