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赣州南康医院人流要多少钱赣州市妇幼保健院体检多少钱Books and Arts; Book Review;William Carlos Williams, American poet;On the outside looking in;文艺;书评;威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯,美国诗人;局外旁观;“Something Urgent I Have to Say to You”: The Life and Works of William Carlos Williams. By Herbert Leibowitz.《我有要事相告》:威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯生平及作品集。作者:赫伯特·莱维茨。To his patients in Rutherford, New Jersey, William Carlos Williams was just the local boy who had become their local doctor. And yet, as he made house calls, administered vaccinations or listened to their complaints, he heard not just what they said, but how they said it. A doctor but also a poet, Williams spent his life trying to capture the “infinite variety” of American speech, and to use it to create a uniquely American form of poetic verse.对于他的病人来说,威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯只是新泽西州卢瑟福镇一位成长为本地医生的本地男孩。可是,当他出诊、注射疫苗或者倾听病人抱怨的时候,他所听到的不只是病人说话的内容,而是他们说话的方式。身为医生却更是位诗人,威廉姆斯花费一生时间尝试捕捉美国大众语言中的“无限可能”,并以此创作一种美国独有的诗歌体裁。It was not an easy task. As Herbert Leibowitzs new biography shows, Williams remained on the periphery of 20th-century literature as he spent a lifetime in the “grey-brown landscapes” of suburbia. He was disgruntled, with a severe dislike of many of his fellow poets, especially T.S. Eliot (Williams was both admiring and disdainful of “The Waste Land”), but his poems are now held up as some of the most daring examples of modern American poetry, and he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer prize in 1963.此非易事。根据赫伯特·莱维茨新的传记作品所述,威廉徘徊于20世纪的文学边缘地带,因为他在郊区“灰褐色的风景”中度过了一生。他心怀不满,对同时期的许多诗人报以一种强烈的厌恶之情,尤其是T.S.艾略特(威廉姆斯对《荒原》既钦佩不已又嗤之以鼻),但如今他的诗歌被奉为现代美国诗歌中最大胆的典范,并且在死后他被授予1963年的普利策奖。During his lifetime, however, Williams was “lil Bill” to his bigger, more successful friend Ezra Pound, who laughed at his insistence on staying in Rutherford. The son of immigrants who never naturalised, Williamss dedication to America did not flag, though it was a country that often disappointed him. Peopling his poems with “nurses and prostitutes, policemen and religious fanatics, farmers and fish peddlers, drunkards…blues singers and barbers”, Williams wanted to pin down the whole messy country with his short, punchy lines of poetry. Sometimes he succeeded, as when he describes the euphoric crowds at a baseball game, or when he catches a glimpse of “A big young bareheaded woman/in an apron” on the pavement, bending down to remove a nail from her shoe. With the eyes of a doctor, he recorded the idian and the overlooked. He coined the maxim “no ideas but in things”. To his critics, the saying exposed him as an anti-intellectual, or as a poet who could only create “American speech barking at song.”然而究其一生,在比威廉姆斯年长、事业更成功的朋友艾泽拉·庞德看来,威廉姆斯永远都只是“小比尔”。庞德嘲笑他留在卢瑟福镇的执着。作为从未加入美国国籍的移民者之子,威廉姆斯对美国的衷心从未减退,尽管这个国家一再地令他失望。充斥在他的诗歌间的是“护士和,警察和宗教狂热分子,农夫和鱼贩,醉鬼…布鲁斯歌手和理发师”,威廉姆斯意图用他简短有力的诗句来描绘整个国家的世间百态。有时他成功了,比如他描写棒球比赛上的欢快人群,或者当他瞥见“一位硕大的年轻女子不戴帽子/穿着围裙”,在人行道上俯身擦去她鞋子上的一片指甲。他以医生的视角记录那些平凡的事和被忽视的人。他首创了“文中无意,寓境于物”的格言。对威廉姆斯的批评家来说,这个说法暴露了他不是一位智者,或者说,他只不过是一位开创了“美语吠叫诗歌”的诗人。Mr Leibowitz, a New York literary editor, is keen to defend Williams against these charges, and focuses instead on the radical aspects of Williamss work. Banned in 1952 from being poetry consultant to the Library of Congress for his left-leaning views, Williams wrote poems in which the Rosenbergs appeared next to Geoffrey Chaucer. As a young doctor just starting out, he had mainly served the Italian, Greek and Polish communities around Rutherford, or attended to bruised prostitutes or addicts at the French Hospital of New York. As an elderly man with a respected practice, he still preferred the company of the socially marginalised: “I have known the unsuccessful, [and think them] far better persons than their more lucky brothers”.莱维茨是一位纽约的文学编辑,对于这些攻击,他不仅积极为威廉姆斯辩护,还转而关注威廉姆斯作品中极端的部分。1952年,因为其左倾观点而被赶出国会图书馆的诗歌顾问职位,威廉姆斯写了一首诗,在诗中罗森格弟与杰弗里·乔叟*一同出现。