时间:2019年11月22日 21:05:23

The US was more reliant on the Middle East for its oil imports last year, underscoring the critical importance of the politically-unstable region for the country despite the growing energy independence its shale gas revolution is bringing.去年美国在石油进口方面对中东的依赖度上升,凸显出这一政治不稳定地区对于美国的重要性,尽管页岩气开发带来的能源革命使美国的能源独立性逐步上升。That domestic production boom has triggered intense debate over whether the US would still guard the world’s critical sea lanes, such as the Strait of Hormuz in two decades’ time – or whether China, whose dependence on Middle Eastern crude imports is rapidly rising – would replace it.美国国内能源开发的繁荣引发了激烈辩论,其主题是:20年后霍尔木兹海峡(Strait of Hormuz)等世界关键航道是否仍将由美国来确保畅通?对于中东原油进口依赖度正在迅速上升的中国,是否将接替美国的这一角色?However, recent oil import trends from the Gulf region suggest why the US might continue to play a critical security role in the region. While domestic production increased the most in 150 years last year, Washington will confirm later this week that oil imports from the Gulf region continued to rise.但近期美国从海湾地区的石油进口趋势似乎表明,美国可能将继续在这一地区的安全领域扮演关键角色。虽然去年美国国内的能源产量增幅达到150年来的最大值,但美国政府将于本周晚些时候实,从海湾地区的石油进口仍在继续增长。By the end of November the US had aly imported more than 450m barrels of crude from Saudi Arabia, more than it imported from Riyadh in the whole of 2009, 2010 or 2011, according to figures from the US Department of Energy. For the first time since 2003, Saudi imports accounted for more than 15 per cent of total US oil imports. The Gulf as a whole accounted for more than 25 per cent, a nine-year high.美国能源部(US Department of Energy)的数据显示,截至去年11月底,美国已经从沙特阿拉伯进口了超过4.5亿桶石油,超过2009、2010或2011年的全年进口量。来自沙特阿拉伯的石油进口量在美国石油进口总量中所占比重自2003年以来首次超过了15%。海湾地区作为一个整体在美国石油进口中所占比重超过了25%,创九年高点。Other Gulf exporters are also seeing unusually strong US demand. By the end of November, Kuwait had shipped more oil to the US than in any year since 1998. Analysts are expecting annual figures to be released later this week to confirm the trend seen up to November.美国对于海湾地区其他产油国的石油需求同样异常强劲。截至去年11月底,科威特对美国的石油出口量超过了自1998年以来的任何一年。分析师预计,将于本周晚些时候公布的2012年美国全年石油进口数据,将延续截至11月的趋势。New extraction techniques – most notably hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, and horizontal drilling – have unlocked huge hydrocarbon resources in the US previously thought unrecoverable, raising expectations that over time US dependence on Middle East oil will drop.水力压裂法(hydraulic fracturing,简称fracking)以及水平钻井(horizontal drilling)等新型采掘技术的问世,使得此前认为无法开采的美国国内碳氢化合物资源变得可以开发。这提高了各方的期望,认为美国对中东石油的依赖度将逐渐下降。These developments triggered debate about the long-term commitment of Washington to security in the Gulf, where the US Fifth Fleet has operated since 1995.这些新发展引发了围绕美国保障海湾地区安全的长期承诺的辩论,自1995年起美国第五舰队(US Fifth Fleet)就一直驻扎在海湾地区。 /201303/228157

I searched Lee on Wikipedia last night, and I found Bruce Lee owned so many titles. He was a martial artist, philosopher, instructor, martial arts actor, film director, screenwriter, and the founder of the Jeet Kune Do concept.Unfortunately, he died, all of a sudden, at the age of 32.He was among the greatest Chinese who gained respect from the world. /200907/78272

