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时间:2019年08月24日 22:12:07

Books and Artts; Book review;How the internet works文艺书评;互联网如何运作Contrary to expectations, the internet has a heart of cable and steel和预期不一样,互联网有一颗由电缆和钢铁组成的“心脏”;Goverments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind.; So begins John Perry Barlow, once a lyricist for the GratefulDead and now a cyber-libertarian, in a tract he penned in 1996, entitled, ;A Declaration of theIndependence of Cyberspace;. It is a poetic summation of the common image of the internet as an ethereal, non-physical thing—an immanent Cloud that is at once everywhere and for ever on the far side of a screen.此书开篇引用了约翰·佩里·巴洛于1996年写的一篇文章中的一段话:“工业世界的统治者们,你们是由实体和钢铁组成的乏味巨物,而我来自思想的新家园——网络空间。”他曾是死之华乐队的作词人,而今则是一位网络自由主义者。他还称此书为“网络空间的独立宣言”。这是对互联网的普遍印象饱含诗意的总结:飘逸、虚无的东西——如一朵浮云,可以即刻无处不在,而又永远在电脑屏幕遥远的另一端。For Andrew Blum, a writer for Wired, that illusion was shattered on the day a squirrelchewed through the wire connecting his house to the internet. That rude reminder of the net#39;s physicality sparked an interest in the infrastructure that makes the internet possible—the globe-spanning tangle of wires, cables, routers and data centres that most users take entirely for granted. His book is an engaging reminder that, cyber-Utopianism aside, the internet is as much a thing of flesh and steel as any industrial-age lumber mill or factory.对于《连线》杂志撰稿人安德鲁·布朗姆而言,在一只松鼠咬断他的网线的那天,这种幻想已被打破。这个对网络实体“无礼”的提醒激起了他对互联网基础设施的兴趣,因为这些满世界绕在一起的电线、电缆、路由器和数据中心使得互联网成为可能,而大多数用户认为这些完全是理所当然。他的书是一个引人入胜的提醒:抛开网络乌托邦主义不谈,互联网和任何工业时代的伐木场或工厂一样,都是由实体和钢铁组成的。It is also an excellent introduction to the nuts and bolts of how exactly it all works. The term “internet” is a collective noun for thousands of smaller networks, run by corporations, governments, universities and private business, all stitched together to form one (mostly) seamless, global, “internetworked” whole. In theory, the internet is meant to be widely distributed and heavily resilient, with many possible routes between any two destinations. In practice, acombination of economics and geography means that much of its infrastructure is concentratedin a comparatively small number of places.该书也是对互联网所有基本要素如何运作的一次精介绍。术语“互联网”是一个集合名词,包括数以千计由公司、政府、大学和私营企业运作的子网络,所有这些交织在一起形成一个(基本上)无缝对接、全球互联运作的网络整体。理论上说,互联网应该是分布广、承载量大、包含任意两点之间许多可能的路径。实际上,说它是经济学和地理学的结合,其意为它将众多的基础设施集中于相对少数的空间内。So when Mr Blum travels to the tiny Cornish village of Porthcurno, he is able to see the landing stations for many of the great transatlantic fibre-optic cables that carry traffic—in the form of beams of pulsating laser light—between Europe and the Americas. A couple of hundred miles up the road is the London Internet Exchange, a building in which individual networks can connect to each other and to the wider internet. London#39;s exchange is the world#39;s third-busiest, behind the ones in Frankfurt and Amsterdam. What happens in such places can affect millions of people: one veteran network engineer in an American exchange recalls “shut[ting] off Australia” when one of that country#39;s big networks was tardy with its bills.所以当布朗姆先生来到波斯科诺的小村康沃尔时,他看到了基站——站内许多横跨大西洋的粗大光纤电缆内部迅速地闪动着一道道激光,并以这种形式在欧洲和美洲之间传递信息。沿着道路方向的几百英里外就是伦敦网络交换中心,通过它,单个的局域网可以相互连通,也可以连接到广域的互联网;论繁忙程度,它只排在法兰克福和阿姆斯特丹之后。这里的所发生的一切可以影响上百万人:一位曾在美国交换中心工作资深的网络工程师回忆到,在澳大利亚的巨大局域网中,曾有某个局域网拖欠费用,该中心就发出了 “切断澳大利亚的网路”的指令。