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2019年08月17日 22:50:46来源:医苑生活

  • We found that the snack industry in China has been growing at a steady clip of roughly 15% annual growth. It was worth more than 200 billion RMB in 2011, and it’s forecast to be worth 480 billion by 2018.我们发现中国的零食产业正在以每年约15%的速度稳定增长。在2011年零食产业的规模已经超过了2000亿元人民币,预计到2018年,中国整个零食产业的规模将超过4800亿元人民币。Is there any visible trend? What are the reasons behind that? What drive the growth?是否有什么明显的发展趋势?是什么推动中国的零食产业发展?增长率的背后原因是什么?Although growth is still significant, it has seen a steady decline in the past decade. Since 2004, the growth rates for sweets and chocolates have declined to about 10% currently, and similarly, instant noodles are down, although they still remain at roughly 20% annual growth this year. Fruit juice and soft drinks have seen their growth rates halved in the last three years. So as you can see, though the snack industry is still strong, it is suffering from an overall downard trend. As mainland Chinese consumers especially begin to have higher income and greater awareness of health issues, they are buying fewer prepared foods and snacks. Whereas five or ten years ago, instant noodles were a cheap source of nourishment, consumers now have more income to spend on better foods, and consume snacks mostly for instant satisfaction or energy.整个中国的零食产业虽然增长率依然喜人,但是在过去的十年里,其增长速度已经开始有所稳步下降。相比2004年,甜食和巧克力市场的增长速度已经下跌了约10%,同样方便面虽然依然保持着20%左右的增长速度,但是增速在放缓。相比三年前,果汁和软饮料销量的增长速度下降了50%。由此可见,虽然中国的零食产业依然兴旺,但是正面临整体下行的趋势。中国大陆的消费者收入增长,对健康的意识比以前更高,对预制食品和零食的购买量有所下降。在5-10年前,方便面曾经是中国大陆许多人廉价的营养来源,但是现在消费者有更多收入,可以用于购买更好的食品,零食消费对于现在的中国消费者来说只是满足一时口福或者是补充能量。Research sugggests that in the below-40s demographic, 88.5% of interviewees feel that snacks don’t offer any nutrition, and are particularly wary of those containing saturatedfats and sugars. We can expect to see two main developments; first of all, more local producers addressing the snack market, and secondly, more nutritious, low-fat and health-oriented snacks.研究发现中国40岁以下被访者中有88.5%认为零食不能提供营养,并且对含有反式脂肪和糖类的零食尤其担忧。可以预见的主要发展趋势有两条,首先,更多中国本土的制造商会进入零食市场;其次,会涌现出更多有营养、低脂的健康导向零食。What kinds of snacks are more popular and who would buy more snacks?哪种零食更受欢迎?哪些人购买的零食更多?Generally, chocolates and potato chips are the most popular “foreign” snacks, while instant noodles remain very popular as well. The greatest consumer demographic are the 22-35s, especially the females, as they can both afford to buy their own snacks, and tend to have busy and work (or study) dominated lifestyles that don’t allow for much cooking. Teenagers and young children are also a very large consumer groups.虽然方便面的受欢迎程度依然不错,但总的来说,巧克力和薯片是中国最受欢迎的“洋”零食。后两者的消费者年龄在22-35岁之间,以女性居多。这个消费群体既能够自己购买零食,生活中工作或学习又占去非常多的时间,没有太多时间做饭。青少年和儿童也是很大的消费人群。Will imported products/multinational brands more popular in China?进口商品和跨国品牌是否在中国更受欢迎?Multinational brands dominate in China’s snack industry. The top 10 snack brands are Want-want, Kraft Foods, LIWAYWAY, DANONE, Wm Wrigley Jr Company, Dove, ORION, Xufuji and Jiashili. Of these brands, Wang-want and Xufuji are Taiwanese, accounting for 20% market share. Kraft Foods, LIWAYWAY, DANONE, Wm Wrigley Jr Company, Dove, ORION occupy 50% of the Chinese snack market together. Xufuji and Jiashili aredomestic brands, and though they together account for 20%, they are still in the minority.