郑州/中牟县丰唇手术费用新华分类

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原标题: 郑州/中牟县丰唇手术费用99新闻

Woodpeckers and Fungus啄木鸟和真菌W:Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees, also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that make up their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in these trees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮(也作断枝讲),觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。M: So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?W:Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckers excavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi. Right. And this led them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyre the ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?M: So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?W:Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex. When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood. They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from one snag and carrying them in their beaks to another. And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckers that nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise. Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used for foraging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well. And now that theres debate over whether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to study potential ramifications.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 /201209/200216

Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech Today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。4,500 people worldwide have died from swine flu since March of this year. Its just a fraction of those who have contracted the virus. But health experts are trying to figure out why some people dont survive it. In Sci-tech Today, we find out the answer may lie with the lunges. And joining us now from Museum of Science Boston is Brindha Muniappan. Thanks so much Brindha for joining us.今年有4,5000人死于猪流感(甲型性流感)。我们发现只有部分接触病毒的人群患病。健康专家正在研究为什么猪流感能致人死亡。今天的Sci-tech我们要弄明白猪流感和肺的关系,波士顿科学院的Brindha Muniappan将和我们一起探讨这一问题,欢迎。Thanks Caroine. And Brindha, why is H1N1 so deadly?谢谢主持人。Brindha,为什么H1N1会致人死亡?Well, it is a type of the influenza virus, much like the flu viruses we see in the winter, our normal flu season. But the normal flu, the seasonal flu virus typically affects people who dont have very strong immune systems, like the elderly, or the very young, or even pregnant women. But the H1N1 type A influenza virus, also known as the swine flu virus has been very devastating to people whore normally healthy with strong immune systems including teenagers and young adults.这是一种流行病毒,就想冬天流感季节的病毒一样。一般的季节性病毒攻击的是抵抗力弱的人群,比如老人,小孩儿,甚至是妇。但H1N1病毒,也就是猪流感病毒,攻击的是健康人,免疫力强的人,包括青少年和成人。And so researchers have found that there is some connection to the lung—a lack of oxygen?研究人员发现这和肺缺氧有关?Yeah, so there are 3 new studies that were published in the ;Journal of American Medical Association;. And the researchers in these studies took a look at hospital records in Mexico, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. And they took a look at hospital records of people who had been admitted to the intensive care units, so people who are critically ill, who have come down with the H1N1 virus and tried to figure out if there was, commonalities, certain characteristics that were similar to these patients. And they did find that a large majority of these patients were lacking in oxygen in their bodies. So they werent getting enough oxygen to their lungs and into their bloodstream.