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来源:挂号解答    发布时间:2019年09月20日 09:13:43    编辑:admin         

There are people in this country eating too much red meat. They should cut back. There are people eating too many carbs. They should cut back on those. There are also people eating too much fat, and the same advice applies to them, too.在美国,有些人食用红肉太多,他们应该少吃点;也有些人食用碳水化合物太多,他们也应该克制;还有些人食用脂肪太多,相同的建议也适用于他们。What’s getting harder to justify, though, is a focus on any one nutrient as a culprit for everyone.把某一营养物质说成是危害所有人健康的罪魁祸首的说法,正变得越来越难以自圆其说。I’ve written Upshot articles on how the strong warnings against salt and cholesterol are not well supported by evidence. But it’s possible that no food has been attacked as widely or as loudly in the past few decades as red meat.此前,我已在《纽约时报》的Upshot专栏中撰文,阐述那些关于盐和胆固醇的强烈警告其实并没有得到充分的据持。不过,在过去的几十年里,恐怕任何一种食物受到的攻击都没有红肉这样广泛和强烈。As with other bad guys in the food wars, the warnings against red meat are louder and more forceful than they need to be.与食品战争中的其他“坏东西”一样,对食用红肉的警告已经大大超过了实际需要的程度。Americans are more overweight and obese than they pretty much have ever been. There’s also no question that we are eating more meat than in previous eras. But we’ve actually been reducing our red meat consumption for the last decade or so. This hasn’t led to a huge decrease in obesity rates or to arguments from experts that it is the reason for fewer deaths from cardiovascular disease.今天美国人超重和肥胖的程度基本上都甚于以往,我们也毫无疑问是比以前吃肉多。然而,在过去十年左右的时间里,我们的红肉消费量实际上是在逐渐减少的。可这并没有引起肥胖率大幅下降,也没有专家认为它是心血管疾病死亡人数减少的原因。The same reports also show that we eat significantly more fruits and vegetables today than we did decades ago. We also eat more grains and sweeteners.同样,报告还显示,我们今天食用水果和蔬菜的量显著多于几十年前。我们还吃下了更多的谷物和甜味剂。This is the real problem: We eat more calories than we need. But in much of our discussion about diet, we seek a singular nutritional guilty party. We also tend to cast everyone in the same light as “eating too much.”这才是真正的问题:我们摄入的热量超过了实际所需。但是,在大多数关于饮食的讨论中,我们都试图把责任归咎于某一类营养物质。而且,我们也倾向于给所有人都套上“吃得太多”的大帽子。I have seen many people point to a study from last year that found that increased protein intake was associated with large increases in mortality rates from all diseases, with high increases in the chance of death from cancer or diabetes. A close examination of the manuscript, though, tells a different story.我见过有很多人拿着去年的一项研究振振有词,称该研究发现,蛋白质摄入量的增加与因所有疾病死亡率以及因癌症或糖尿病死亡的几率大幅增加相关。然而,在仔细阅读文献后,我发现它说的完全是另外一回事。This was a cohort study of people followed through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or Nhanes. It found that there were no associations between protein consumption and death from all causes or cardiovascular disease or cancer individually when all participants over age 50 were considered. It did detect a statistically significant association between the consumption of protein and diabetes mortality, but the researchers cautioned that the number of people in the analysis was so small that any results should be taken with caution.这是一项队列研究,研究人员通过美国健康与营养调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Nhanes)对参与者进行了随访。研究发现,当考虑到所有50岁以上的参与者时,蛋白质摄入量与全因死亡率、心血管疾病死亡率以及癌症死亡率中的任何一项均无相关性。研究的确发现蛋白质摄入量与糖尿病死亡率之间具有统计学显著相关性,但研究人员提醒说,由于该分析中纳入的人数过少,应谨慎对待由此得出的任何结果。The scary findings from two paragraphs up are from a subanalysis that looked at people only 50 to 65. But if you look at people over 65, the opposite was true. High protein was associated with lower levels of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. If you truly believe that this study proves what people say, then we should advise people over the age of 65 to eat more meat. No one advises that.而上面倒数第二段中那个可怕的结论只不过是一项仅考察50岁到65岁参与者的亚组分析的结果而已。如果你将调查的对象改为65岁以上的参与者,就会发现情况恰恰相反。高蛋白摄入量与较低的全因死亡率和癌症特异性死亡率相关。如果你相信这项研究为应该少吃红肉提供了据,那么我们也应该建议65岁以上的人多吃些肉——显然并没有人这么做。Further, this study defined people in the “high protein” group as those eating 20 percent or more of their calories from protein. When the Department of Agriculture recommends that Americans get 10 to 35 percent of their calories from protein, 20 percent should not be considered high.