A CLASH over India#39;s drug market was inevitable. Foreign drugmakers, facing paltry growth in the West, are eyeing India hungrily. Rising incomes and rates of chronic disease may push sales from billion in 2010 to billion in 2020, according to PwC, a consultancy. But tapping this growth means having patents that protect intellectual property. India is home to a thriving generics industry, whose copycat drugs make up about 90% of the market. India#39;s drug-patent laws are just seven years old. Its government is keen to encourage generics and keep prices down.在印度药品市场,一场冲突在所难免。外国制药商,面对西方国家市场的龟速增长,正对印度市场垂涎三尺。咨询公司普华永道(PwC)估计,印度国民收入的增长和慢性疾病发生率的居高不下可能将药品年销售额从2010年的120亿美元推高到2020年的740亿美元。但想从高增长率中掘金得先获得保护知识产权的专利。印度有着生机勃勃的非专利药业,其仿制药的市场占有率高达90%。印度的药物专利法7年前刚刚颁发。印度政府热衷于持非专利药业,以保持药品的低价。Now India#39;s patent rules are being put to the test. Novartis, a Swiss giant, is challenging India for denying a patent for Glivec, its blockbuster cancer drug. The fight is due to reach India#39;s Supreme Court on September 11th. Bayer, a German drugmaker, has a different problem: in March India#39;s patent controller ordered it to license a drug to a local manufacturer. Its appeal had its first hearing on September 3rd. The cases will help decide how quickly India#39;s 1.2 billion people get new drugs, and at what price.现在,考验印度专利法的时候来了。瑞士巨头诺华制药质疑印度拒绝授予Glivec专利的决定,Glivec是该公司突破性的抗癌药。9月11日印度高等法院将开庭审理此案。德国药企拜尔正面临另一个问题:今年3月印度专利监察员命令其向当地药企许可一种药品。拜耳申诉的第一次听审于9月3日举行。这起官司将会决定印度12亿人口多久能以多少价格得到新药。India#39;s drug industry has a unique history. For more than 30 years, the country did not recognise pharmaceutical patents. Domestic firms became masters at copying medicine and making it cheaply. After joining the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995, India had to change its patent policy. But its new system, in place since 2005, includes special protections for both patients and generic manufacturers.印度的药业有一段独特的历史。30多年以来,印度不承认药品专利。国内企业精于廉价生产仿制药品。在1995年加入世贸组织(WTO)后,印度不得不修改其专利政策。但自2005年起实施的新系统包括了对病人和非专利药企的特殊保护。For example, the law bars patents of minor changes to existing drugs, a practice known as ;evergreening;. Drug reformulations are often used to extend patents elsewhere; they get no protection in India. The country also has broad criteria for ;compulsory licensing;. A WTO agreement allows countries, in some instances, to force a firm to license a patented drug to a generic company. India#39;s rules give officials broad powers to do this.例如,该法规定,对现有药品进行的小改动不算专利。对现有药品进行小改动的做法在业内叫作;常青;。为了将专利延伸到其他国家,药企经常对药品的配方进行更改;这个做法在印度不受保护。印度;强制许可;包括的范围也很广。WTO协议允许各国在一些情况下强迫企业向非专利药企许可专利药品。印度的法规赋予政府很大的权力进行;强制许可;。Now both provisions are under attack. In 2006 India denied Novartis a patent for Glivec, calling it an unpatentable modification of an existing substance, imatinib. Novartis insists this is nonsense. Only by making it in salt form, imatinib mesylate, did Novartis have a proper drug: the body absorbed the medicine 30% more easily.现在这两项规定都受到抨击。2006年印度拒绝向诺华公司授予Glivec的专利,称其是对现有物质伊马替尼(imatinib)的不可申请专利的修正。诺华公司坚持认为这是胡说八道。诺华公司只是将其做成盐的形式甲磺酸伊马替尼(imatinib mesylate)以发挥药效:使人体吸收药物容易30%。Paul Herrling, the chair of Novartis#39;s Institute for Tropical Diseases, says the case is a test of what is patentable in India. ;We are being accused of evergreening,; he says. ;Having that concept applied to Glivec, which was one of the major breakthroughs in cancer therapies, is completely ridiculous.; Michelle Childs of Médecins Sans Frontières, a non-profit, retorts that drug firms such as Novartis should not win patents for minor improvements. This would keep generics off the market, driving up prices.诺华热带疾病研究所主席Paul Herrling说这起官司将检验什么药品在印度可以申请专利。;我们被控告常青,;他说。;Glivec是抗癌治疗的重要突破之一,将那个概念用在Glivec上真是荒唐。; 非营利机构医生无国界的Michelle Childs反驳到,诸如诺华这样的药企不应赢得药品微小改进的专利。这将使非专利药退出市场,抬高药价。Bayer#39;s case is equally heated. In 2008 it won an Indian patent for Nexavar, a kidney-cancer drug. But in March India#39;s patent controller issued the country#39;s first compulsory licence. He wrote that Bayer had not made Nexavar ;reasonably affordable; (Bayer offered it for a whopping ,000 a month), that the company failed to provide enough of the drug and, in a protectionist nod, reckoned that importing Nexavar further hurt Bayer#39;s case. The controller ordered an Indian company, Natco, to sell Nexavar for one-thirtieth of Bayer#39;s price. Bayer will receive a 6% royalty. Meanwhile Bayer is fending off another competitor, Cipla, which has sold generic Nexavar in India for years.拜尔的官司同样引发关注。2008年,拜尔赢得肾癌药Nexavar的印度专利。但今年3月,印度专利监察员签发了该国的第一张强制许可。该监察员写到拜尔没有让Nexavar处于;在合理的可承担价位;(一个月的用量拜尔开价高达5000美元),且拜尔对该药的产量不足,并且,从贸易保护这点看,进口该药进一步使拜尔处于不利地位。监察员命令印度公司Natco以拜尔公司要价的1/13销售Nexavar。拜尔将得到6%的使用费。与此同时,拜尔正在和另一个竞争对手Cipla打官司,该公司已经销售非专利的Nexavar好几年了。As these cases drag on, India#39;s government is considering other ways to get cheaper medicine. It plans to offer free generics in public hospitals, which would drive up sales of very cheap copies. It may also set price controls for patented drugs. However, generic companies are not immune to regulatory pressure. Ministers plan to expand price controls for a broader swathe of generics.随着这些官司越拖越久,印度政府正在考虑其他获得更低廉药品的方法。该国政府计划向公立医院提供免费非专利药,这将大幅提升廉价仿制药的销售。政府还可能制定专利药品的价格控制。但是,非专利药企并非没有监管压力。部长们计划扩大价格控释的范围,以包括大量的非专利药。Cost versus innovation要价格低廉还是要科学创新;We realise the industry will take a hit,; explains D.G. Shah of the Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance, which represents big generic companies. ;We#39;re trying to find a solution so that the government#39;s concerns on access and affordability are addressed without threatening the long-term growth of the pharmaceutical industry.; Nice work, if they can get it.印度药企联盟的D.G. Shah解释到:;我们意识到行业会受到打击。;该联盟代表了大型非专利药企的利益。;我们正在寻求一种解决方案,以在不威胁药业长期增长的情况下解决政府对病人能否买到及是否买得起药品的担忧。;如果他们能找到这种解决方案,那真是不错。 /201209/198534

