四川成都九院支持刷信用卡吗
时间:2019年06月27日 04:02:29

“We need a national debate on nicotine,” said Mitch Zeller.“我们需要就尼古丁展开一场全民大讨论,”米奇·泽勒(Mitch Zeller)说。Zeller is the director of the Center for Tobacco Products, a division of the Food and Drug Administration created in 2009 when Congress passed legislation giving the F.D.A. regulatory authority — at long last! — over cigarettes. In addition, the center will soon have regulatory authority over other tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes, which have become enormously controversial even as they have gained in use. Through something called a “deeming rule,” the center is in the process of asserting that oversight over e-cigarettes.泽勒是烟草制品中心(Center for Tobacco Products)主任,这个食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)下属机构,是国会2009年——终于!——立法授予FDA香烟管制权后成立的。除了香烟,中心不久还会获得其他烟草产品的管制权,包括使用量在增加但争议极大的电子烟。通过一个叫做“推定规则”的条款,烟草中心即将得到监管电子烟的权力。Opponents of electronic cigarettes, which include many public health officials, hope that the center will treat these new devices like it treats cigarettes: taking steps to discourage teenagers from “vaping,” for instance, and placing strict limits on the industry’s ability to market its products.包括许多公共卫生官员在内的电子烟反对者希望烟草中心能把这些新型烟具当成普通香烟一样处理:比如着手抑制电子烟在青少年中的流行,对该产业的产品营销能力进行严格限制。Proponents, meanwhile, hope that the center will view e-cigarettes as a “reduced harm” product that can save lives by offering a nicotine fix without the carcinogens that are ingested through a lit cigarette. In this scenario, e-cigarette manufacturers would be able to make health claims, and adult smokers might even be encouraged to switch from smoking to vaping as part of a reduced harm strategy.与此同时,持者则希望中心把电子烟当做一种“减害”产品,它能让人过尼古丁瘾,但又不会产生燃烧的香烟会有的致癌物。照这个说法,电子烟生产商就可以声称它们的产品有益健康,甚至将之纳入整体的减害策略,提倡成年烟民从吸烟转向吸电子烟。When I requested an interview with Zeller, I didn’t expect him to tip his hat on which direction he wanted the center to go, and he didn’t. Indeed, one of the points he made was that the F.D.A. was conducting a great deal of scientific research — more than 50 studies in all, he said — aimed at generating the evidence needed to better understand where to place e-cigarettes along what he calls “the continuum of risk.”在向泽勒提出采访请求的时候,我并不指望他会透露自己希望中心该走哪条路,他也确实没说。事实上他的其中一项表态是,FDA在做大量的科学研究——据他说在50项以上——希望能充分积累据,以便更好地判断电子烟在他所说的“风险序列”中处于什么位置。Zeller is a veteran of the “tobacco wars” of the 1990s, working alongside then-F.D.A. Commissioner David Kessler, who had audaciously labeled cigarettes a “drug-delivery device” (the drug being nicotine) and had claimed regulatory authority. Zeller left the F.D.A. in 2000, after the Supreme Court ruled against Kessler’s interpretation, and joined the American Legacy Foundation, where he helped create its hard-hitting, anti-tobacco “Truth campaign.” After a stint with a consulting firm, Pinney Associates, he returned to the F.D.A. in early 2013 to lead the effort to finally regulate the tobacco industry.泽勒是参加过1990年代“烟草战争”的老兵,辅佐当时的FDA局长戴维·凯斯勒(David Kessler),后者曾甘冒大不韪将香烟称为“药物递送装置”(药物指的是尼古丁),并为此声称自己拥有监管权。