此外,这项研究对“高蛋白质”组成员的定义为:饮食总热量中有至少20%来自蛋白质。考虑到美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture,USDA)建议美国人从蛋白质获得的热量应占所需热量的10%至35%,20%其实不能算高。If I wanted to cherry-pick studies myself, I might point you to this 2013 study that used the same Nhanes data to conclude that meat consumption is not associated with mortality at all.如果允许我自己来挑选的话,我也能找出一项2013年的研究,它使用了相同的Nhanes数据,却得出了相反的结论:肉类消费量与死亡率毫不相关。Let’s avoid cherry-picking, though. A 2013 meta-analysis of meat-diet studies, including those above, found that people in the highest consumption group of all red meat had a 29 percent relative increase in all-cause mortality compared with those in the lowest consumption group. But most of this was driven by processed meats, like bacon, sausage or salami.不过,我们还是不要刻意去挑选吧。2013年的一项关于肉类膳食研究的荟萃分析纳入了上述的几类情况,分析结果发现:与红肉消费量最低组相比,最高组成员的全因死亡率增加了29%,但这一增加主要是由加工肉类,如培根、腊肠或意大利香肠等造成的。Epidemiologic evidence can take us only so far. As I’ve written before, those types of studies can be flawed. Nothing illustrates this better than a classic 2012 systematic review that pretty much showed that everything we eat is associated with both higher and lower rates of cancer.流行病学据能告诉我们的也只有这么多了。正如我之前所说,这类研究有可能存在缺陷。2012年的一项典型的系统性综述就是最好的佐:该综述表明,几乎我们的所有食物都同时与较高和较低的癌症发病率相关。We really do need randomized controlled trials to answer these questions. They do exist, but with respect to effects on lipid levels such as cholesterol and triglycerides. A meta-analysis examining eight trials found that beef versus poultry and fish consumption didn’t change cholesterol or triglyceride levels significantly.所以,我们需要进行随机对照试验才能真正找到问题的。这样的实验确实是存在的,不过却是关于胆固醇和甘油三酯等血脂水平指标的。一项荟萃分析审查了八项试验,发现与食用禽肉和鱼肉相比,食用牛肉并不会显著改变人的胆固醇或甘油三酯水平。All of this misses the bigger point, though. It’s important to understand what “too much” really is. People in the highest consumption group of red meat had one to two servings a day. The people in the lowest group had about two servings per week. If you’re eating multiple servings of red meat a day, then, yes, you might want to cut back. I would wager that most people ing this aren’t eating that much. If you eat a couple of servings a week, then you’re most likely doing fine.但是,所有这些都忽略了更重要的一点——“太多”的标准到底是什么。红肉消费量最高组的人每天食用一至两份红肉,而最低组的人每周才食用大约两份。如果你每天都吃好几份红肉,那么,没错,你是需要控制一下了。但我敢打赌,正在阅读这篇文章的人中大多数都不会吃那么多。如果你每周食用一两份红肉,那么最有可能的情况是:你的身体一切正常。All the warnings appear to have made a difference in our eating habits. Americans are eating less red meat today than any time since the 1970s. Doctors’ recommendations haven’t been ignored. We’re also doing a bit better in our consumption of vegetables. Our consumption of carbohydrates, like grains and sugar, however, has been on the rise. This is, in part, a result of our obsession with avoiding fats and red meat.健康警告大大改变了我们的饮食习惯。美国人今天的红肉消费量比20世纪70年代以来的任何时候都少。人们并没有忽略医生的建议。我们在食用蔬菜方面也取得了一点进步。但我们对谷物和糖等碳水化合物的消费量却一直在上升。在某种程度上,可以说这正是我们执着于不吃脂肪和红肉的后果。We’re eating too many calories, but not necessarily in the same way. Reducing what we’re eating too much of in a balanced manner would seem like the most sensible approach.我们仍然摄入了太多的热量,只不过改了个途径罢了。最明智的做法应该是以平衡的方式少吃那些我们过量食用的东西才对。Last fall, a meta-analysis of brand-name diet programs was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The study compared the results from both the individual diets themselves and three classes, which included low-carbohydrate (like Atkins), moderate macronutrient (Weight Watchers) and low-fat (Ornish). All of the diets led to reduced caloric intake, and all of them led to weight loss at six months and, to a lesser extent, at 12 months. There was no clear winner, nor any clear loser.去年秋天,《美国医学协会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上发表了一项对著名饮食方案的荟萃分析。该研究既比较了单个的饮食方案,也对三大类饮食方案:低碳水化合物饮食(如阿特金斯饮食法[Atkins]),中度宏量营养素饮食(如Weight Watcher)和低脂肪饮食(如Ornish饮食)进行了比较。所有的饮食方案都减少了热量摄入,它们都能令参与者在六个月后体重减轻,并在接下来的六个月里继续减轻(但减重幅度较小)。它们之间并没有表现出明显的优劣。Where does that leave us? It’s hard to find a take-home message better than this: The best diet is the one that you’re likely to keep. What isn’t helpful is picking a nutritional culprit of bad health and proclaiming that everyone else is eating wrong. There’s remarkably little evidence that that’s true anytime anyone does it.这给我们带来什么启示?你最有可能坚持下来的饮食方案就是最好的饮食方案——世界上最棒的教益或许莫过于此。把健康状况不佳归咎于某一特定的营养物质,并宣称其他人的饮食习惯都不对,这样做没有一点好处。很显然,任何时候任何人这么做都是毫无根据的。 /201505/374897。