Network engineering is not a glamorous profession, and the physical structures of the greatest network ever built lack the grandeur of a hydroelectric dam or a continent-spanning railway. But they do have their own style: featureless, virtually deserted buildings, full of marching rows of high-tech servers and routers fed by thick bundles of cable, their cooling fans forming a roaring chorus in the chilly gloom. That style is modulated by the local culture of wherever the building happens to be. Thus one American firm goes for a super high-tech, “cyberrific” look in an attempt to impress clients. Frankfurt#39;s internet exchange is a model of cool rationality, whereas London#39;s is grotty and coming apart at the seams.网络工程并非一个光鲜的行业,而且最为庞大网络的实物构造缺乏水电大坝的宏伟壮观,也没有洲际铁路的绵延大气。但它确实有自己的特点:普普通通、几乎废弃的大楼里,整齐地排满了富含高科技的务器和路由器,由厚厚的几捆电缆连接起来,它们的散热风扇在冷清昏暗中组成了一正在高歌的合唱队。无论大楼在哪,这种特点都会受到本地文化的影响。因此,一个追求超高科技风格的美国公司,打造“网络交通”的外观是给客户留下深刻印象的一种尝试途径。法兰克福网络交换中心就是良好理性的一个模板,而伦敦的则是脏乱带着些破裂。And then there are the engineers themselves, a rootless but engaging brotherhood that travels the world from rack to rack, helping to keep the electronic show on the road, and whose interactions and dealmaking does a lot to shape the geography of the electronic spider#39;s web that now engulfs the planet.还有工程师他们自身是一个较为松散但相处融洽的组织,马不停蹄地在世界各地旅行,奔波于电子产品展览会,他们的交际和生意圈如一张电子蜘蛛网正在包围整个世界。Mr Blum#39;s book is an excellent guide for anyone interested in how the global modern electronic infrastructure works. And it is a timely antidote to oft-repeated abstractions about “cyberspace” or “cloud computing”. Such terms gloss over the fact that, just like the pipes that carry water, the tubes that carry bits are reliant on old-fashioned, low-tech spadework, humancontact and the geographical reality in which all that exists.对“世界上的现代电子设施是如何运作的”这一问题有兴趣的任何人,可以通过布朗姆先生这本书得到良好的入门指引。该书也是对被热议的“网络空间”或“云计算”这类抽象概念的及时说明。这些术语掩盖了一个事实:正如水管输送自来水,网路传递着信息。它有赖于老式、低技术含量的基础工作,人们的交往;这些都存在于现实的地理状况之中。 /201209/199937

As seven men are convicted of exploiting girls as young as 11 in a paedophile ring in Oxford, abuse survivor Allie Gledhill shares her own story and how she made the road to recovery.当英国牛津的七名性侵犯罪嫌疑人被最终伏法后,艾丽格.赫尔作为曾经的儿童性侵受害人向读者讲述了她的少年被暴力性侵的不幸遭遇以及她走出阴霾的心路历程:If you’d told me fifteen years ago that it was possible to recover from violent sexual abuse then I’d never have believed you. I would have spat at you that you didn’t understand what it was like to suffer such intense humiliation and pain at the hands of someone who, for whatever reason, holds absolute power over you. Intense feelings of hurt, shame and anger would have erupted inside of me and I’d have dismissed you as being disgustingly ignorant for suggesting that such healing was even possible. How could it be possible to heal the scars from violent abuse?如果25年前你对我讲,我可以从被暴力性侵的阴霾中走出来,我是绝对不会相信的。我可能唾弃你,因为你根本不理解我所遭受的屈辱和伤痛,这些都是没有办法忘却的痛苦记忆。在我的心里除了那挥之不去的痛楚就是不可遏制的愤恨,至于所谓的心理康复,我只会觉的永远不能。我当时会想,人们是无知的,因为他们没有亲身体会,所以不会真正了解受害者的内心的。Many years and hours of counselling later, I love that I can say with conviction to other survivors of violent abuse that healing really is possible. I’m not saying that the road to healing is a short or easy one to travel down but I can say that it is a journey worth taking. You can experience the feelings of safety, love and freedom that you crave.然而,在日复一日年复一年的心理康复治疗以后,我会对其他被性侵的受害们者说:我们是可以心理康复的。