凯斯勒的解释遭到最高法院否决后,泽勒于2000年离开FDA,进入美国遗产基金会(American Legacy Foundation)工作,并在那里策动了强有力的反烟活动“真相运动”(Truth campaign)。之后他在咨询机构Pinney Associates工作过一段时间,于2013年初回到FDA,着手实现对烟草行业的监管。“I am fond of ing Michael Russell,” Zeller said, referring to an important South African tobacco scientist who died in 2009. In the early 1970s, Russell was among the first to recognize that nicotine was the reason people got addicted to cigarettes. “He used to say, ‘People smoke for the nicotine but die from the tar,’ ” Zeller recalled.“我喜欢引用迈克尔·拉塞尔(Michael Russell)的话,”泽勒说,这位南非著名烟草科学家已于2009年去世,他在1970年代初提出尼古丁是人对香烟上瘾的原因,是这一理论的先驱之一。“他说过,‘致人抽烟的是尼古丁,致人死亡的是焦油,’”泽勒说。This is also why Zeller found e-cigarettes so “interesting,” as he put it, when they first came on the market. A cigarette gets nicotine to the brain in seven seconds, he said. Nicotine gum or patches can take up to 60 minutes or longer, which is far too slow for smokers who need a nicotine fix. But e-cigarettes can replicate the speed of cigarettes in delivering nicotine to the brain, thus creating real potential for them to become a serious smoking cessation device.这也是为什么当市场上刚出现电子烟的时候,泽勒会说这是个“有意思的”东西。他说香烟可以在七秒钟内将尼古丁送达大脑。尼古丁咀嚼糖或贴片需要长达60分钟,甚至可能更久,对希望过尼古丁瘾的烟民来说实在太慢。但电子烟的尼古丁递送速度可以和香烟媲美,因此有望成为正经的戒烟手段。But there are still many questions about both their safety and their efficacy. For instance, are smokers using e-cigarettes to quit cigarettes, or they using them to get a nicotine hit at times when they can’t smoke cigarettes? And beyond that there are important questions about nicotine itself, and how it should be dealt with.但人们对它的安全性和功效仍然有很多疑问。比如烟民是在用电子烟戒香烟,还是在不能抽香烟时,用它来过尼古丁瘾呢?除此之外,关于尼古丁本身及其处置方式,也有一些重要的问题尚待解答。“When nicotine is attached to smoke particles, it will kill,” said Zeller. “But if you take that same drug and put it in a patch, it is such a safe medicine that it doesn’t even require a doctor’s prescription.” That paradox helps explain why he believes “there needs to be a rethink within society on nicotine.”“尼古丁和烟尘颗粒在一起,可以致命,”泽勒说。“但同一种药物放到贴片里就安全了,安全到连医生处方都不需要。”正是出于这种困惑,他认为“社会对尼古丁需要有一个重新的认识”。Within the F.D.A., Zeller has initiated discussions with “the other side of the house” — the part of the agency that regulates drugs — to come up with a comprehensive, agency-wide policy on nicotine. But the public health community — and the rest of us — needs to have a debate as well.泽勒在FDA内部已经开始跟“房子那一头的人”——负责药物监管的部门——讨论制定一个全面的、各部门统一的尼古丁政策。但公共卫生领域,以及我们大家,也需要展开讨论。“One of the impediments to this debate,” Zeller said, is that the e-cigarette opponents are focused on all the flavors available in e-cigarettes — many of which would seem aimed directly at teenagers — as well as their marketing, which is often a throwback to the bad-old days of Big Tobacco. “The debate has become about these issues and has just hardened both sides,” Zeller told me.泽勒说,“阻碍这种讨论的其中一个因素”是,电子烟反对者抓住了电子烟的多种口味——其中许多口味是直接迎合青少年的——以及它们的营销方式,时常让人想起穷凶极恶的“大烟草公司”时代。“讨论已经开始围绕这些问题展开,导致双方的态度都强硬起来,”泽勒对我说。It’s not that Zeller believes nicotine is perfectly safe (he doesn’t) or that we should shrug our shoulders if teenagers take up vaping. He believes strongly that kids should be discouraged from using e-cigarettes.这并不表示泽勒相信尼古丁是绝对安全的(他不这么认为),或者我们不需要把青少年吸电子烟太当回事。他坚信应该设法制止青少年使用电子烟。Rather, he thinks there should be a recognition that different ways of delivering nicotine also come with different risks. To acknowledge that, and to grapple with its implications, would be a step forward.他的看法是我们应该认识到,不同的尼古丁递送方法,带来的风险也是不同的。明确这一点,面对它可能带来的后果,就是一种进步。“This issue isn’t e-cigarettes,” said Mitch Zeller. “It’s nicotine.”“问题不在电子烟,”米奇·泽勒说。“在尼古丁。” /201506/380650