作为一位刚出师的年轻医生,他主要为在卢瑟福镇附近的意大利,希腊和波兰人的社区务,要么就去纽约的法国医院医治受伤的或瘾君子。作为一位事业体面的长者,他仍然更愿意以社会边缘群体为伴:“我认识那些失意者,并认为他们是]比他们走运的兄弟们要好得多的人。”However, in emphasising this side of Williams Mr Leibowitz skates over the less palatable aspects of his subjects character. A serial philanderer who publicly described his wife as “no Venus de Milo”, his poetry is occasionally voyeuristic and antagonistic towards women: “What I got out of women/was difficult/to assess.” Bitter from his lack of success in America or abroad, and obsessed with what he saw as the “European virus” in poetry, the Williams of this biography is not easy company. His poems, composed of short lines like “be a song—made of/particulars”, often resist Mr Leibowitzs lengthy analysis. Just as he preferred the quiet meadowlands around Rutherford to the glamour of literary New York, so too Williams manages to evade his biographers gaze. Like a figure in one of his poems, he remains on the sidelines, looking in.然而,莱维茨在着重描写威廉姆斯上述方面的同时,一笔略过了他的主角品格中不太值得称道的方面。公然比喻自己妻子是“米罗的维纳斯”却到处寻花问柳,他的诗歌偶尔透露出对女性的窥私欲和轻视:“我从女人中得到的/很难/评价”。苦于他在美国或国外都缺乏成功,并且执迷于诗歌中他所谓的“欧洲病毒”,该传记中的威廉姆斯并不是惬意的阅读伴侣。他的诗歌由像这样的短句组成:“一首歌——到处是/细节”,常常与莱维茨冗长的分析矛盾。就如同他喜爱卢瑟福镇周边的安静草地甚于纽约文坛的魅力,威廉姆斯同样也设法避开其传记作者的注视。就如同他诗歌中的一位人物一般,他在局外逗留,旁观。 /201302/227529赣州仁济男科电话 Science and Technolgy科技Science in Japan日本的科学界Where rats and robots play 才学通修Japanese science needs a shake-up. A new institute in Okinawa may provide it日本的科学界需要一场变革。在冲绳,一所新的学院为这一变革提供了条件。THINK of a university and what comes to mind may be the cloistered calm of Oxford, the architectural chaos of MIT or even, perhaps, the 1950s brutalism of Moscow.谈到大学,你可能想到宁静致远、与世隔绝的牛津大学,也可能是建筑风格混杂的麻省理工大学,更甚至是50年代莫斯科的那种粗狂主义。A Daliesque building on a subtropical island, with a view of the ocean and signs on campus warning of venomous snakes, is more unusual.一座亚热带岛屿上,可以望到大海,同时也可以看到毒蛇的警告的标志。But that is appropriate, for the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST), inaugurated as a graduate university on November 19th, is intended to be unusual.就是在这样一个地方,达里艺术风格的建筑就显得格外不同。冲绳理工学院(OIST)不走寻常路的理念也适合这种风格。这所研究生学院正准备在九月十九号开学。It was built from scratch on a forested hilltop overlooking the East China Sea, and its approach to science starts from scratch too.这座建筑坐落于丛林密布的山顶,从山顶上能够望见中国东海。It has no departments. Instead, its biologists, chemists, physicists, mathematicians and computer geeks intermingle, sharing laboratory equipment, teachers and money.而其对于科学的探寻也将从此开始。这所学校没设院系。生物学家、化学家、物理学家、数学家和电脑专家会打破界限,分享实验仪器,教学资源以及资金。After two centuries of science becoming more and more specialised, the idea is to bring back the generalist.200年来,科学变得越来越往小门类发展,而冲绳理工学院却意在重回通才教育。Surprisingly, this experiment is taking place in Japan-a country with one of the most rigid academic hierarchies in the world.令人惊讶的是,这次改革试验也发生在世界学术界最古板的国度之一日本。Locating it in Okinawa, though, is a masterstroke.其中把学校设在冲绳,也是个妙招。The island, which is closer to Shanghai and Taipei than to Tokyo, is as cut off as is possible to imagine from the mainstream of Japanese academia.因为冲绳岛相对东京,离上海和台北更近,这样就可以不受日本主流学术流派的影响。The result is a skunk works: a place where novel and possibly controversial ideas can be tested without constant interference from institutional vested interests.在OIST,师生可以对新奇的和存在有争议的观点进行测试,而且不会因为制度上的既得利益问题而受到不断干扰。If an idea from a skunk works fails, it can be buried quietly, and nobody gets hurt.如果创新小组的点子、想法没能成功,失败就会被静静地掩盖起来,没有人会因此受到伤害。If it succeeds, it can be launched fully formed, and bureaucratic resistance thus overcome.如果观点成功了,观点就可以成为现实,这样做就克了来自官僚制度上的阻力。The OIST certainly has the money to do this.当然OITS也有足够的资金来完成这些新举措。The government has spent ¥77 billion (almost billion, at current exchange rates) over the past six years to create it.在过去的六年中,政府拨款770亿日元来建立学院。It has the personnel: 212 researchers, and five Nobel laureates on its board of governors.212名研究员在OITS任职,并且其中5为董事会理事曾获诺贝尔奖。Soon it will have the students, too.不久,学校就会招收学生。The first intake, next autumn, will only be 20.时间定于明年秋季,第一批大约只有20人。But that will rise to 100 in five years time.但是,五年之后人数会升至100。