Distillers from Kirkwall to Kyoto descended on New York this Wednesday for the 17th annual WhiskeyFest, a trade show that often serves as a launching pad for end-of-the-year releases. Below are some of the most buzzed-about bottles that begin hitting stores now.本周三,从柯克沃尔到京都的蒸馏酒制造者们齐聚纽约参加第17届一年一度的威士忌节,这个行业展会通常用来发布年底新品。下面是即将上市的酒品中最受关注的几种。Laphroaig Cairdeas 2014: A salty new single malt拉弗格 ,卡切斯 2014(Laphroaig Cairdeas):新款盐味单一麦芽威士忌“My job is to make sure this doesn’t change,” the master distiller John Campbell says about Laphroaig 10, the brand’s original, 100-plus-year-old formula for single malt peated whisky. And then there’s Laphroaig’s annual release, Cairdeas (pronounced “car-chase”), a relished opportunity for him to craft something new each year. This year’s bottle is made from choice barrels of eight-year Laphroaig finished in amontillado sherry casks, which add notes of clove and blackberry atop the seaweed-peat smokiness Laphroaig is famous for. It’s almost two drinks in one. .99, laphroaig.com“我的工作就是确保它不会变,”制酒大师约翰·坎贝尔(John Cambell)这样谈起该品牌最初的拉弗格10酒,它是一款泥煤单一麦芽威士忌,配方已经沿用了100多年。然后就是拉弗格的年度酒品卡切斯,这对坎贝尔来说是个愉快的机会,可以每年使用点新东西。今年的酒是由精选八年拉弗格酒制成,在阿芒蒂拉多雪利酒桶中陈化,在拉弗格著名的海草泥煤烟熏口感之上增添一丝丁香与黑莓的香气。简直就像两种酒合二为一。74.99美元,laphroaig.comHeaven Hill Parker’s Heritage 2014: Just in time for the season of giving天堂山,帕克的遗产2014(Heaven Hill Parker’s Heritage 2014): 适合感恩节的威士忌Similar to Cairdeas, at least in methodology, Parker’s Heritage from Heaven Hill is an annual distiller’s special, and the 2014 release is an even older expression of the company’s Bernheim Original wheat whiskey. Its flavor is somewhere between buttermilk biscuit and honey brioche, but finishes with soft Ceylon cinnamon. If that doesn’t put you in the spirit of giving, from each sale will be donated to A.L.S. research. .99, heavenhill.com帕克的遗产至少在方法上和卡切斯类似,也是一款年度特别酒品,2014版是该公司的伯恩海姆原始版麦芽威士忌更古老的版本。它的口味在黄油牛奶饼干与蜂蜜奶油面包卷之间,但是有温和的锡兰肉桂后味。每卖出一瓶酒,公司都会向肌萎缩侧索硬化研究捐赠5美元,令你感受感恩精神。89.99美元,heavenhill.com。The Macallan Rare: Sweet States-only Scotch from the Scottish Highlands麦卡伦,珍品(The Macallan Rare),来自苏格兰高地的甜味苏格兰威士忌,只在美国发售Known for its dry and fragrant Scotch, the Macallan is now offering a special States-only release aged exclusively in oloroso sherry casks, aptly called Rare Cask. The naturally amber-colored whisky comes in a bright red hexagonal box and features lots of woodsy peat smoke and raspberry compote upfront, which give way to hints of raspberry cream, burnt sugar and white chocolate. It’ll tickle your sweet tooth without giving you a cavity. 0, themacallan.com麦卡伦以干爽芬芳的苏格兰威士忌闻名,此次提供一款特供美国的酒品,只在欧罗索雪利酒桶中陈化,巧妙地取名为“珍品酒桶”。这款酒呈现自然的琥珀色,被装在亮红色的六角形盒子中,口感是浓重的木质烟煤烟熏味,以及覆盆子蜜饯前味,令人联想起覆盆子酱、焦糖和白巧克力。它能满足你对甜食的嗜好,又不会让你蛀牙。300美元, themacallan.comMaker’s Mark Cask Strength: An undiluted iteration of a classic bar cart staple美格,木桶强度(Maker’s Mark Cask Strength):不稀释的经典酒吧名酒Last year, Maker’s Mark made not-so-small news when the company announced that in order to keep up with demand, it would have to slightly water down its whiskey. Fans rioted, so the company relented. Now, it introduces the first-time release of a completely undiluted Maker’s Mark. Strikingly smooth for a cask-strength bourbon, it starts off like caramel popcorn before opening up with Caribbean spices. This is Maker’s supercharged and, sold in half-size bottles, quite the stocking stuffer..99, makersmark.com去年,美格出了条大新闻,公司宣布,为了满足需求,公司将在威士忌中少量掺水。在粉丝的愤怒声讨下,公司放缓了步伐。如今公司推出了第一款完全不稀释的美格酒。对于一款木桶强度波旁酒来说,它的口感极度平滑,前味是焦糖玉米花味,之后是加勒比海香料味。这是美格的重磅之作,放在半尺寸的酒瓶中,可以充当塞在圣诞袜子里的礼物。39.99美元,makersmark.comHigh West Midwinter Night’s Dram: For the cold evenings to come海威斯特,冬日中旬的夜酌(High West Midwinter Night#39;s Dram):为了即将到来的寒冷夜晚In a nod to Shakespeare, Utah’s High West has rested its popular Rendezvous Rye whiskey in a combination of sweet port and dry French oak barrels. But with notes of cooked plum, cinnamon stick and whole clove, the Midwinter’s Night Dram is — as the name cheekily suggests — not for midsummer. The “limited engagement” whiskey is now being released nationally for the first time and might offer some comfort come Sunday, when we turn back the clocks for Daylight Savings Time and the days get shorter. .99, highwest.com犹他州的海威斯特向莎士比亚致意,将自己受欢迎的“约会黑麦威士忌”(Rendezvous Rye)放在甜肉和法国干橡木酒桶中陈化。但是这款冬日中旬的夜酌却有一丝烤李子、肉桂棒和丁香的香气,如其名所示,并不适合仲夏夜。这款限量版威士忌如今首次在全国发售,或许会在周日夏时制结束,白昼变短之后,为你带来一丝安慰。79.99美元,highwest.com /201411/342602。