I like soup all year round and applaud its various personalities. Thick soups are substantial and warming; brothy soups are restorative and soothing; chilled soups are refreshing and invigorating.我一年四季都喜欢喝汤,称赞各种汤的独特滋味。浓汤丰郁暖人,清汤滋补慰藉,冷汤清爽振奋。And then there is chicken noodle soup, a constant comfort, loved by young and old. Every culture makes one and all have their virtues. I was raised on the kind from a can; it came with the territory. But one must grow up, and any lingering nostalgia for canned is easily trumped when a tastier homemade version becomes available.还有鸡汤面,它总能带来慰藉,年轻人和老年人都喜欢。每种文化都有自己的鸡汤,各有所长。我小时候喝的是罐装鸡汤,这也在所难免。不过,人总要长大,对罐装鸡汤的怀念很容易被自制的更美味的鸡汤磨灭。Now is an ideal time for chicken and noodles to swim in a bowl. This version is inspired by a soup I had in Japan one cool April evening many years ago. Traditional Japanese cuisine is always attuned to the natural cycles. Food is meant to mirror the season, nourishing both the appetite and the senses.现在是做鸡汤面的好时候。我这种做法的灵感来自很多年前一个清凉4月的夜晚,在日本喝到的鸡汤。传统日本饮食总是跟随自然周期。食物要反映时令,既满足食欲,又取悦感官。Mine is by no means authentic, but it has the feeling of spring, which is exactly what I was after. It is light and delicately flavored and features the season’s tender new offerings: young leeks, peas and spinach.我的做法绝不是正宗的日式料理,但它有春天的感觉,这正是我想要的。它的味道清淡微妙,采用的是春季的鲜嫩食材:大葱、豌豆和菠菜。As homage to the original vernal theme, I flavored this one with a bit of ginger and garlic, a splash of mirin and soy and a soup#231;on of white miso to finish. For noodles, I used earthy buckwheat soba. I didn’t make it to my local Japanese grocery, though, so instead of snipped shiso leaves to garnish, I used basil, which provided an analogous sweet, sharp brightness.为了向最初的春天主题致意,我在鸡汤中加了点姜、蒜、米酒和酱油,最后用一点白味噌收尾。面条用的是质朴的荞麦面。不过,我在附近的日本杂货店里没有买到紫苏叶,只好用罗勒叶装饰,它也能增添类似的甜蜜浓烈的鲜明气息。It would have been easy to use traditional dashi for the broth, but I chose to forgo it. I craved real chicken broth; and besides, I wanted to prove a point. The chicken needed to be cooked somehow and I figured it could do double duty. In some ways, chicken thighs are the perfect meat for soup: It’s practically impossible to overcook them. Simmering a pound or so in plain old water for just 20 minutes leaves them tender and juicy, and simultaneously produces a light broth that’s surprisingly flavorful.如果用传统的狐鲣鱼汤,应该很简便,但我没用那种汤。我想要真正的鸡汤,另外我还想明一点。鸡肉只需稍微炖一下,我发现这样有双重作用。从某些角度讲,鸡大腿是做汤的理想材料:它怎么煮都不会老。把一磅左右的鸡腿肉放入白水中,用小火炖20分钟,这样既能让鸡肉鲜嫩多汁,又能让鸡汤清淡美味。The ingredient that gives this soup its ultimate appeal is the miso that is stirred in at the end. Just a small amount provides the sweet, salty, nutty, fermented, savory solution that transforms the whole into a magic elixir.让这道鸡汤具有终极美味的配料是最后搅入的那点味噌。很少的一点就能让整道汤具有微微的甜味、咸味、坚果味、发酵味和香味,变成奇妙的万灵药。 /201504/371234

