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东风襄樊医院治疗不孕不育多少钱襄阳妇保医院引产多少钱Politics:In his later years, Emperor Wudi squandered money, exhausting the treasuries accumulated in the eariy period.政治:汉武帝统治后期,挥霍无度,国库空虚。In order to increase the financial income, he formulated harsh laws and raised taxes, which put a heavy burden on the people.为增加收人,武帝制定重法,加税、加捐,人民负担加重。In addition to frequent natural disasters, large quantities of peasants became impoverished and went into exile. Therefore, peasant uprisings broke up constantly throughout the country.加上灾荒频繁,导致大批农民破产流亡,各地农民起义不断发生。Confronted with the social crisis, Emperor Wudi decided tQ stop wars to develop agriculture in 90 B. C..面对社会危机,公元前90年,武帝停止用兵,发展农业生产。He even went to the fields personally, showing his determination to attach importance to production and his care for people * s life.他还亲自下地表示今后要重视生产和百姓生活。With all of these measures, the country became stable ually.这样,国内才逐渐安定了下来。In 87 B. C. , Emperor Wudi fell ill on the inspection tour, and died soon.公元前87 年,武帝外出巡游,不久后病死。Only a few days before his death, Emperor Wudi named his son Liu Fuling to his successor. Huo Guang and Shangguan Jie, and Jin Midi built a triumvirate to assist the young emperor (posthumous Han Zhaodi) in government.临死前几天,他立刘弗陵为太子,命霍光、上官桀、金日磾三人辅佐太子。Emperor Zhaodi who was then only eight years old was assisted by Grand General Huo Guang, Chancellor of Military Affairs.昭帝刘弗陵继位时年仅8岁,遵照武帝遗诏由霍光辅政。Facing the intensified conflict in the later years of Emperor Wudi, the new ruler and his regents had to rely on fiscal austerity in order to stabilize the state treasury and to appease the rebellious peasants.针对武帝末年国内矛盾激化的情况,昭帝及其佐臣依靠节省财政开的办法,稳定国库,平抚暴乱农民。Taxes were lowered, and peasant labour was reduced, which lifted the yoke on the peasants.昭帝多次下令减轻人民负担,减轻赋税,减轻农民的重压。Meanwhile, the imperial court managed to improve the relationship with Xiongnu, so large-scale wars stopped, which also benefited the economic recovery.与此同时,改善与匈奴的关系,停止大规模的战争,有助于国内经济的恢复与发展。Due to the proper internal and external policies, the contradictions left in the later period of Emperor Wudi were under control, and the declining trend of the Western Han was reversed.由于内外措施得当,武帝后期遗留的矛盾基本得到了控制,衰势得以扭转。In 74 B. C. , Emperor Xuandi ascended to the throne.公元前74年,宣帝继位。He paid great attention to improving the local administration, maintaining that the method of running country should be combined with hegemony1 s and the king * s way, and objecting to the monopoly of Confucianism.他注重加强地方治理,认为治国之道应以“霸道”“王道”杂治,反对专任儒术。So during his reign, “officials were qualified to their positions, and the people were contented with their trades”.为此,宣帝统治期间“吏称其职,民安其业”。In 72 B. C. , the emperor allied with Wusun to attack Xiongnu, and then taking opportunity of the Xion-gnu’s internal splitting established a friendly relationship with Khan Han Chan Yu.公元前72年,宣帝与乌孙联合攻打匈奴,后趁匈奴内部分裂之机,与呼韩单于建立友好关 系。The Han Empire and the Xiongnu were on good terms in the next 40 years or so and the frontiers came to peace gradually.此后40多年中匈关系良好,边境地区逐步宁息。The time of Emperor Xuandi is often compared with the peaceful and prosperous time of the Emperors Wendi and Jing-di.宣帝之治常被与文景之治相媲美,史称“宣帝中兴”。Nevertheless, all of these positive measures couldn * t compeletly solve the problem that bureacrats and aristocrat annexed lands thoroughly.然而宣帝推行的一系列积极政策并不足以从根本上解决官僚贵族兼并土地的问题。In 48 B. C. , when Emperor Yuandi came to the throne, the social conflicts intensified further, and the country couldn* t recover after that, which marked the beginning of the decline of the Western Han.公元前48年,元帝继位后,社会矛盾进一步激化,终于使西汉王朝一蹶不振。In 6 B. C. , Wang Mang, a nephew of the empress of Emperor Yuandi, usurped the throne and three years later founded the Xin Dynasty.