虽然康复之路会是一条很长很艰辛的路,但是为了我们内心渴望的安全、幸福和自由,这时一条值得坚持走的路。When I was growing up I was desperate for a father’s love. I wanted to be loved the way that my girlfriends’ fathers loved them, with a strong, masculine protectiveness and admiration.在我的青年时期,我十分渴望到父爱,我羡慕我的好朋友可以享受到无边的父爱——是那样强烈、阳刚,对自己的女儿视如珍宝。My own father was absent, so when a distant Uncle entered my life and showered me with special attention I was drawn to him like a moth to flame. He became the father figure that I’d always wanted and he provided me with the fatherly love that I had always craved. I trusted him completely.我从小就没有父亲,当我一个远房的叔叔走进我的生活以后,他对我特别的的关爱让我幸福极了,我觉得父亲就应该是他。他给了我渴望以久的父爱,我是那么依赖他,信任他。 When he started having sex with me I was hurt, confused and angry but he aly had such a strong mental hold over me that I felt powerless to stop him. Back then I wasn’t aware that I was being abused. When I attempted to stop him my Uncle would explain that what was happening was my fault because I had flirted with him and I had been so attractive that he’d been unable to resist me. I believed him. I was confused because I was flattered that he found me attractive but, at the same time, I hated the consequences of his finding me attractive. Part of me hated my Uncle for what he was doing to me and the other part of me was desperate for his love and attention. Like most abuse survivors, I turned my feelings of hatred inward and began to despise myself for what was happening to me. Feelings of unworthiness and self-loathing sank in。后来,他强迫我发生了性关系,我觉得很受伤,很迷惑也很愤怒。但他在精神上对我的控制是那么的强大,我觉得很无力,不知道怎样拒绝他。当时,我不知道这就是性侵犯。每次我试着告诉他不许再这样对我,他都会说,这种事发生了是我的错,因为我勾引了他,让他对我着迷。我当时很恨他觉得我很迷人,因为我渴望的只是一份单纯的父爱,然而,另一方面,我却是那么的绝望的希望他爱我,关注我。也许和很多性侵受害者一样,我将对他的愤恨专向了自己,我开始鄙视我自己。我觉得自己很轻贱,我开始讨厌自己。My story is not unique in that the abuse from my Uncle quickly escalated and became increasingly violent. I was beaten, punched, strangled and belted. After all, violent sexual abuse is not about straight sexual intercourse. It is about abuse of power.我的故事对于性侵受害者来讲不是个特例,我叔叔对我的性侵迅速升级,发展成为暴力性侵,我被殴打,挨拳头、挨皮鞭甚至被掐脖子也成了家常便饭。暴利性侵不仅仅是非正常性关系,受害者还要遭受暴力的煎熬。For me, and for numerous other survivors that I’ve had the joy of meeting and working with, the pain from the violence and sexual abuse was easier to overcome than the mental and emotional agony of being completely overpowered by another person. The memories of those years, when I had so little control over my own life, left me constantly fearful. The bruises and cuts healed on their own but the emotional wounds took much more effort to mend. I’m not saying that the signs of my past aren’t still there. I doubt that I will ever enjoy the company of controlling or overbearing people and having control over my personal space will always be extremely important to me. The difference is that I have learned to love these things about myself. I have learned to give myself the attention and love that I craved as a frightened fourteen-year-old girl.对我和大多数的暴利性侵受害者而言,身体上的伤痛是很好治愈的,而心理的创伤却很难愈合。过去那些痛苦的记忆常常浮现在眼前,想起以前那些没有自我的痛苦岁月,我会被恐惧包围。我不能说过去对我没有影响,我不能和控制欲极强以及傲慢的不在乎我自我空间的人相处,有了以前的经历,我的自我空间对我来说极其重要。不同的是,我学会了爱惜我自己,我学会用什么样的方式去满足我一直以来苛求的关爱。I#39;m grateful to have had gifted counsellors who helped me to conquer the panic attacks that I suffered with for years. Counselling helped me to rediscover a sense of dignity and self respect that I had forgotten that I’d ever had. I learned to take control of my life and I gradually became less reactive to triggers of sexual abuse, triggers that used to leave me breathless, impotent and shaking uncontrollably.