跨国企业确实占领了中国的零食市场。目前排名前十位的零食品牌为:旺旺、卡夫食品、上好佳、达能、箭牌糖果、德芙、好丽友、徐福记和嘉士利。其中台湾品牌有旺旺和徐福记,市场份额占到20%。卡夫食品、上好佳、达能、箭牌糖果、德芙和好丽友加起来占50%市场份额。虽然徐福记和嘉士利是本土品牌,但是加起来才只有20%市场份额,依然属于少数派。However, some domestic brands have the potential to increase their market share in the future. For example, Le Conte, Dali and Qinqin, as these brands know the needs of Chinese consumers better than foreign brands.不过未来其它本土品牌的市场份额有上升趋势。例如金帝、达利和亲亲等,因为这些厂商更懂得如何满足中国消费者的口味,这正是外国厂商所欠缺的。What’s the position of China in Asia in this industry?中国在整个亚洲零食产业中的比重如何?In 2013, the growth rate of exports and imports of Chinese snacks increased significantly, with Brazil, ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and America acting as the three biggest foods trade partner. However, overall, China doesn’t have the same reach as Japanese snack producers, for example. Chocolate is the most popular snack in the Pacific area, and since chocolate is one area where China does not have a significant contribution to make to the market, it’ll be in other areas that China’s exporters could grow.2013年是中国零食进出口量激增的一年,巴西、东盟和美国是中国零食进出口三大贸易伙伴。不过总体看来,中国零食厂商还没有达到日本厂商的水平。比如说,在太平洋地区,最受欢迎的零食是巧克力,但是中国厂商在巧克力市场上占领的市场份额不是很多,所以,巧克力市场是中国零食出口的又一增长点。 /201412/349078。
  • Sleman(Indonesia) (AFP) - An advert for a house in Indonesia has gone viral onlineafter the woman selling it offered to throw in an unusual extra feature for free — her hand in marriage.印尼(法新社):印尼最近一个房子出售广告在网络上引起骚劫,一名女子想把自己的房子卖出去,而且可以免费把自己送给买主当妻子。The lnternet ad s for the most part like a regular house listing, saying thatthe single-storey proper ty has two bedrooms, two bathrooms, a parking space anda fish pond.这个出现在网络上的广告和一般的房子出售广告没有什么区别,称这是一栋单层的楼房,有两个卧室,两个卫生间,一个停车场和一个鱼塘。But it also proposes to buyers a ;rare offer; -- ;when you buy thishouse, you can ask the owner to marry you;, alongside a picture of WinaLia, a 40-year-old widow and beauty salon owner, leaning against a car in frontof the house. 但是还给买家提供了一个;稀有的好处;——;当你购买这栋房子时可以要求卖主和你结婚;,说明文字旁边出现的是一张40岁寡妇的照片,她是一家美容院的所有者,倚靠在门前的汽车旁。The ad said that terms and conditions apply, and notes the offer is ;for seriousbuyers and non-negotiable;. The house in Sleman, on the island of Java,is on the market for 999 million rupiah (about ,000).广告称这个offer是给严肃买家的,而且没有商量的余地。这处房产位于爪哇岛的Sleman,售价为75000美元,即99900万印尼盾。News of the offer quickly sp among Internet users in social media-crazy Indonesia.这个新闻很快在印尼的社交媒体上传播开来。Boldies99,a user on popular online forum Kaskus, said Lia was;quite smart -- even though the house will be sold, she will remain theowner.;印尼著名论坛Kaskus上的一名网友说,这女的还挺聪明,即使这房子卖出去了,她也还是主人。The mother of two explained that she had asked a friend who was a property agent tohelp her find a buyer —and in the process a husband — but she had expectedhim to pass on the news to a limited number of pe pie, not put an ad online.作为两个孩子的妈妈,她解释说她之前要求一名做房地产中介的朋友帮他找一个买家以及在这个过程中帮她找一个丈夫,她只希望朋友把这个事让少数人知道就可以了 ,并没有想把信息发布到网上去。She added that there was only one potential buyer, who had visited on Wednesday.but refused to give further details.她说只有一个潜在的买家,周三的时候来看过房子,但是拒绝提供更多细节。 /201503/364502。