公元前6年,王莽篡位,3年后建立新朝。No long afterwards, peasant uprising broke out all over the country ,resulting in Wang Mang * s downfall and the restoration of the Han sovereignty. Chinese historians call this period as the Eastern Han.不久全国爆发农民起义,王莽垮台,汉室恢复,史称东汉。The rise and reign of the Wang Clan: Avdling himself of the political corrup-tion in the later years of the Western Han, Wang Mang, the founder of the Xin Dynasty ,usurped the throne through consort clans monopolizing power.王氏家族的崛起和篡位:新朝的创立者王莽是利用西汉末年政治腐败,通过外戚专政来夺取皇位的。Wang Mang was the nephew of the empress of Emperor Yuandi, Wang Zhengjun. When Emperor Pingdi was on the throne, Empress Wang assumed the reign of the government as grandmother. Wang Mang was designated Chancellor of Military Affairs, who was also in charge of civil administration throughout the country.王莽是汉元帝皇后王政君的侄子,平帝时王政君以太皇太后临朝称制,王莽取得大司马大将军的职位,总揽朝政。After the death of Emperor Pingdi, Wang Mang placed a two-year old baby, Ruzi Ying in 9 A. D. , on the throne.平帝死后,王莽立年仅两岁的孺子婴为帝。No more than three years, he dethroned Ruzi Ying, and proclaimed himself emperor, changing the reign motto to Xin, which marked the end of the Western Han Dynasty.不到3年,王莽便于公元9年废孺子婴,自立为帝,改国号为 “新”。西汉亡。Wang Mang pushed forward new policies and carried a series of reforms, hoping to retrieve the glory of Han by adopting policies described in the Confucian classics. He decreed that farmland be renamed as “royal land’’,slaves “private belongings”,and both prohibitted from buying and selling. Five largest markets were set up to manage business, control prices rigidly and strengthen taxes, implement economy monopoly. Currency system was changed several times, which made a multitude of currency items and complicated the exchange, which resulted in a social and economic chaos. So was the official system. Wang Mang also launched wars against Xiongnu, and ethnic minorities on the border of the northeast and the southwest.王莽在全国范围内推行“托古改制”的新政:他下令天下农田改称“王田”,奴婢改称“私属”,禁止买卖;设立五均,管理工商业,严格管制物价和加强税收,实行经济垄断;屡次改变币制,货币名目繁多,换算复杂,造成社会和经济的极大混乱;更改官制名称,滥加封赏;又发动对匈奴和对东北、西南边境各族的战争。Heavy taxes and labor corvee, together with harsh penalty, made the complaints to be heard everywhere. In addition to natural disaster in successive years and roaring prices, a nationwide peasant uprising finally broke out.沉重的赋役,残酷的刑罚,使人民怨声载道,加上连年灾荒,物价飞涨,终于引起全国性的农民大起义。The peasant rebellions in the later years of the Xin Dynasty first began in the north, and then sp to the Yellow River valley and Yangtze River valley. The first great insurrection was that of the Lulin region (in modern Hubei) led by Wang Kuang and Wang Feng in 17. This group of peasant insurgents is referred to as the Green Wood Army.新末民众起义首先发生在北方边郡地区,接着在黄河流域、长江流域也爆发了农民暴动。而第一次大规模的农民起义是公元17年发生在湖北绿林地区的王匡、王凤领导的绿林起。这起义队伍史称绿林军。Shortly after the first rebellion of the Lulin peasant, Fan Chong led an uprising at Ju (modern Juxian County in Shandong).绿林起义不久,琅邪人樊崇也在莒(今山东莒县)领导了农民起义。With its headquarters in Mountain Tai, his army quickly grew to be several tens of thousands.起义军后来以泰山地区为根据地,展开斗争。队伍很快发展到几万人。They were called the army of Red Eyebrows because they had their brows painted red as a mark of identification.因其将眉毛染成红色以识别身份,故被称为“赤眉”。Meanwhile, scores of big and small insurgent groups rose on the great plain in present-day Hebei and Shandong provinces north of the Yellow River. At Nan yang (modern Nanyang in Henan Province) Liu Xiu and his elder brother Liu Yan, both were the descendants of the Han royal family, hoisted the banner constructing the Han Dynasty.与此同时,黄河以北的河北、山东等广大地区,大大小小数十起义队伍也在迅速崛起。西汉皇室宗亲刘縯、刘秀两兄弟亦打着光复汉室的旗帜,在南阳起义。Scared with the successive victories of the rebellious armies, Wang Mang hurriedly dispatched his generals Wang Xun and Wang Yi at the head of a crack unit of 420 000 to launch yet another offensive war on the Green Wood army.