Companies should ;hire a hoodie; to tackle the UK#39;s jobs crisis as ;surly young men can be turned into excited and motivated young employees;, the Employment Minister has said.英国就业部长近日敦促各家公司“雇佣年轻小混混”,以应对英国的就业危机,因为“乖戾的年轻人能够转变为奋进的、积极主动的年轻职员”。In comments that echo David Cameron#39;s ;hug a hoodie; speech of 2006, Employment Minister Chris Grayling told employers to prioritise local youths who look ;unwilling to work; over Eastern Europeans.大卫—卡梅伦曾在2006年发表的一次演讲中提到要“拥抱小混混”,在效仿这一说法的一次中,就业部长克里斯—格雷林告诉雇主,要优先雇佣当地那些看起来“不想工作”的年轻人,而不是东欧人。He launched a new drive to get more people into work as the Office for National Statistics (ONS) said that unemployment has fallen by 35,000 this quarter — the first decline in almost a year.他最新发起了一项让更多人参加工作的行动,而英国国家统计局的数据显示,本季度英国的失业人数减少了3.5万人,是近一年来的首次下降。Mr Grayling on Wednesday urged British companies to ;put local recruits first; and not go for the ;easy; option of hiring older and more experienced Eastern Europeans, in a speech to the Policy Exchange, a thinktank.格雷林本周三在对智囊机构“政策交流”的一次演讲中说,英国公司要“优先招聘本地人”,而不要走“捷径”,雇佣年龄更大、更有经验的东欧人。He said: ;It#39;s easy to hire someone from Eastern Europe with five years experience and who has had the get up and go to cross a continent in search for work. And many employers do so.;他说:“雇到一些有五年工作经验,同时有魄力跋山涉水来找工作的东欧人很容易,而且很多雇主都这样做。”;But those who look closer to home find gems too. Very often the surly young man in a hoodie who turns up looking unwilling to work can turn into an excited and motivated employee. It#39;s all about the expectations that they have, and the place they come from. And employers who give them that chance find it enormously rewarding.;“但那些雇佣本地人的公司也能发现人才。一些乖戾的看起来并不愿意工作的年轻小混混也能转变为奋进的、积极主动的雇员。这取决于他们的预期,以及他们来自哪里。给他们机会的雇主会发现‘人超所值#39;”。;So I stand foursquare behind my hope that British employers will put local recruits first.;“所以我诚挚地希望英国的雇主能够优先雇佣本地人。”The fall in overall unemployment has been bolstered by a large increase of 80,000 in the number of people working part time in the three months to February, the ONS figures showed. The number of people with full—time jobs actually fell by 27,000.英国国家统计局的数据显示,截至今年2月以来的三个月间,英国兼职总人数增加了八万人,总体失业人数的下降是建立在这一基础上的。全职工作的人数其实减少了2.7万人。The number of unemployed women rose by 8,000 over the quarter to reach 1.14 million, the highest figure in 25 years.在上一季度中,失业女性人数增加了八千人,达到114万,是25年来的最高水平。Experts said that the increase in female unemployment is because of the large number of women who work in the public sector, which has suffered severe cutbacks in recent years.专家表示,女性失业人数上升是由于众多女性在公共部门工作,而这一部门近年来裁员严重。The long—term unemployed — those out of work for over a year — jumped by 26,000 to 883,000, the highest number since 1996.英国长期失业人数(失业一年以上)增加了2.6万,达到88.3万,是自1996年来的最高水平。 /201204/178527

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