  • A man has a heart attack and is brought to the hospital ER.有一名男子患有心赃病,被送往医院急诊室。The doctor tells him that he will not live unless he has a heart transplant right away.医生告诉他,除非他立刻接受心脏移植,否则他就活不成。Another doctor runs into the room and says,另外一名,医生跑进急诊室说:;you are in luck,two hearts just became avaible ,so you will get to choose which one you want.One belongs to an attorney and the other to a social worker.;“你真幸运,刚好有两个心脏可移植,所以你要选择你要哪一个心脏。一个是属于律师,另一个是属于社会工作者。”The man quickly responds,;the attorney#39;s .;这名男子很快响应说:“律师的。”The doctor says,;Wait!Don#39;t you want to know a little about them before you make your decision?;医生说:“等等!你不想在你做决定之前了解一下他们吗?”The man says,;I aly know enough.We all know that social workers are bleeding hearts and the attorney#39;s probably never used his .So I will take attorney#39;s!;这名男子说:“我已经知道够了。大家都知道社会工作者都是流血的(有同情心的)心脏,而律师的心脏可能从来都不曾用过他的。所以我选择律师的心脏。; /201503/361471。
  • Beautiful women, it seems, really do find life easier.对美丽的女人来说,生活似乎真的更容易一些。Whether it#39;s in the office or in the courtroom, a new study backs up the belief that pretty women can broker deals more easily.据一项新研究实,无论是在办公室里还是在法庭上, 美丽的女人都更能轻松地驾驭一场谈判。This, according to the research, is because beauty overrides the brain#39;s reaction to fairnesss - a fact tied to a subconsciousness rooted in male evolution.根据研究表明,这是由于我们对美的感受会凌驾于我们对公平的反应之上——这种现象与男性在进化过程中产生的无意识心理机能有关。As part of the study, 21 male students at Zhejiang University in China, were asked to look at 300 photos of Chinese women.在实验过程中,研究人员让浙江大学的21名男学生看300张中国女性的照片。A different group of men had judged half of the women as attractive and the half unattractive.在此之前,另一组男士已经对这些女性的颜值做出了评判,他们认为这些女性中有一半面容姣好,另一半长相平庸。The men were then teamed up with some of the women whose faces they had just seen while playing a computer game.接着,研究人员将这些男士与一组女士进行了分组搭对,之前他们曾和这些女士一起玩过电脑游戏,目睹了这些女士的容姿。In the game, they decided whether to split a small amount of money. At the same time, the researchers studied their brain waves and noted their response times.在游戏中,每组男女都能获得一小笔钱,他们要判断他们是否愿意跟对方分得这笔钱。同时,研究人员会观测这些男士的脑电波,记录他们的反射时间。They found men were more likely to accept bad deals from attractive women.研究人员发现,男士们更乐意于接受来自漂亮女性的不平等交易。They were also quicker to respond to fair offers from good-looking women and slower to respond to unfair offers.在面对漂亮女性时,如果分钱的方式是公平的,他们的反应速度也更快。而当分钱的方式不公正时,他们的反应速度则更慢。Meanwhile, brain scans revealed that men were more sensitive to unfair offers when the woman was unattractive, and felt greater reward when the woman was attractive.同时,通过他们的脑电波扫描,研究者发现,当男士们面对长相平庸的女性时,他们对不公平交易的反应更加敏锐。而面对面容姣好的女性时,他们在分钱过程中获得的满足感也更多。University of Stirling psychologist Anthony Little, who was not involved in the study told people,it was not entirely clear why we behave differently toward attractive people.并未参与此项目的英国斯特灵大学的心理学教授安东尼·利特说,对于人们为什么会对面容姣好的对象特别优待,人们还没有彻底弄清楚原因。#39;We appear to have a bias toward being nice to attractive people even when the rewards to ourselves, such as increasing the chance of a date, wouldn#39;t apply,#39; Little said.“我们倾向于对面容姣好的人更加友善,即使这样做收获甚微,比如说,并不会增加我们与这位漂亮女士去约会的可能性。”#39;This suggests our motivations to be nice to attractive people are unlikely to be based on conscious decisions to maximise our own benefits.#39;“这说明,我们对漂亮女士更加友善的行为动机并不是基于意识层面上的逻辑判断,即并不是基于让自身利益最大化的需求。”Previous studies have also found a pretty face can be a source of lifelong advantage - beginning at secondary school.之前已经有研究发现,拥有姣好的面容可能成为一个人能终身受惠的一项优势——这一优势从中学阶段就已经凸显出来。 /201507/385158。
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