起义军节节胜利王莽十分恐慌,急派王寻、王邑,征调精兵42万人,迎击起义军。Initially, they had 100 000 soldiers besiege the Kunyang city.先以10万人围攻昆阳。The insurgent leader, Wang Feng with about 9000 men held fast to the city, while Liu Xiu broke through the tight encirclement and went enlisting reinforcement elsewhere.起义军将领王凤自率约9000人坚守昆阳城,派刘秀率小部突围,收集各县起义军回救昆阳。He mustered a unit of several thousand men, and then raided on the Wang * s headquarters, which disturbed the enemies greatly.刘秀收集了数千人,突人王莽军的指挥中心,莽军大乱。The Green Woodmen defending the Kunyang city also came out to join in a converging attack on Wang Mang ’s men,who ran over each other in a helter-skelter retreat. Consequently,Wang Xun was killed,and Wang Yi fled in a fluster.城内守军乘势杀出,莽军大败,死伤无数,王寻被杀,王邑狼狈逃窜。This is the famous battle “Kunyang Campaign”,which is one of the well-known examples in the annals of war showing how a small army can o-vercome a big one.这就是军事史上以少胜多的著名战例之一“昆阳之战”。The Kunyang campaign dealt a crushing blow to Wang AAang both in military affairs and in politics. Liu Xiu also gained the prestige through the Kunyang battle.昆阳一役在军事和政治上 给王莽以沉重打击,刘秀亦因昆阳之战扬名。In 23, the Green Woodmen installed Liu Xuan as emperor, a member of the Han royal house, using the reign title of Gengshi.公元23年,王匡、王凤等立汉室宗亲刘玄为皇帝,国号“汉”,年号“更始”。However, Liu Yan disagreed with it, intending to proclaim himself emperor, so Liu Xuan and Wang Kuang killed him.刘縯极力反对立刘玄,自己很想称帝,刘玄和王匡杀掉了刘縯。Liu Xiu dared not to resist openly due to the weak forces, and outwardly showed his willingness to submit to the insurgents.刘秀因兵力薄弱,不敢公开反抗,表面上表示忠顺于起义军。Liu Xuan appointed him as general, sending him to go to Hebei to enlist services of the rebellious armies there.刘玄封刘秀为将军命他去河北招募起义军。Taking opportunity of it, Liu Xiu led the army to Hebei to conquer fields with an intention to enlarge in his own influence.刘秀乘机北上,率军到河北各地,图谋发展自己的势力。Some changes were taking place within the ranks of the rebellious army as well as in the characteristic of the peasant uprisings.起义军内部逐渐分裂,农民起义的性质正悄然变化。In 24,the Green Wood army broke into Chang ’an,where people were also y to rise in revolt.公元24年,绿林军攻破长安。此时,长安城里的起义已蓄势待发。Wang Mang fled to Jiantai, but was killed by a rebellious merchant Du Wu. His death ended the Xin Dynasty.王莽逃到渐台,被起义商人杜吴杀死,王莽的反动统治至此结束。In the same month, another detachment of the Green Woodsmen took Luoyang.同时,另一绿林军攻克洛阳。Following the fall of the Xin Dynasty, the Gengshi regime made Luoyang its capital.新朝覆灭后,更始朝定都洛阳。It sent emissaries to persuade the Red Eyebrows to surrender.刘玄派人劝赤眉军归降。When Fan Chong came to Luoyang with a score of his generals, the Gengshi authorities failed to unite with them.樊崇率手下入洛阳,但双方并未达成联合的一致意见。Conflicts began to appear between Gengshi and the Red Eyebrow, and they had to appeal to arms.更始朝与赤眉军间开始出现矛盾,最终不得不诉诸武力。In 25,the Gengshi regime moved its capital to Chang’ an. Later,the Red Eyebrow army captured Chang*an, and killed Liu Xuan.公元25年更始朝迁都长安,后赤眉军破城,杀刘玄。Meanwhile, Liu Xiu was successful in his activities in Hebei.此时,刘秀在河北进展得相当顺利。He gradually detached himself from Liu Xuan and extended his own influence, so that in 25, he proclaimed himself emperor and is known in history as Emperor Guang Wu.他逐步摆脱了刘玄的控制,扩大自己的势力。公元25年,刘秀称帝,史称汉光武帝。When the Red Eyebrows entered Chang’ an, it had been utterly dilapidated.赤眉军进人长安后,长安已残破不堪。Around it was the forces of landlords everywhere, hoisting the banner of Han, they set up separatist regimes to fight against the Red Eyebrows.长安城外到处是地主的武装,都打着 “汉”的旗号,割据一方,与赤眉军相对抗。Occupying Chang’ an for a period of time, the Red Eyebrows were starved out systematically and withdrew to the west in search for supplies, yet were caught in a heavy snowstorm with many soldiers dying of starvation and coldness. They were forced to come back to Chang’ an.