According to its president, Jonathan Dorfan (a physicist lured from Stanford University), the OIST seeks to address three shortcomings in Japanese science.根据校长乔纳森?多芬(从斯坦福大学挖来的物理学家)的介绍,OITS意在解决日本科学界的3根;软肋;。First, it wants to nurture independence of thought in young researchers, encouraging them to work for themselves rather than as foot soldiers for professors.首先,要培养年轻学者的独立精神,鼓励年轻人按照自己想法行事,而不是跟在教授们后面,成为他们的走卒。Second, it wants Japanese science to become more open to the outside world.其次,也希望日本科学界更加与国际接轨。Third, it wants to stimulate the emergence of technology clusters in a country where there is disturbingly little interaction between universities and industry-and few Silicon Valley-style start-ups as a consequence.第三,通过学院促进日本技术的研发。在日本,高校和产业间的联系比较小,因此很少看见想硅谷这类企业模式。That graduate students and post-docs are fodder for the ambitions of departmental heads is not unique to Japan.在日本,研究生和士后都非常渴求成为该领域的领军人物。But the phenomenon is generally thought to be exaggerated there: a toxic consequence of Confucian respect for authority and an academic system borrowed lock, stock and barrel from 19th-century Germany.然而,这一现象似乎被夸大了:十九世纪日本曾向德国学习。而这种照单全收的学习也产生了不良的后果——对于权威和学术体制一种盲目的崇拜。Young Japanese researchers, though, are fed up with it.日本的青年学者也对此十分厌恶。One result is that the number of graduate students in natural sciences has been falling in Japan since 2003.这也造成了自2003年以来,自然科学的研究生数量减少。Those youngsters are, nevertheless, oddly reluctant to deal with their disgruntlement by going abroad.然而,年轻人也不太想通过出国留学解决不满的教育现状。Between 1996 and 2007, 28% of the science and engineering doctorates awarded in America went to Chinese; 11% to Indians; 9% to South Koreans; and 7% to Taiwanese.1996年与2007年之间,28%在北美毕业的科学和工程士是中国人。这一数字在印度、韩国、台湾分别是11%、9%、7%。Japanese, by contrast, picked up just 2% of them.相反,日本仅占到了其中的2%。That stymies the exchange of ideas on which good science depends.这也妨碍了观点的交流,而这对于科学来说是至关重要的。If young Japanese scientists cannot be persuaded to study abroad, though, perhaps abroad can be brought to Japan.既然日本的科学家不太愿意走出国门,那么,是不是把国外的教育理念引入日本国内。At the moment, 85 of the OISTs researchers are gaijin.OIST的85名研究人员来自国外。Ultimately, the organisation aims to recruit half of both its faculty and its students from outside the country.到最后,从国外招募的研究员和学生的数量会占到总数的一半。And, as if that were not enough to stir the pot, these scientists have to mix with each other, too.如果以上还达不到人们的预期,学校还会这些科学家要融合彼此、进一步进行沟通交流。The OISTs laboratories (designed by Kenneth Kornberg, the son of a Nobel prize-winning scientist and brother of another) abut one another and share microscopes, refrigerators and other equipment.OITS的实验室把每个人组合起来——共享显微镜、冰箱和其他实验仪器。Dr Dorfan says everything is designed to eliminate the barriers—physical and otherwise—between traditional fields of research.Dorfan表示他们做的每一件事都是为了消除障碍,无论是物质上还是是传统研究领域所引起的。That breakdown of barriers is even apparent in individual researchers.而个人研究中,打破这种障碍比较明显。Kenji Doya, for example, is an engineer turned neuroscientist.举例来说,Kenji Doya,原先是一位工程师,之后成为了一名神经学家。He runs two laboratories at the OIST.他在OITS运行2家实验室。One explores learning by robots.其中一家探索机器人。The other looks at how a brain chemical called serotonin regulates the patience of rats.而另一个则是研究大脑中的一种叫血清素化学物质如何调整老鼠的耐受力。An algorithm for regulating patience in the brain, he believes, could be used to improve robotics.他认为这种在大脑中调整耐受力的运算法则可以用来改进机器人学。Which is just the sort of thing that, if brought to fruition in Dr Dorfans alma mater, would have the researchers who had come up with it bolting out of the door and into the offices of the nearest venture capitalist, prior to hiring a suitable garage to build their prototype in.还有另外一种可能,如果在Dorfan士的实验室中取得一些成果,会不会有研究员夺门而出来到最近的风险投资处,之后就找一个合适的工厂来制造样品。Whether that will happen in Okinawa, remains to be seen.这些是否会发生在OIST,还不太好说。Its physical climate is certainly as pleasant as Californias.不过OITS的学术氛围会像加州一样的轻松。Changing the intellectual climate to match may prove a challenge.当然这也是具有挑战的,毕竟它改变地方的学术气候。 /201210/206159安远县中医院营业时间

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