我很幸运遇到了一位很好的心理咨询师,他让我走出了多年的阴霾,重新找回了我忘却已久的自尊。过去的阴影会让我无法呼气,让我感到虚弱无力,浑身颤抖。现在,我学会了自己把握自己的人生,渐渐不再被过去被暴力性侵所带来的伤害而影响情绪。Fifteen years later, all that remains from the years of abuse that I suffered is an intense desire to help other survivors. Sharing my own story in a book seemed like a good way to reach out to others and a strong final step in my recovery process. So I began writing down my memories in what would become An Angel in the Corner. The book was my way of saying that I am an abuse survivor and I am no longer afraid or ashamed of my past. It was my way of proving to myself that I am free.那段灰暗的岁月已经过去了15年了,我所受到的伤害让我更加渴望帮助那些和我有同样遭遇的人。将我自己的故事讲给大家听可能是我帮助别人最好的方式,也是我这些年来心理康复最后一步。所以我将自己的遭遇写成了书,希望我的文字能变成天使,保护那些无助的人。这本书也是我的一个宣言,我想说:我是一个暴力性侵的下的幸存者,我不再为我的过去感到耻辱,我自由了。本译文属 /201308/253474

Move aside, Tokyo. Seven of the world#39;s ten most expensive markets -- Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Chongqing -- are in China除了东京,世界上房价最贵的十座城市,中国就占了七个,分别是:北京、上海、深圳、香港、天津、广州和重庆。Five big Chinese cities rank among the priciest housing markets in the world, surpassing notoriously expensive cities like Tokyo, London and New York, based on calculations by the International Monetary Fund. In fact, seven out of 10 of the world#39;s least affordable markets--Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Chongqing--are now in China. Here#39;s a look at how China#39;s biggest cities stack up, via Sober Look:在中国,有五座城市的房价超过了世界上最贵的一些城市,比如东京、伦敦和纽约。根据国际货币基金组织,实际上,世界房价最贵的十座城市中,中国占了七个,分别是:北京、上海、深圳、香港、天津、广州和重庆。Note that that the price-to-wage ratio, which measures median housing prices in a given city against median disposable incomes, reflects affordability rather than absolute property value. This means the mid-range price of an apartment in New York is 6.2 times more than what a typical family makes in a year. By comparison, it would take nearly a quarter-century of earnings to buy a pad in Beijing#39;s capital outright.工资价格比率是衡量某个城市住房可配收入的中位数,也可以衡量付能力,不是绝对值。这意味着说,在纽约的一所公寓平均价格差不多是普通家庭一年收入的6.2倍。而在北京购买房子差不多需要25年的收入。Residential property is a big mess for the Chinese government--and it#39;s not going away. Last month, prices on new homes leapt 7.4% in June 2012--the biggest uptick since last December.居民住宅是中国的一个烂摊子,并且不会立刻消失。上个月,房价上涨了7.4%,这是过去十二个月以来最大上扬。In short, policies to curb housing inflation aren#39;t working. That#39;s worrying news for the government; housing prices are a major source of public resentment. The danger isn#39;t just the threat of popular unrest, though: It#39;s that soaring property prices make people feel less wealthy and less inclined to consume. And that#39;s exactly what the government needs them to do in order to wean the economy off its dependency on exports and credit-driven investment.总之,遏制房价的政策不起作用,这也是政府的担忧。住房价格也是普通民众不满的一个主要来源,房价飙升让人感觉不够富不愿意消费,这也是政府需要摆脱对出口和信贷驱动投资的依赖。That brings us to the central government#39;s dilemma: Property investment fuels a big chunk of China#39;s GDP. Here#39;s a look at that, also via Sober Look:这也给政府带来了困境:中国国内生产总值很大一部分来自房地产投资的驱动。