赤眉军在长安日久,缺乏军粮,就离开长安向西寻找给养。又遇大雪,士卒因饥寒而死的极多,赤眉军又回到长安。At that time,Liu Xiu’s troop had marched into the Guanzhong Region and attacked them repeatedly.这时,刘秀军队已进人关中,一再进击赤眉军。With many soldiers woundedand killed, the Red Eyebrows suffered severe losses, and its strength weakened.赤眉军的士卒死伤惨重,势力大大削弱。In 27, Liu Xiu wiped out the Red Eyebrows and the remnant forces of the Green Woodsmen. Thus Liu Xiu deprived the fruits of the peasants uprising and eventually re-founded the Han house, a period began that is later called the Eastern Han or Later Han in contrast to the Western Han or Former Han because the capital, Luoyang, was to the east of the Western Han capital of Chang* an.公元27年,刘秀最终消灭赤眉军和绿林军的残余势力,从而抢夺了农民革命的胜利果实,恢复汉室,定都洛阳,后称东汉或后汉,因为洛阳在西汉都城长安以东而得名。 /201511/413018襄阳治疗慢性尖锐湿疣的医院 China has reported nearly 110,000 HIV/AIDS cases so far this year, a slight increase over last year, said the nation#39;s top AIDS specialist.据国家艾滋病专家称,今年中国报告艾滋病例接近11万例,较去年有所增加。The gay male population has been hit particularly hard, accounting for more than 25 percent of the total.男男性行为是我国艾滋病感染最多的群体,占全部病例的25%。Wu Zunyou, head of the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, made the remarks on the sidelines of the ongoing 2015 National Conference on HIV/AIDS. ;The situation among gay men is alarming and in some cities one out of five gay men is HIV positive.; In worse-hit cities such as Beijing and Harbin, more than 70 percent of the cases reported in 2015 involved gay men.国家艾滋防控中心主任吴尊友,在2015年艾滋病学术大会上进行了演讲,;男同性恋者的情况十分严重,平均每五个男同性恋者就有一个病检结果是阳性。; 病情较严重的北京、哈尔滨等城市,70%报告的病例都涉及男男性行为者。Worse, young students have been hit hard in recent years by the epidemic, he said, and 70 to 80 percent of the HIV/AIDS cases detected in 2015 among them involved gay sex. ;It#39;s a big challenge to protect young students from HIV/AIDS,; he said.更严重的是,近些年感染艾滋病的学生增加,在2015年发现的学生艾滋病的病例中,70%到80%的病例都是由于男男性行为。吴尊友称:;避免学生感染艾滋病成为一个巨大挑战。;Thanks to robust intervention efforts initiated in 2003, China has a low prevalence of HIV/AIDS (0.06 percent). But the rapid increase of HIV cases among gay men has hardly been curbed.由于2013年开始执行强有力的避免艾滋病的措施,中国艾滋病患病率仅有0.06%,但是男同性恋的艾滋发病率却很难抑制。Mainstream prevention strategies like education and behavioral intervention didn#39;t work well for them, said Wu. Condom use, for instance, has never exceeded 50 percent of the gay male population, he noted, citing previous investigations. ;I even saw a gay medical doctor who had unprotected gay sex,; he said.主要防御措施比如教育和行为上预防在男同性恋者身上效果并不是很好。吴尊友引用之前的调查说道,比如说避套的使用,使用避套的男同性恋者从未超过50%,;我甚至见过一个男同医生在性生活上不使用保护措施。;Many of them are aware of the risks and preventive measures but simply don#39;t practice accordingly, he pointed out. Wu suggested that improved treatment should be the best way to help curb the quick sp of the virus among gay men.他指出,他们中的很多人都了解感染艾滋病的风险和预防措施,只是不想这么做而已。抑制艾滋病毒在男同群体里的广泛传播的最好办法是加强治疗。HIV/AIDS sufferers are much less likely to pass the virus to others if put on antiretroviral therapy, he explained. In that regard, ;treatment is prevention,; he said.他解释称,如果接受抗逆转录病毒治疗,艾滋病毒携带者很难将病毒传染给他人,从这个角度来看,;治疗就是防治。; /201511/411529枣阳市第一人民医院治疗阴道炎多少钱