是的,美国医学会的期刊刊登了3篇相关文章。研究人员观测了墨西哥,加拿大,澳大利亚和新西兰四个国家的医院记录,查看了加护病房的病例,研究了病重和幸存病人的数据发现了这些病人的共同特征。那就是大部分的患者身体中的氧含量低。患者不能从肺提供的血流中得到足够的氧。So how, Brindha then, dose this change the way that people are treated?那么,知道了这一点会改变医治患者的方法吗?Well, this is hopefully going to provide a lot of information and help to physicians to treat people who come down with severe cases of H1N1. Possibly by letting physicians know, well, you know, if we have a critically ill patient with this disease, we need to probably, administrate extra oxygen more than likely the patient is going to have to go on a mechanical ventilator, a machine to add oxygen to their body. Physicians are going to have to pay close attention to the patient, probably administer anti-viral medications and maybe even you know, monitor the patient and watch out for secondary infections that could be caused by other organisms, other viruses, but maybe even bacteria. So theyll also have to watch out and possibly provide antibiotics as well. But for all these patients in these 3 studies that were taken a look at. All of those patients just about all required an extensive amount of time in the intensive care units once they had come down with the severe case of H1N1.这一研究结果提供了猪流感的更多信息,并有助于医生医治猪流感患者。医生们知道了这一研究结果,面对猪流感的重症患者时,就会额外地为患者输氧,而不只是让患者从医院排风扇呼吸氧气。医生们能够密切观察病人,精确使用抗病毒药物,有效防范其他病毒细菌的二次感染,合理使用抗生素。但是这三篇文章中的所有研究对象在度过猪流感危险期后曾再次回到加护病房。All right, Brindha Muniappen, thank you so much for joining us.好的,Brindha Muniappen,谢谢你的报道。Youre welcome, Calrine.没关系,Calrine。And you can join in us every Thursday morning at this time for Sci-tech Today or log on to the Museum of Science website mos.org.每周四早晨敬请收看Sci-tech Today,或关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/181406IN 1989 Edward Kennedy tried to stop time. The ed States Coast Guard was preparing to automate and remove all remaining personnel from the old lighthouse in Boston Harbour. But Kennedy, a liberal senator from a family with deep roots in Boston, sponsored a bill requiring the Boston Light to be permanently manned. And so it soldiered on for nearly another decade, stubbornly holding to the old ways. Built in 1783, it is one of America’s oldest lighthouses (the oldest was its predecessor, which the British blew up as they slunk home in June 1776). In 1998 time and Senator Kennedy reached a compromise: the light itself was at last automated, but it remains the last one with resident Coast Guard keepers.爱德华.肯尼迪试图让时间定格1989年。当时,美国海岸防卫队正准备从波士顿港撤走所有留守人员,实现灯塔全自动化。然而与波士顿有着深厚渊源的自由派参议员肯尼迪,提出了一份议案,要求派人长期驻守灯塔。因此,灯塔由士兵守候了又是近十年光景,这样灯塔顽强地得以维持其原状。兴建于1783年的波士顿灯塔(其前身是美国最古老的灯塔,1776年6月英国人仓惶归国时,将其炸毁)是美国最古老的灯塔之一。经过长期的争取,肯尼迪最终于1998年出台了一项折衷方案:波士顿灯塔最终实现自动化,而且也是全美唯一一座由海岸警卫队驻守的灯塔。The Coast Guard took charge of America’s more than 1,000 lighthouses in 1939, when it absorbed the ed States Lighthouse Service. But it has been slowly letting them go. In 2000 the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act allowed the sale or transfer of lighthouses deemed “excess to service requirements” by the Coast Guard to private entities. Since then the federal government has moved 84 lighthouses of the 600 that were left off its books. Most have been transferred to local governments or non-profits, but 28 have been auctioned off to private individuals.1939年,美国灯塔划归到海岸警卫队。自那以后,海岸警卫队负责管理美国1000多座灯塔。但渐渐地,美国海军看护的灯塔越来越少。2000年《国家历史灯塔保存法案》允许海岸警卫队将那些被认为是“其务已不再必要”的灯塔出售或转让给私有个体。从此,美国联邦政府出售转让了书中记载的仅存的600座灯塔中的84座。大部分灯塔转交给当地政府或非营利机构,但28座灯塔已被拍卖给个人。