Funeral Customs葬礼The burial of the dead is a matter taken very seriously by Chinese. improper funeral arrangements,it is believed,can wreak ill fortune and disaster upon the family of the deceased.中国人对埋葬死者的葬礼非常重视他们认为,葬礼如果安排不当,会给死者的家庭带来厄运和灾难。To a certain extent,Chinese funeral rites and burial customs are determined by the age of the deceased,the manner of his/her death,his/her status and postion in society and his/her marital status.从某种程度上来说,中国人丧葬礼仪的规格是由死者的年龄、死亡的方式、社会地位和婚姻状况决定的。According to Chinese custom,an older person should not show respell to a younger. Thus,if the deceased is a young,bachelor his body cannot be brought home but is left in a funeral parlour. His parents cannot offer prayers for their son: being unmarried,he has no children to perform these rites either. If a baby or child dies,no funeral rites are performed:the child is buried in silence.根据中国的风俗,岁数大的人不能向年轻人致敬。因此,如果死者是一位未婚的年轻人,他的尸体就不能带回家中,而是要置于灵棚里。他的父母不能向他祝祷。由于没有结婚,也不会有孩子为他举行仪式。如果婴儿早夭,也不会举行任何仪式,孩子会被无声无息地埋掉。Funeral rites for an elderly person must follow the prescribed form and convey relevant respell:rites befitting the person#39;s status,age etc. must be performed even if this means the family of the deceased must go into debt to pay for them.为老人举办的葬礼必须遵循既定的形式,必须要表现出相当的仪式,必须要举行符合死者的地位、年龄的仪式,哪怕这样做会让死者的家庭因此负债。Preparation for a funeral often begins before death has occurred:if a person is on his/her deathbed a coffin will often have aly been ordered by the family. A traditional Chinese coffin is rectangular with three“humps;.The coffin is provided by an undertaker who oversees all the funeral rites.死亡发生之前,葬礼就开始准备了。人还躺在床上奄奄一息时,家人可能已经预定好棺材了。传统的中国棺材呈四方形,有三处隆起。棺材有承办人提供,并由他监督所有丧礼的细节。When a death occurs in a family all statues of deities in the house are covered with red paper(so as not to be exposed to the body or coffin)and mirrors removed from sight,as it is believed that one who sees the reflection of a coffin in a mirror will shortly have a death in his/her family. A white cloth will be hung across the doorway of the house and a gong placed on the left of the entrance if the deceased is male and the right if female.如果家里死了人,所有的神像都要以红纸蒙面(不能暴露在尸体或棺材前)。所有的镜子都要移出视线之外,因为人们相信,在镜子里看到棺材的人自己家里不久会死人。屋子的门上会挂上一块白布,门侧会挂个锣,死者是男的话挂左边,是女的就挂右边。Before being placed in the coffin,the corpse is cleaned with a damp towel,dusted with talcum powder and dressed in his/her best clothes from his/her own wardrobe(all other clothing of the deceased is burnt and not reused)before being placed on a mat. The body is completely dressed-including footwear, and cosmetics if female-but it is not dressed in red clothes(as this will cause the corpse to become a ghost):white,black, brown or blue are the usual colours used. Before being placed in the coffin the corpse#39;s face is covered with a yellow cloth and the body with a light blue one.尸体在放进棺材之前,要用湿毛巾擦干净,用滑石粉除去身上的灰尘,穿上他/她生前最好的衣(死者其他的衣都要被烧掉,不会再穿),然后放到垫子上。死者全身穿戴整齐,包括鞋袜,如果是女人的话,还要化妆,除了红色的衣不能穿(这样会让尸体变成鬼),白色、黑色、棕色或蓝色的衣都是很常见的。在放人棺材之前,死者要以黄布遮面,浅蓝色的布蔽体。The Wake守丧The coffin is placed either in the house(if the person has died at home ) or in the courtyard outside the house(if the person has died away from home).The coffin is placed with the head of the deceased facing the inside of the house resting about a foot from the ground on finro stools,and wreaths,gifts and a portrait or photograph of the deceased are placed at the head of the coffin.The coffin is not sealed during the wake. Food is placed in front of the coffin as an offering to the deceased. The deceased#39;s comb will be broken into halves,one part placed in the coffin,one part retained by the family如果死者死在家中的话,棺材要放在屋里;如果死者死在外面,棺材要放在屋外的庭院里。