襄阳市铁路医院哪年成立Five planets will parade across the dawn sky early Wednesday in a rare celestial spectacle set to repeat every morning until late next month.周三凌晨,五颗行星将列队穿过黎明时分的天空。这一罕见天象可能每天都会出现,直到下月底。Headlining the planetary performance are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter. It will be the first time in more than a decade that the fab five will be simultaneously visible to the naked eye, according to Jason Kendall, who is on the board of the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York.这场行星表演的主角分别是水星、金星、火星、土星和木星。据纽约业余天文爱好者协会(Amateur Astronomers Association of New York)委员贾森·肯德尔(Jason Kendall)称,这将是十多年来,人们首次能用肉眼同时看到五颗行星。Admission is free, though stargazers in the Northern Hemisphere should plan to get up about 45 minutes before sunrise to catch the show. City dwellers can stay in their neighborhoods to watch, as long as they point their attention to the east, according to Mr. Kendall.演出是免费的,但为了能赶上观赏这一奇景,北半球的天文爱好者应该在日出前大约45分钟起床。肯德尔表示,城市居民可以留在自己所在的社区观看,只要把注意力集中在东方就行了。“For Mercury you will need binoculars,” he said. “It will not jump out at you, but everybody should be able to see Venus and Jupiter.”“观看水星的时候需要用双筒望远镜,”他说。“水星不会跳到你面前,但所有人应该都能看到金星和木星。”Mr. Kendall said that the hardest task for viewers will be discerning the planets from stars twinkling in the sky. But he offers a simple trick: close one eye, stretch out your arm and slowly pass your thumb over a bright dot in the sky. If the dot slowly dims out when your thumb passes over it, it’s a planet. If it quickly blinks out, it’s a distant star.肯德尔表示,观看者最难的是分辨出闪烁的恒星和那些行星。不过他给出了一个简单的诀窍:闭上一只眼睛,伸出一条胳膊,让大拇指瞄准空中的一个亮点慢慢移动。拇指经过时,亮点如果慢慢变暗便是行星,如果转瞬消失便是远方的恒星。The show is expected to run from Jan. 20 until Feb. 20, but the peak time to see all five is from the end of January until the first week of February, when Mercury is at its highest points, according to Sky amp; Telescope. The display is made possible by the uncommon alignment of all five planets along what is called the “ecliptic” plane of their orbits according to Jim Green, the planetary science division director at NASA.表演预计将从1月20日持续到2月20日,但同时看到五颗行星的最佳时间是从1月末到2月的第一周。据《天空和望远镜》(Sky amp; Telescope)杂志称,这期间水星处于最高点。NASA行星科学部门负责人吉姆·格林(Jim Green)称,这一现象之所以成为可能,是因为五颗行星罕见地沿其轨道的“黄道”面排列成了一条线。Each planet will appear in the sky one by one, starting Tuesday evening with Jupiter around 9:20 p.m. in New York. Mars will follow the gas giant’s solo debut, appearing as a reddish dot at approximately 1:11 a.m. E.S.T. Wednesday. Saturn enters next around 4:00 a.m., followed by Venus — the brightest orb — nearly an hour later. Mercury will join the ensemble last, taking the stage at around 6:17 a.m. It will last until the sun rises, at about 7:15 a.m. on Wednesday in New York, and makes it too bright to see the planets. The display will appear in the sky at similar times across the East Coast and before dawn across the northern Hemisphere.从周二晚上开始,几大行星将一个接一个地出现在纽约的上空。木星将在晚上9点20分左右,最先单独出现在空中。继木星这颗气态巨行星之后,火星将在东部夏令时间周三凌晨1点11分左右出现。人们看到的火星将是一个略带红色的圆点。接下来,土星将在凌晨4点左右上场。再过近一个小时后,最亮的星球金星将登场。最后加入的水星将在早上6点17分左右上台。这一景象将持续到日出,即纽约的周三早上7点15分左右。太阳升起后,因为光线太亮,人们便看不到这些行星了。此情此景将在差不多的时间出现在整个东海岸上空,并在黎明前出现在整个北半球的上空。“It’s not super often you get to see them all at the same time in the sky, it’s like seeing all of your friends at once,” said Jackie Faherty, an astronomer from the American Museum of Natural History. “There they are, the other rocks or balls of gas that are running around the sun.”“同时在空中看到这五颗行星的机会不是特别常见,就像同时见到所有的朋友,”美国自然历史物馆(American Museum of Natural History)的天文学专家杰基·法赫蒂(Jackie Faherty)说。“现在他们来了——其他那些围绕着太阳旋转的岩石或气团。”Those who miss the planetary alignment this time around will have another opportunity from Aug. 13 to 19, when the cosmic motley crew gives an encore performance, according to EarthSky.org. That show will take place in the dusk sky, giving stargazers in the Southern Hemisphere the best vantage points.错过这一次行星排成一线景象的人,在8月13日到19日期间还有机会。据EarthSky.org称,在那期间,这些天体会再次奉上同样的演出。届时,舞台将是黄昏时分的天空,南半球的天文爱好者将享有最佳视角。 /201601/424052襄阳市铁路医院妇科疾病多少钱 襄阳市第一人民医院属于专科医院吗