The sad truth is that satellite navigation has made many lighthouses surplus to requirements. Shifting commercial trends have done their damage, too. More than 1,500 ships lie wrecked off North Carolina’s Outer Banks, but today these islands depend far more on tourism than on maritime trade.遗憾的是,现在有了卫星导航技术,好多灯塔根本就用不上了。贸易趋势的转变也让灯塔越来越没有用武之地。北卡罗来纳州外班克斯港有1500多艘触礁的船只残骸,然而今天这些岛屿主要依靠旅游业而不是海上贸易。Still, some fishermen enjoy navigating by light rather than satellite. Sometimes they forget to take their navigation systems on board. Bett Padgett, who heads the Outer Banks Lighthouse Society, which petitioned the federal government for funds to restore Bodie Island’s once-crumbling lighthouse, warns of solar flares knocking out satellites.然而,有许多渔民仍然喜欢利用灯塔而不是卫星来导航,所以有时候,他们会忘记带导航系统。外班克斯列岛灯塔协会(该协会曾请求联邦政府拨款整修一度年久失修的Bodie灯塔)会长Bett Padgett提醒人们太阳耀斑会让卫星暂时失灵。All that is true, but defending lighthouses as a matter of utility surely misses the point.。 Of course, lighthouses draw tourists, who spend money; one informal study estimated that restoring the Bodie Island lighthouse, which is scheduled to open to visitors for the first time in April 2013, would add .7m in total income to the regional economy.But for Ms Padgett, preserving them is a way “to give our children and grandchildren a feel for what happened in this place a hundred or two hundred years ago.” Men built them by hand to stand watch over the sea. Lighthouses remind people that as mariners battled what Walt Whitman called “the wild unrest, the snowy, curling caps—that inbound urge and urge of waves, Seeking the shores forever,” someone was watching over them, and wishing them safely home.上面说的没错,但从实用性角度为灯塔辩护,显然没有说到关键之处。当然,灯塔吸引了大批来此消费的游客;一项非官方调查预计修整 Bodie灯塔将为当地经济带来总计870万美元的收入,该灯塔预计于2013年4月首次向游客开放。但在Padgett女士看来,保存好灯塔是让“我们子孙感受一两百年来这里变迁”的一种方式。人们建造灯塔来让它们守候大海。灯塔让人们想到,当水手们与沃尔特.惠特曼笔下“那永不宁静的奔腾,那白浪般的滚卷的浪峰----那向陆地急推又急推的浪头“搏斗时,有人在灯塔上眺望,盼望他们安全归来。201204/177262

Books and Arts; Book Review;The English gentry;Happy landings;文艺;书评;英国乡绅;一路顺风;The gentry: story of the English. By Adam Nicolson.《乡绅:英国的故事》,亚当·尼克森著。Adam Nicolson has written many books on history and the countryside, including two about his familys properties at opposite ends of the British Isles, Sissinghurst Castle in Kent and the Shiant Isles in the Outer Hebrides. Now he has turned his attention to the class to which his family can be said to belong. His grandmother, Vita Sackville-West, was unashamedly a member of the aristocracy but Mr Nicolson states that the gentry has always been composed of “Gentle Ungentles”, younger sons and daughters of old families who have declined into the gentry, and “Ungentle Gentles”, people of more humble origin who through their ability and achievements have advanced up the social ladder.亚当·尼克森写过很多以历史和农村为题材的著作,其中包括介绍他家位于不列颠群岛两端的两处房产:肯特州的悉心赫斯特城堡和外赫布里斯群岛的西恩特群岛。现在他已经将注意力转向他家族所在的阶层。他的祖母,维塔·萨克维尔·维斯特,是一位生活无所顾忌贵族。 但是尼克森指出乡绅阶层是由两种人组成的:“出身绅士的平民”,他们出身于已退变为乡绅阶层的旧式家族的年轻一代;“出身平民的绅士”,也就是那些出身卑微,但是凭借自己的能力和成就挤入上层社会的人。Today the term “gentry” in Britain evokes “the introductory chat at an upper-middle-class dinner party—how did you get here, who do you know, how is Aletheia?” It suggests a cosy, genteel, exclusive and somewhat smug world in which background and family are deemed more important than individual qualities. It is also often preceded by the word “landed”. The launch of “Burkes Landed Gentry”, an encyclopedic tome first published in 1826, is partly responsible for this (though the ownership of land ceased to be a requirement for a family to appear in the book as long ago as the 1920s). But the principal reason is that the story of the gentry is all “about Land”.