放棺材时,棺下置两个凳子,使死者白勺脸朝向屋内,头离地约一英尺棺材前置花圈、礼物、遗像。守丧期间,棺材不能封口。棺前还要放食物作为给死者的供品。死者生前用的梳子要瓣成两半,一半置于棺中,一半由死者家人保存。During the wake,the family does not wear jewellery or red clothing,red being the colour of happiness. Traditionally,children and grandchildren of the deceased did not cut their hair for forty-nine days after the date of death,but this custom is usually only observed now by the older generations of Chinese. It is customary for blood relatives and daughters-in-law to wail and cry during mourning as a sign of respect and loyalty to the deceased.守丧期间,死者家人不能戴珠宝首饰,不能穿红衣,因为红色象征着喜庆。根据传统,死者的儿女或孙子孙女在死者死后的40天不能理发,如今通常只有岁数比较大的中国人才会遵循这一习俗了。按照惯例,死者的血亲和儿媳们大声哭泣,以此来表现他们对死者的尊敬和忠诚。At the wake,the family of the deceased gather around the coffin,positioned according to their order in the family. Special clothing is worn:usually white gowns and hats. Later-arriving rela-tives must crawl on their knees towards the coffin.守丧时,死者的家人聚在棺材的旁边,按照家庭里的长幼尊卑排好顺序。他们穿上白色的丧,戴上白色的丧帽。后来的亲戚必须面朝棺材跪下。An altar, upon which burning incense and a lit white candle are placed,is placed at the foot of the coffin. .loss paper and prayer money(to provide the deceased with sufficient income in the afterlife)are burned continuously throughout the wake. Funeral guests are required to light incense for the deceased and to bow as a sign of respell to the family. There will also be a donation box, as money is always offered as a sign of respect to the family of the deceased: it will also help the family defray the costs of the funeral.棺材前摆着供桌,上面燃着香和白色的蜡烛。守丧期间要不停地烧泊纸和纸钱(这是给死者在冥间使用的)。吊唁的客人要给死者上香鞠躬,以示对死者家庭的尊重。还会有个募捐箱:吊唁的客人往里投钱,一方面表示对死者家庭的尊重,另一方面也帮助他们负担丧礼的花销。During the wake there will usually be seen a group of people gambling in the front courtyard of the deceased#39;s house:the corpse has to be“guarded”and gambling helps the guards stay awake during their vigil;it also helps to lessen the grief of the participants.在守丧期间,通常都会有一群人在死者家的前院里。尸体必须有人卫护,可以帮助护卫者保持警惕;也可以减轻参与者的悲痛。The length of the wake depends upon the financial resources of the family,but is at least a day to allow time for prayers to be offered. While the coffin is in the house(or compound ) a monk will chant verses Buddhist or Taoist scriptures at night. It is believed that the souls of the dead face many obstacles and even torments and torture(for the sins they have committed in life)before they are allowed to take their place in the afterlife:prayers,chanting and rituals offered by the monks help to smooth the passage of the deceased#39;s soul into heaven. These prayers are accompanied by music played on the gong,flute and trumpet.守丧期的长短取决于死者家庭的贫富,但至少要有一天时间来作法事。棺材摆在屋里或院子里之后,会请来一位和尚和道士念诵经文。人们相信死者在黄泉路上要面临很多困难甚至折磨(因为他们在生前造了孽)。和尚和道士诵经能够帮助死者的灵魂早登极乐。诵经时有锣、笛和唤呐在旁边伴奏。 /201505/377318。

As one of the few Western journalists who has traveled widely in North Korea, David Guttenfelder believes that photography can open a window onto a country. And on a recent trip to that closed society, he took that credo to a different level.作为为数不多的深入朝鲜境内游历的西方记者之一,大卫·古登菲尔德(David Guttenfelder)坚信照片能够打开一扇窗户,让外界了解一个国家。在最近一次造访这个封闭社会的旅途中,他把这一信条提升到了一个不同的层次。About 31 floors up in his hotel room.在大约31层楼高的酒店房间里。Firing up his Periscope app, Mr. Guttenfelder pointed his iPhone outside his hotel window and began to stream live . Soon, he was being peppered with questions from online viewers: What was it like? What did he eat? How was it working there? That intense curiosity — not to mention engagement — was similar to when he had posted images to Instagram, not only during his recent visit, but also dating back to his tenure as The Associated Press’s chief Asia photographer.在设置好Periscope应用之后,古登菲尔德把自己的iPhone对准酒店的窗外,开始录制直播视频。很快,网络观众就向他提出了一系列问题:朝鲜是个怎么样的国家?他吃什么?在朝鲜工作感觉怎么样?这种强烈的好奇心——更不必说这种互动——同之前他把照片传到Instagram上时颇为类似。不仅是最近访问朝鲜时,在过去担任美联社(Associated Press)亚洲首席摄影记者一职时,他也会在Instagram上发布照片。