Sure, the announcement over the weekend that the government will stop evaluating party officials solely on the basis of their contribution to growing GDP--China#39;s probably the only country in the world to announce GDP targets as a matter of policy--is truly momentous. If they#39;re off the hook for hitting targets, it means that local government cadres have less of an incentive to shunt investment to shady property deals to prop up their numbers. It also could make them less reliant on land parcel sales--the prices of which have been rising--to fund their budgets. Part of China#39;s sky-high housing prices comes from this dependency, as we#39;ve highlighted in the past. That#39;s both driven up prices and encouraged over-investment in the sector via shadow lending. But the government still needs something to drive its economy while it waits for its households to start consuming.本周,政府宣布停止只用国内生产总值增长来评价贡献,中国是世界上唯一一个公布GDP作为政策目标的国家,这个意义重大。如果不以此为唯一目标,也就意味着说地方政府不鼓励依靠房地产投资数量来撑,也可以减少对于土地的依赖。房价一直在上涨,高房价一部分来自于这样的依赖,我们在过去强调,这是驱动价格上涨和过度投资的原因,甚至是影子贷款部门。政府需要推动经济发展的同时,需要更多家庭开始消费。Finally, a tanking housing market would probably leave dozens of developers--and their local government confederates--underwater. That could be cataclysmic for Chinese banks that have lent willy-nilly to to developers.最后,房地产市场可能会留下几十家开发商,不管三七二十一给开发商贷款,这可能是灾难性的。In other words, a drop-off in property investment could cause a big drop in GDP growth, just as cooling the market risks causing a spike in bad debt. Will these costs be more than the central government is willing to risk?换句话说,房地产投资放缓会导致GDP增长大幅下降,市场降温可能导致坏账激增。中国政府愿意承担这些风险吗? /201307/247509

A wheelchair-bound man who set off explosives in the Beijing airport over the weekend failed to end his own life but succeeded in getting authorities to re-examine his complaints amid an outpouring of public sympathy over his plight. 一名乘坐轮椅的男子周末在北京机场引爆爆炸物,他未能结束自己的生命,但成功地让当局重新调查他上访的情况。与此同时,公众对他的遭遇表达了大量同情。 The bomber, Ji Zhongxing, set off a homemade explosive device after being stopped from handling out leaflets drawing attention to an incident that left him partially paralyzed. Mr. Ji, 34, suffered arm injuries in the blast, but there were no other casualties, according to the official Xinhua news agency. 这名炸弹客名叫冀中星。上周六他在北京首都国际机场散发传单时被制止,随即引爆自制的爆炸装置。他因一次事故导致身体部分瘫痪后长期上访,发传单是为了引起人们注意。据官方媒体新华社报道,34岁的冀中星在爆炸中手臂受伤,但没有其他人员伤亡。 Rather than condemn the bomber, Chinese social media users have instead expressed support for him, depicting him as a victim, not a terrorist. As evidence of his lack of malice, many pointed to eye-witness accounts and (see above, but beware of graphic content) that suggested he told passersby to keep their distance before detonating the device. 中国社交媒体用户没有谴责冀中星,相反却对他表示持,把他描述为受害者,而非恐怖分子。许多人都以目击者的说法和视频来明他并无恶意,其中显示,他先让路人躲远点,然后才引爆了爆炸装置。 What a kindhearted man! Who else in this country can stand up and say ㄕIm more righteous than he is! Zhao Xiao, professor at University of Science and Technology Beijing, wrote on Sina Corp.s Twitter-like Weibo microblogging service over the weekend. The post had been forwarded more than 50,000 times by Monday afternoon. 北京科技大学教授赵晓周末在新浪微上说:多么善良的百姓,这个国家谁敢站出来说:我比他更有义!截至周一下午,这条微帖子已经被转发逾5万次。 On Sunday, with public sympathy for Mr. Ji mounting, authorities in southern manufacturing city of Dongguan announced it had set up an investigation team to reexamine his allegations (in Chinese). 周日,随着公众越来越同情冀中星,制造业集中的华南城市东莞市当局宣布,已成立专案组,对冀中星反映的情况重新全面核查。 