如今在英国“乡绅”这个词让人想到的就是“在一个上流社会的晚宴上开始闲聊的前奏——你怎么过来的啊?你认识谁呢?阿莱西娅最近可好呀?”这表明在这个亲切、高雅、排外,甚至几分自鸣得意的阶层里,一个人的背景和出身比他的品性更为重要。;乡绅;的前面也经常会加上“有土地的”这个词。这个词(即 landed gentry)的普及有一部份原因归功于1826年初版的百科全书式大本书《伯克乡绅名录》。(尽管早在上世纪二十年代,拥有土地便不再是一个家庭载入史册的必要条件)。但其主要原因在于所有关于乡绅的故事都和“土地”密不可分。Mr Nicolson has taken 12 families who are scattered all over England (strictly speaking, one is in Wales), and, using letters, diaries and legal documents, told their stories at a particular date and crisis in their existence. He has produced a wonderful portrait of England and the families that were its bedrock. The tale begins 600 years ago with the Plumptons, caught up in the Wars of the Roses, and concludes with the Cliffords, who have owned and farmed the same corner of Gloucestershire for almost 1,000 years. Whereas the core values of grace, enterprise and chivalry were crucial to the gentrys idea of themselves, Mr Nicolson makes it clear that money and conflict were as important as blood and family. The gentry were a flexible class and lived a life of struggle and competition. There was no certainty. Survival was what mattered and there was much hedging of bets.尼克森从分布在英格兰各个地方(严格说,有一个在威尔士)的十二个家族着手,并利用相关的信件、日记、和法律文书,讲述他们某段时间里的故事和生活中的危机。他描绘英国壮丽的景象,而这些家庭则构成了英国的牢固基础。故事从在600年前玫瑰战争中没落的Plumpton家族说起,到在格洛斯特郡拥有同一处土地并耕作1000年之久的Clifford家族结束。虽然乡绅阶级自认一些例如优雅,进取和骑士风度这样的核心价值是他们的重要特点,尼克森明确指出钱、斗争同血缘、家庭一样重要。乡绅阶层善于适应新的环境,他们的生活中无处不乏竞争和奋斗。生活没有确定性。生存下来才是关键,他们擅于骑墙,确保自己不吃亏。At its best the gentrys idea of goodness and civilisation was attached to a particular place and an “interfolding of people, land, animals, food, housing and hospitality”. A sense of order, sociability and well-being was expressed through landscape. Everything depended on an underpinning of money and a connection with London and Westminster was generally essential to prosperity. Many of the gentry were members of the House of Commons. Survival was often contingent on being on the “right” side during the Wars of the Roses, at the time of the Reformation, through the upheavals of the 17th century. In the 1940s Sir Richard Acland, a Christian socialist, made over the bulk of his large estate in Devon to the National Trust, but he was an exception. Not everyone was as ruthless as Henry Lascelles, who in the 1700s amassed a fortune through sugar plantations in Barbados and the exploitation of African slaves; but in general the story is of “the political and economic dominance of a…cannily self-renewing class”.只有依托于某个特定的氛围中,在土地,房屋,客人,动物,食物,宴会交相辉映的背景下,才能看到绅士文明高贵的一面。绅士阶层的秩序感、社会感和幸福感也是通过对自然景观的描述来表现。一切以钱为基础,同伦敦、威斯敏斯特(伦敦议会所在地)有关的事情通常对繁荣发展都至关重要。许多乡绅都是下议院的议员。在玫瑰战争、宗教改革、以及十七世纪动荡期,生存往往取决于站对立场。上世纪四十年代,基督教社会主义党人Richard Acland将自己大部分土地转让给国民信托组织,这在当时独一无二。十八世纪,Henry Lascelles靠在巴巴多斯的蔗糖种植园和剥削非奴积累大量财富,但并不是每个人都像他一样冷酷无情。但总体来说,这是关于这样一个精明谨慎、自我革新的阶层如何影响政治和经济的故事。In tracing the rise and fall of this ruling class, Mr Nicolson has some fascinating stories to tell, and he tells them well, not least that of the Capels, who were forced by penury to live abroad and found themselves in Brussels on the eve of the battle of Waterloo. He concludes that competition, unkindness and dominance always underlay the beautiful sense of community which the gentry world embodied. But that is life: it is “a struggle and community is political”.随着统治阶层的兴亡更迭,尼克森讲述了一些引人入胜的故事,而且他说得恰到好处,尤其是说到Capel家族因为贫穷被迫流亡海外,最终在滑铁卢战争前夕到达布鲁塞尔。乡绅所象征的优雅阶级表面之下是由激烈竞争、不近人情、恃强凌弱这些特质所撑的。但这就是人生,是一次努力奋斗,人聚集在一起就是政治。 /201303/229873

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