“There’s probably not a better place to test the power of photography and photojournalism than a place that has never really allowed photography or foreigners there,” Mr. Guttenfelder said. “We don’t know very much about North Korea because it has not been photographed for 60-something years. The only images we ever see have been distributed by the state as propaganda. For me to go there over the years has been a rare opportunity and responsibility. Otherwise, it’s completely unknown. While imperfect, we have eyes on the ground and some windows opening.”Mr. Guttenfelder, who left the news service last year and is now a National Geographic photography fellow, had gone to North Korea for a six-day assignment for The New York Times, initially to photograph a trip by Gloria Steinem and other peace activists who were meeting with North and South Korean women. But as with any of his more than 40 previous trips there, he found time to document daily moments.“因为基本上不允许摄影,也不允许外国人进驻,所以朝鲜可能是测试摄影和摄影新闻报道影响力的最佳地点,”古登菲尔德说道。“我们不太了解朝鲜,因为过去60多年里都没有关于朝鲜的照片。那些曾经见过的仅有的照片,都是朝鲜用作宣传发布的照片。对我来说,能够在过去几年里访问朝鲜,是一个难得的机会和责任。否则,外界就完全一无所知。虽然并不完美,但是我们在朝鲜有眼线,还有一些通畅的信息渠道。”古登菲尔德去年离开了通讯社,现在担任《国家地理》(National Geographic)的摄影师,他来到朝鲜为《纽约时报》展开了为期六天的工作。最初是为了拍摄格洛丽亚·斯泰纳姆(Gloria Steinem)和其他和平活动人士,同朝鲜和韩国女性的会面,但和之前的40多次访问一样,他抽空记录了一些日常生活的瞬间。Face it: In a place as walled-off and mysterious as North Korea, any image not produced by the state was a revelation. In a way, Mr. Guttenfelder said, he felt it was his responsibility to show the outside world the reality away from stage-managed events.要知道,在一个像朝鲜这样封闭而神秘的国家,任何一张并非由国家拍摄的照片,都是一种揭示。古登菲尔德表示,从某种程度上说,他感觉到自己有责任向外界展示真实的朝鲜,而非一些台面上精心安排的活动。“It’s an amazing place to work as a photographer,” he said. “Anything I photograph I feel is of news value because we don’t know what the places looks like. Every picture looks like a piece of a puzzle, and the sum of the parts begin to reveal something.”That approach dates to one of his earliest trips to North Korea in 2000, when he accompanied then-Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright on a visit to Pyongyang. Back then, the Communist government gave new meaning to the notion of a closed society: The windows on his bus were covered with drapes, and he was told not to even bother taking out a camera. Even the windows of his hotel were covered.“对于摄影师来说,朝鲜是一个不可思议的地方,”古登菲尔德表示。“我觉得我拍摄的任何一张照片都具有新闻价值,因为我们不了解这些地方都是什么样子。每张照片似乎都是拼图的一部分,把这些部分拼凑起来,就可以揭露一些事物。”这种方式可以追溯到他最早在2000年访问朝鲜的时候,当时他陪同时任美国国务卿的玛德琳·K·奥尔布赖特(Madeleine K. Albright)访问朝鲜平壤。那时,朝鲜的共产主义政府刷新了“封闭社会”这一概念的含义:古登菲尔德乘坐的汽车的窗户被封上了帘子,并且被告知不要妄想拿出照相机,就连他住的酒店窗户也被封上了。“I couldn’t see outside,” he said. “I had the feeling that North Korea was not real. That it was a facade, like ‘The Truman Show.’ That’s what most people still think about North Korea.”“我没法看到外面,”他说道,“我有一种感觉,朝鲜一点都不真实。它是一种假象,像《楚门的世界》(The Truman Show)。大部分人眼里的朝鲜仍旧是这样的。”The importance of that visit took a back seat to things he began to notice on the periphery, like a scene of children tossing snowballs. At one point, when Dr. Albright was at a ceremony where food was being donated, he noticed a child who was cutting up in class. He could identify, imagining himself as a child being the class clown. It was a breakthrough moment.那次访问变得不再重要了,因为他开始注意到周围的一些事物,比如说小孩子打雪仗这样的场景。奥尔布赖特出席一场食品捐赠仪式期间的某个时刻,古登菲尔德注意到一个孩子在班上插科打诨。对此,他完全可以认同,而且能够把自己想象成一个孩子,一个班里的活宝。这是一个具有突破性的瞬间。“That was a surprising moment and informed how I try to photograph the country,” he said. “There are connections to be made. There are universal things to discover in a photo. Regular life shouldn’t be surprising. It should not be surprising there is real life and people try to get by. That seems to be one of the loudest things I can say with really subtle, mundane moments.”“那是一个出人意料的瞬间,让我知道了应该如何拍摄这个国家。”他说道。“需要制造一些共鸣,从一张照片里可以发现一些普世的东西。日常生活不应该是让人惊讶的,朝鲜存在着真实的生活,人们努力维持生计,对此我们不应该感到惊讶。这似乎是我能通过那些细微且平淡的瞬间,讲出的最响亮的话。”He embraced that approach in earnest in 2013, when North Korea allowed local 3G mobile phone service, permitting him to do everything people in the ed States were doing on their smartphones, including using Twitter, Instagram and Foursquare. While others used the technology for personal reasons and connections, he saw the value as a journalist in an isolated society.