According to Xinhua, Mr. Jis family began petitioning the Dongguan police in July 2005, saying Mr. Ji had been paralyzed as the result of a beating he had received at the hands of informal police staff the previous month. Mr. Ji was working in Dongguan as a motorcycle driver ferrying passengers around town, and was carrying someone at the time. 据新华社报道,冀中星的家属从2005年7月就开始向东莞警方上访,说冀中星前一个月被治安队员殴打导致瘫痪。冀中星当时是在东莞从事托车载客,事发时载着乘客。 A court investigation relying on testimony from the passenger found Mr. Jis injuries were the result, not of a beating, but of his motorcycle colliding with the police staff, Xinhua said. 新华社说,法院的调查依据那名乘客的词认定,冀中星受伤是因他的托车与治安队员相撞所致,而不是被殴打受伤。 In its announcement Sunday, the Dongguan government said Mr. Ji had aly sued twice, asking for roughly 330,000 yuan (,700) in compensation, but lost due to lack of evidence. The local public security bureau had provided him with a humanitarian payment of 100,000 yuan (,280) in 2009, according to the announcement, but he nevertheless continued to petition. Most recently, he filed a complaint through the website of the National Bureau of Letters and Calls, the main office responsible for handling petitions in Beijing. 东莞市政府周日发布的通报说,冀中星已经两次提起诉讼,要求约人民币33万元(53,700美元)的赔偿金,但因据不足败诉。通报说,东莞市公安局于2009年给予冀中星人民币10万元(16,280美元)人道主义救助金,但他仍继续上访。他最近一次上访是通过国家信访局投诉网站反映问题,信访局是中央政府负责处理上访的主要机构。 A spokesman at Dongguan Public Security Bureau confirmed the re-examination is underway but refused to offer further details.Mr. Ji could not be reached. 东莞公安局发言人实,重新核查正在进行中,但拒绝提供进一步细节。记者无法联络冀中星。 A number of microbloggers welcomed Mondays news with cautious optimism, though many others were skeptical. Noting that the case had been returned to the same police department that hired the men who Mr. Ji alleges beat him, influential commentator Luo Changping described the crippled mans predicament as an a desperate endless loop. 一些微用户以谨慎乐观的态度欢迎周一的消息,但仍有许多人表示怀疑。颇有影响力的人士罗昌平指出,冀中星上访的情况被转至东莞市公安局处理,而冀中星指控殴打他的那些人又与公安局直接关联。罗昌平将冀中星的困境描述成“一个无望的死循环”。 In the name of maintaining stability, the power of the police is extended indefinitely, he continued. The law is not independent. Theres no solution. 罗昌平说:以维稳之名无限延伸的警察权,成为最大的“合法施害集团”,司法不独立,无解。 Many saw in Mr. Jis desperate act a striking indictment of Chinas petitioning system, which has long been criticized for being ineffective and giving people false hope, and some worried that the attention Mr. Ji has received as a result of the bombing could encourage others to follow suit. 许多人将冀中星孤注一掷的举动视为对中国上访制度的惊人控诉。上访制度一直因效率低下、给人以虚假希望而受到诟病,一些人担心,冀中星在爆炸案之后受到关注,可能会鼓励其他人效仿。 Using a self-destructive act to attract attention after your petitions have failed to produce results I believe well be seeing more of this in the coming days, wrote one Sina Weibo user. 一位微用户说:在上访无果的情况下只能用自残的方式吸引公众的注意──我相信未来还将看到更多的这类事件。 Indeed, in a notice posted to its official Sina Weibo feed, the Beijing Public Security Bureau said it had received two bomb threats in the hours after Mr. Ji detonated his device. One came from a 39-year-old man who threatened to bomb the airport out of anger over a land dispute, and the other was from a 31-year-old man who said he planned to bomb a game arcade after spending too much money there and becoming depressed as a result. 事实上,北京公安局在其官方新浪微账号上发布通知说,在冀中星引爆爆炸物之后的几个小时内,北京公安局就接到了两起爆炸威胁。其中一起是一名39岁男子因占地纠纷心存不满,扬言要携爆炸物炸机场;另一起是一名31岁男子因在电子游艺厅过度消费而心存沮丧,扬言要炸游艺厅。 /201307/249253


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