襄阳市第一人民医院女子男科听说不错,有谁去过没? The first work visitors see at the imposing new National Gallery Singapore — a 0 million complex housed in the former Supreme Court and City Hall — is a small 1865 print that could almost be a parody of colonial art.新落成的新加坡国家美术馆(National Gallery Singapore)是一处耗资3.8亿美元的建筑,位于前最高法庭与市政厅之内,参观者走进这栋壮观的建筑,最先注意到的便是一幅小小的版画,它创作于1865年,几乎是对殖民艺术的一种戏仿。The image, by the German illustrator Heinrich Leutemann, shows a tiger leaping out of the jungle at George Drumgoole Coleman, the Irish architect who helped lay out the city in its early days as a British colony. Coleman stands his ground, looking startled, while his turbaned, dark-skinned servants fall down.这件作品由德国画家海因里希·莱特曼(Heinrich Leutemann)创作,上面是一只老虎从丛林中跳出来,扑向乔治·德拉姆古尔·科尔曼(George Drumgoole Coleman),在英国殖民新加坡早期,这位爱尔兰建筑师曾经协助城市规划方面的工作。科尔曼站在那里,震惊地望着老虎,身边包裹头巾、皮肤黝黑的仆人们倒在地上。“We looked high and low to see if this actually happened, and we don’t think it did,” said Shabbir Hussain Mustafa, a senior curator at the gallery, which wrapped up two weeks of opening celebrations on Dec. 6. He pointed to another historic picture, of a bustling port. “It’s supposed to be Singapore, but it’s got camels and minarets.”“我们反复查,想知道这一幕是否真的发生过,但我们觉得并没有,”美术馆的资深策展人沙布尔·侯赛因·穆斯塔法(Shabbir Hussain Mustafa)说,该馆将于12月6日举办为期两周的开业庆典。穆斯塔法指着另一幅历史题材的画作,上面是熙熙攘攘的码头。“这本应是新加坡,但上面却有骆驼和清真宣礼塔。”Those early works, with their blend of myth and reality, colonialism and modernization, set the tone for the National Gallery’s collection, which traces the cultural and artistic shifts in Southeast Asia from the mid-19th century to the present day, including events like the Vietnam War and the effects of rapid industrialization on an agrarian society.这些早期作品将神话与现实、殖民主义和现代主义混合在一起,为国家美术馆的收藏奠定了计调,它追溯东南亚自19世纪中期到今天的文化与艺术变迁,包括越南战争等重大事件,以及高速工业化对一个农业社会所带来的影响。“This is the first major attempt by an institution to put together a collection of modern and contemporary art from Southeast Asia,” said Claire Hsu, executive director of the Asia Art Archive in Hong Kong. “It hasn’t been done before at this scale or with this depth.”“这是一个机构收集现当代东南亚艺术的第一次大型尝试,”香港亚洲艺术文献库总监徐文玠(Claire Hsu)说。“这样的规模与深度都是前所未有的。”Singapore was long seen as a city equally focused on commerce and on controlling its residents’ habits (it once banned chewing gum), a paternalistic view that included keeping an eye on the entertainment and culture its citizens were consuming.长期以来,新加坡被视为一个注重商业,同时对居民生活实行严格控制的城市(它一度禁止嚼口香糖),实行家长式统治,包括关注市民的与文化消费。A decade ago, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, the son of Singapore’s founding father, Lee Kuan Yew, who died in March at 91, mapped out a vision for the continued renewal of its civic district that would help Singapore overcome its reputation as a cultural desert. With trademark efficiency backed by hundreds of millions of state dollars, cultural landmarks were opened or renovated one by one: The National Museum of Singapore in 2006; the Peranakan Museum of local culture in 2008; and the Victoria Theater in 2014.新加坡国父李光耀于今年3月逝世,享年91岁,十年前,他的儿子,时任新加坡总理的李显龙为城市居民区制定了规划,令新加坡摆脱了文化沙漠的名声。以雄厚的经济实力为撑的标志性高效,令这里的文化地标一座接一座地兴建或翻新:2006年的新加坡国家物馆;2008年关注本地文化的土生华人物馆(Peranakan Museum),还有2014年的维多利亚剧院(Victoria Theater)。“The reality is that there will be a national agenda, to put itself in the center of the region,” said Ms. Hsu, whose Asia Art Archive has collected about 50,000 documents. “My hope is that the gallery will be a gatekeeper of these works, not merely a keeper. It should not own history, but inspire and enable others to engage with it.”“事实上,新加坡有一个国家规划,令它跻身地区中心位置,”徐女士说,她的亚洲艺术文献库收藏了大约五万份文件。“我希望美术馆能够做那些作品的守门人,而不仅仅是一个保管者。它不仅仅应当保存历史,而是应当鼓励和帮助其他人参与到这项工作中来。”More than 600 million people live in the 10 Asian nations roughly south of China and east of India, in what Eugene Tan, the director of the National Gallery, described as “one of the most culturally diverse regions in the world.” Yet much of its art has been overlooked by the West, and many significant works have been confined to private collections, partly a legacy of colonialism.