他真正采取那种做法是在2013年,当时朝鲜许可了本地的3G移动电话务,于是他也能做美国人在智能手机上做的事情了,比如使用Twitter、Instagram和Foursquare。其他人出于个人原因和联系的目的使用科技手段时,他作为封闭社会的一个记者,看到了其中的价值。His Instagram feed attracted hundreds of thousands of followers, and he realized this work on social media was as important as any of the other photography and journalism he was doing. With his use of Periscope, he continued to find new ways to use new tools, even if he had first used it only a month earlier — to watch the title bout between Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather Jr. “I ended up watching with some family in Mexico filming the fight” on their living room television, he said. “I hadn’t used it until I got to North Korea.”他在Instagram上的动态吸引了成千上万的关注者,随后他意识到这项在社交媒体上的工作,与他在做的其他摄影和新闻工作一样重要。他对Periscope的运用,实际上延续了以创新方式运用新工具的做法,尽管他开始使用Periscope才一个月——观看曼尼·帕奎奥(Manny Pacquiao)和小弗洛伊德·梅威瑟(Floyd Mayweather Jr.)的冠军较量。他说,“结果我观看的是墨西哥一家人”在起居室的电视上录制的比赛画面。“我在去朝鲜之前从来没用过。”But once there, he took advantage. During a drive in the countryside, he again pointed his phone out the window, showing rural scenes.但一到朝鲜,他就抓住了机会。一次在乡间驾车时,他把手机伸出窗外,展示乡间的景象。“To see the countryside, the rural areas of the country, and know it was not me being led, directed to stand in some spot, this was clearly candid, the world passing by…#8202;,” he said. “Even if the is a bit shaky, it’s certainly not broadcast quality, but it’s more powerful in a way. People feel they are there, and you can transport them to a place very few people have ever seen.”Bringing outsiders into close contact with life in North Korea — if only via a phone or a laptop — continues to guide Mr. Guttenfelder. He has been curating @EverydayDPRK, an Instagram feed in which he features images taken by foreigners living in or visiting North Korea. His contributors include a model-turned-English-teacher from California; a tour guide who had made some 150 trips there; and an Indonesian stay-at-home father.“我看到了乡间,看到了这个国家的农村,我知道自己站到某个地点时,并没有被人引导、指示。这都是坦诚的,世界在我身边经过……”他说。“尽管视频有些晃动,并且画面质量肯定不到播出的水准,但它在某种方式上更有力度。人们觉得他们是在现场,而你能把他们带到极少有人见过的地方。”带外人近距离地接触朝鲜的生活,这仍然是古登菲尔德的指引目标——虽然只是通过手机或笔记本电脑。他一直在整理@EverydayDPRK的内容,这个Instagram账户展示的是在朝鲜生活和参观的外国人拍摄的照片。向他提供照片的包括一个来自加州、以前做过模特的英语教师;一个去过朝鲜150次的导游,还有一个印度尼西亚的居家父亲。Each one offers another peek, another piece of the puzzle. Each image also helps dispel some of the misconceptions about the country.每个人都提供了一瞥的景象,提供了拼图的另外一块。每张照片都有助于驱散关于这个国家的误解。“They are questioning reality,” Mr. Guttenfelder said of some viewers. “It’s hard for people to believe that North Koreans commute to work on the bus, or what they see in cities and the countryside is representative of real life there.”“他们在质疑真实性,”古登菲尔德谈到一些关注者时这样说。“人们很难相信朝鲜人坐公交上下班,也很难相信他们看到的城市和乡村反映了那里真实的生活。”Granted, a dictatorship wary of the outside world is not an easy place to work. Some critics would counsel him to stay away altogether, rather than try any engagement. Mr. Guttenfelder said that despite the constraints, he had not been censored, which in some ways makes his responsibility even greater: to decide what is real or not.诚然,一个对外部世界谨慎提防的独裁国家不是一个容易工作的地方。一些批评者会劝告他避而远之,而不是试图有所接触。古登菲尔德说尽管有着各种限制,他还没受到审查,而这在某些方面让他的责任变得更大:判断什么是真实的而什么不是。“Social media is uncharted territory for all of us, including North Korea,” he said. “I’m allowed to work there as a journalist, and this is a tool, one of the many I use to tell the story. I don’t think there is a clear line on this. I also think there shouldn’t be, really. I think it’s in everyone’s interest to have connections made between North Korea, its neighbors and the rest of the world. The more information that flows in both directions, the better for everyone.”“社交媒体对所有人都是一个未知的领域,包括朝鲜,”他说。“我获准以记者的身份在那里工作,而这是个工具,许多我用来讲故事的工具之一。我不认为在这个问题上有一个清晰的界限,我也觉得不该有,真的。我认为在朝鲜和它的邻国,以及世界其他国家之间建立联系,对每个人都有好处。彼此间双向流动的信息越多,对大家也就越好。” /201506/380635。