在中国以南,印度以东的10个亚洲国家里,生活着6亿多人口,国家美术馆馆长陈维德(Eugene Tan)称,这里是“世界上文化多样性最丰富的地区之一”。然而,这里的艺术长期受到西方的忽视,很多重要作品局限在私人收藏的范畴,殖民主义是背后成因之一。Singapore started collecting Southeast Asian art soon after becoming an independent state in 1965, which it achieved after British colonialism, Japanese wartime occupation and an uneasy two-year stint as part of Malaysia. But until now, this part of the national collection did not have a permanent exhibition space.新加坡自1965年独立之际,便开始收藏东南亚艺术品,按照英国殖民时期、日本占领时期、作为马来西亚一部分的那动荡两年进行分类。但是直到现在,这部分国家收藏仍然没有一个永久的展示空间。To create the National Gallery, the old Supreme Court and City Hall buildings were joined by a vaulted glass atrium held up by giant metal trees. Fashionable restaurants line a rooftop garden, while the buildings’ interiors have been left intact: pillars, marble floors, high teak ceilings and walls painted blood red.为了建造国家美术馆,在旧有的最高法庭与市政大厅建筑旁边建起了一座有玻璃拱顶的天井,由巨大的金属树状结构所撑。屋顶花园上开了许多时尚餐厅,同时这两栋建筑的内部保持着原貌:柱子、大理石地板、棕色天花板与鲜红色的墙壁。A domed library is now an art research center, and two empty prison cells stand to remind visitors of the building’s past. (The museum’s promotional starts with the ominous line: “Criminal masterminds were once sentenced to hang here.”) The “surrender chamber” in City Hall, where Japanese capitulated on Sept. 12, 1945, and where Lee Kuan Yew was sworn in as the first prime minister in 1959, has been artfully preserved.馆内有一个穹顶图书馆,是它的艺术研究中心,还有两个空囚室,提醒着参观者这栋建筑的过去。美术馆的宣传视频第一句就是阴沉沉的:“犯罪高手以前就是在这儿被判处绞刑的。”市政大厅的“投降室”获得精心保存,1945年9月12日,日本就是在这里投降,1959年,李光耀也是在这里宣誓就职新加坡第一任总理。The museum has opened with about 1,000 objects on display, divided between two exhibitions. “Between Declarations and Dreams” covers the broader region, while “Siapa Nama Kamu” (which means “What’s your name?” in Malay, one of Singapore’s four official languages, along with English, Chinese and Tamil) is focused on the city-state.美术馆开放之际,展出了大约1000件展品,分为两个展览。其一是“宣言与梦想之间”(Between Declaration and Dreams),涉及较为宽泛的地域,其二名为“Siapa Nama Kamu”这是马来语的“你叫什么名字”的意思,马来语、英语、中文及泰米尔语并列为新加坡的四种官方语言,这一展览主要关注新加坡这个城市国家本身。One of the highlights of the first is “Forest Fire” (1849), the largest known painting by Raden Saleh, a pioneering artist from what was then the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). A bull and tigers tumble ferociously over each other in a large oil that was originally a gift to King William III of the Netherlands.“宣言和梦想之间”展上,最引人关注的展品之一要算是《森林之火》(Forest Fire,1849),这是荷属东印度群岛(今印度尼西亚)前卫艺术家拉登·萨尔(Raden Saleh)已知的最大作品。这幅巨大的油画上,一只公牛和几只老虎激烈地扭打,这件作品原本是送给荷兰国王威廉三世的礼物。“Because of the area’s colonial history, we had to cast our eyes beyond this region,” Lisa Horikawa, another senior curator at the gallery, said of the difficulties of retrieving works like “Forest Fire” from private collections. She added that “Forest Fire” required conservation, and that it took three years to bring it to Singapore from Europe.“由于这个地区的殖民史,我们必须让视野超越地域的界限,”美术馆的另一位自身策展人丽莎·崛川( Lisa Horikawa,音译)谈起从私人收藏家手中购回《森林之火》之类作品的困难。她还说,《森林之火》的购回经历了谈判,美术馆花费三年时间才把它从欧洲带回新加坡。Indeed, the gallery relied heavily on loans for its inaugural shows. One high-profile loan is “Put Down Your Whip,” an oil that the Chinese artist Xu Beihong painted in Singapore in 1939, on the cusp of World War II in the Pacific. It shows the actress Wang Ying as a young woman who had escaped Japanese occupation. The painting disappeared from public view in the 1950s and only re-emerged in 2007, when it was acquired by an anonymous buyer for .2 million at Sotheby’s in Hong Kong, a record high price for a Chinese painting at the time.事实上,美术馆为几场开幕展借来了大量展品。比如著名的《放下你的鞭子》,这是中国画家徐悲鸿1939年在新加坡创作的,时值“二战”战火席卷太平洋之际。画面上,女演员王莹饰演一个逃出日占区的年轻女子。这幅画自从20世纪50年代就消失在公众视野之内,直至2007年才重新出现,被一位匿名买家以920万美元在香港苏富比买下,创造了当时中国油画的拍卖纪录。