I have enjoyed relaxing in the sauna, especially in cold weather, for many years. But last summer, I was surprised to see a doctor friend emerging from the sauna in the sweltering heat of July on his way to a workout, dripping from sweat before he even reached the gym.多年来,我一直很喜欢在桑拿房里放松,尤其是在冷天。但去年夏天,我惊讶地看见我的一位医生朋友在酷热的7月从桑拿房里出来,然后去锻炼,还没到健身房,他就已经汗如雨下。The doctor explained that as we get older, it becomes increasingly important to warm our muscles, tendons and joints before undertaking strenuous physical exercise. While a 10-minute warm-up on a stationary bike or tmill might be the traditional way to gently warm muscles, the sauna really heats them up and gets them y for exercise.我的朋友解释道,随着我们年岁渐长,在进行剧烈身体锻炼前让我们的肌肉、肌腱和关节温暖起来变得越来越重要。尽管在健身脚踏车或者跑步机上进行10分钟热身运动可能是一种温和地温暖肌肉的传统方式,但桑拿会让肌肉真正地温暖起来,做好锻炼准备。This struck a chord with me because for the past few years, I have suffered agonies from an Achilles tendon problem every time I run. I have been treated by a number of doctors, who have prescribed stretching, heel inserts in my trainers and even used sound waves to bombard my Achilles tendon — all without much lasting effect.这引起了我的共鸣,因为过去几年里,我每次跑步都会感到跟腱疼痛。我接受过好几名医生的治疗,他们提供的处方是做拉伸,在运动鞋里放脚后跟脚垫,甚至使用声波轰击我的跟腱——效果都不持久。After talking to my doctor friend, I discovered some research about the beneficial effects of saunas on athletes. While the study was fairly small, it found that after only three weeks of hard running followed by half-hourly sauna sessions, the athletes were able to run further before becoming exhausted.在和我的医生朋友交谈以后,我找到了某项关于桑拿对运动员的益处的研究。尽管这项研究规模相当小,但它发现,在大强度跑步之前蒸半小时桑拿,仅仅三周后,这些运动员在精疲力竭之前能够跑得更远了。The most likely explanation, the researchers, concluded, was that the sauna training increased the athletes’ blood plasma volumes.研究者得出结论认为,最可能的解释是桑拿训练提高了运动员的血浆量。As any fan of competitive cycling now knows, you 0can increase your body’s aerobic capacity by increasing haemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. That’s why cheats in cycle races give themselves transfusions of their own blood, known as blood doping.现在任何一个竞技自行车的体育迷都知道,你可以通过提高血红蛋白的量来提高身体的有氧运动能力。血红蛋白的功能是从肺部将氧输送到身体各处。这就是为什么在自行车比赛里作弊的人会将自己的血液回输给自己,这种做法被称为“血液兴奋剂”。But I was interested to learn that saunas may also increase production of a range of hormones, including growth hormone and norepinephrine, which is behind the fight or flight response and increases blood flow to skeletal muscles.但让我感兴趣的是,我得知桑拿或许也能提高一系列激素的分泌,包括生长激素和去甲肾上腺素。后者调节所谓的“战斗或逃跑”反应,增加流向骨骼肌的血液量。At first I thought I would see whether saunas increased my athletic performance in the way described in the study above. I tried taking the prescribed half-hour of sauna before a run, but I was so hot that I did not feel like running. I then switched to after the run, and all I could manage at first was 10 minutes.我的初衷是想看看桑拿是否能像上述研究所说的那样,提高我的运动成绩。我尝试按照上述研究的“处方”,每次跑步前蒸半个小时桑拿,但我感觉太热了,以至于根本跑不动。于是我换成了跑步后蒸桑拿,最初我只能在桑拿房里坚持10分钟。Over the past six months, I have slowly built up to about 20 minutes of sauna after doing 30 minutes of sprints twice a week. You really perspire in these sessions, which is meant to help train your body to sweat more efficiently, lowering your body temperature while you exercise.过去6个月期间,我慢慢延长了桑拿时间,现在我每周进行两次30分钟的短跑锻炼,之后蒸20分钟的桑拿。在蒸桑拿的时候,你真的会排汗,这理应有助于训练你的身体更有效率地排汗,在你锻炼的时候降低你的体温。To my amazement, my Achilles tendon pain has disappeared since I started the sauna treatments. An added benefit: knee pain that I used to experience after working out with weights on a leg press machine has also vanished.让我惊讶的是,我的跟腱疼痛在我开始桑拿疗法后消失了。额外的好处是,我在腿部推蹬机上进行负重锻炼后感到的膝盖疼痛也突然消失了。I even think my sprint performance has improved too, but that may be down to more consistent training.我甚至感到我的短跑成绩也提高了,不过原因可能是更有规律的训练。One important caveat: while saunas are generally considered safe for most athletes, people with heart conditions and pregnant women should consult a doctor before trying their benefits. And be sure to compensate for the heavy sweating induced by a sauna by drinking lots of water before and after heat sessions, which should not last too long. And of course never even consider drinking alcohol before — or during — a sauna.一条重要的告诫:尽管普遍认为桑拿对大多数运动员来说是安全的,但有心脏问题的人或者期女性在尝试前应该咨询医生的意见。在桑拿前后,确保大量饮水,弥补桑拿引起的大量排汗失水,每次桑拿的时间不应太长。当然,绝不要在桑拿前或者桑拿过程中饮酒。 /201503/362001。