Many works in the collection reveal cross-cultural influences between the West and Southeast Asia. Some are unabashedly pro-colonialist, like “Spain and the Philippines” (1884) by Juan Luna, a Filipino artist who exhibited his work in Europe. It depicts two women in draped robes, with “Spain” leading the “Philippines” up a flight of flower-strewn stairs into, presumably, the golden dawn of Western enlightenment.展览中有不少作品展现了西方与东南亚之间的跨文化影响。有些作品裸地赞美殖民者,比如菲律宾艺术家胡安·卢纳(Juan Luna)于1884年创作的《西班牙与菲律宾》(Spain and the Philippines),他曾在欧洲展出自己的作品。画面上,两个女人穿着长袍,“西班牙”领导着“菲律宾”走上布满鲜花的阶梯,可能是要走进西方启蒙的黄金黎明。Vietnamese works combine French Impressionist influences and traditional materials like silk and lacquer. Landscapes by the Indonesian artist Wakidi evoke the glowing pastel tones of Monet.越南作品把法国印象主义影响与本地的丝绸与漆器质材结合起来。印度尼西亚艺术家瓦吉迪(Wakidi)笔下的风景画令人想起莫奈闪光的淡色调。Also of note is a small 1940s self-portrait by Georgette Chen, a cosmopolitan Singaporean painter who grew up in Paris and New York before returning to Asia. “Singapore was inherently global, long before we talked about global art,” said Mr. Mustafa, the senior curator.值得一提的还有新加坡都市画家张荔英(Georgette Chen)于20世纪40年代创作的一副小小的自画像,她在巴黎和纽约长大,之后回到亚洲。“早在我们讨论全球艺术之前,新加坡就一直是全球化的,”资深策展人穆斯塔法先生说。Starting in the 1950s, the tone becomes darker, as local artists focus on social turmoil. “For the younger generation of artists, the romanticized image of the region was not sufficient,” he said.从20世纪50年代起,作品的调子开始变得阴沉,本地艺术家开始关注社会的动荡。“对于年轻一代艺术家来说,把本地的想像浪漫化已经不够了,”他说。Two works important to the city-state’s identity are “Epic Poem of Malaya” (1955) and “National Language Class” (1959) by the Singaporean artist Chua Mia Tee. Both show a local teacher or speaker inspiring groups of youth. Such images marked “the end of colonialism and the beginnings of social realism,” said Mr. Tan, the gallery’s director.展览中,新加坡艺术家蔡名智(Chua Mia Tee)的两幅作品对这个城市国家的身份显得尤为重要。一幅是1955年的《马来亚史诗》(Epic Poem of Malaya),一幅是1959年的《语文课》(National Language Class)。两张画上,都是一个本地老师或演讲者,鼓励年轻的人们。这样的画面标志着“殖民主义的终结与社会现实主义的开始”,陈馆长说。A gallery that focuses on the Vietnam War has a wall of 17 illustrations by artists sent into the field by the North Vietnamese Army. Facing them is Le Huy Tiep’s “Blood of War,” from 1972, in which corpses lie at the feet of a blindfolded man, while a mother clutches a naked child. The tips of machine guns are visible at the edge of the frame.馆中有一处越南战争主题的画廊,一面墙上陈列着17幅作品,均出自被北越军队送上战场的艺术家作品之手。对面是画家Le Huy Tiep于1972年创作的《战争之血》(Blood of War),画面上有一个被蒙住双眼的男人,他脚下都是尸体,还有一个母亲紧紧抱着的孩子,画面边缘可以看到机关的口。Over the next year, the National Gallery Singapore will be working with overseas institutions to put Southeast Asian art into a global context. Chinese museums will contribute to an exhibit space for the artist Wu Guanzhong. The Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris will lend about 100 works to a joint exhibition next spring, and “Arts and Empire,” a retrospective of British colonialism at Tate Britain, will move to Singapore next October.明年,新加坡美术馆将和海外机构合作,把东南亚艺术放在全球语境之下。若干中国艺术馆将为吴冠中作品展提供作品。巴黎的蓬皮杜艺术中心将在明年春天借出100幅左右的作品,举办联展。英国泰特美术馆的“艺术与帝国”英国殖民艺术回顾展将在明年10月移师新加坡。Mr. Tan said the rise of a new generation in Singapore, less focused on the city-state’s emergence and eager to be part of the larger world, added urgency to displaying art from the city-state and its surrounding region.陈先生说,新加坡崛起的新一代艺术家不太关心新加坡的兴起,更渴望参与到更广大的世界中去,因此展出新加坡与周边地区的艺术品,就显得更为迫切。“I think I only went to one museum as a kid,” he said, “and that was on a school trip. Singapore is a very different place now. And having a permanent space for our collection is a game changer.”“我小时候好像只去过一个物馆,”他说,“是学校组织的集体活动。如今的新加坡已经完全不同了。我们的收藏能拥有一处永久展出空间,这是改变行业的大事。” /201512/415991樊城区人民医院妇科挂号襄阳第四医院男科价位表



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