Global annual spending on cancer drugs has hit 0bn for the first time as the pharmaceuticals industry prepares to launch a fresh generation of treatments that promise to push costs even higher.全球用于癌症药物的年度开首次达到1000亿美元大关。与此同时,制药产业正准备推出新一代癌症治疗方案,这些治疗方案势必进一步推升治疗成本。The record 2014 figure marks a 10 per cent increase from a year earlier, largely because of rising drug prices and increased incidence of cancer.比起前一年,2014年这一创纪录的开增长了10%。在很大程度上,这一增幅是药品价格攀升及癌症发病率增加导致的。The data, from the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics, a respected US research organisation, comes at a time of growing excitement among medics and investors over new cancer drugs heralded as the biggest step forward in oncology for decades.该数据由著名的美国研究机构艾美仕医疗保健信息研究所(IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics)发布。就在艾美仕发布这一数据之际,越来越多的医生及投资者正在为新的癌症药物欢欣鼓舞。这批新的药物被誉为肿瘤医学界数十年来的最大进展。Merck amp; Co, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche and AstraZeneca are among those developing so-called cancer immunotherapies that harness the body’s immune system to fight tumours.在开发这种所谓癌症免疫疗法的公司中,默克集团(Merck amp; Co)、百时美施贵宝(Bristol-Myers Squibb)、罗氏(Roche)及阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)赫然在列。这种免疫疗法的原理,是利用机体的免疫力对抗癌细胞。The earliest of these have been launched in the US in recent months at prices amounting to about 0,000 a year — generating fresh optimism around the pharmaceuticals industry after a decade of sluggish growth.这种治疗方法最早于最近几个月在美国推出,其价格总计为一年约15万美元。对于经历了十年增长乏力的制药业来说,这一天价方案催生了新的乐观情绪。However, the expected surge of expensive new cancer drugs has raised questions over their affordability for healthcare systems aly struggling with the rising cost of caring for an ageing world population.然而,昂贵的癌症新药如期涌现,也引发了大量质疑:面对全球人口老龄化而导致的成本上升,已经不堪重负的医疗系统还能否负担起这些新药。“Earlier diagnosis, longer treatment duration and increased effectiveness of drug therapies are contributing to rising levels of spending on medicines for cancer,” said the IMS report.艾美仕报告表示:“诊断时间提前、治疗时期延长、以及药物治疗有效性增加,都在助推癌症药物开的增加。”The compound annual growth rate in cancer drug spending increased to 6.5 per cent over the past five years and this was forecast by IMS to rise further to 6-8 per cent between now and 2018 as new treatments arrive.过去五年里,癌症药物开的复合年增长率增至6.5%。据艾美仕预测,随着新治疗方案的问世,从现在起到2018年期间,这一增长率将进一步增加,且有望增加到8%。“New therapeutic classes and combination therapies will change the cancer landscape over the next several years,” the report said.该报告称:“今后几年,新的治疗门类及组合治疗方案将改变癌症治疗领域的格局。” /201505/373445

Standing in the Steventon churchyard on a September morning, the dew glistening on the closely mowed grass between the gravestones, I heard the wind whispering in the 900-year-old yew tree that stands at the west end of the church. I could imagine Mr. Bingley and Jane or Eliza and Mr. Darcy bursting through the doors, arrayed in Regency wedding garb, greeted by a crowd of onlookers. But Steventon was quiet, except for the breeze.9月的清晨,我站在史蒂文顿小村一座教堂的庭院里。墓碑之间新近修剪的草地上,露珠闪烁着光芒,教堂的西边,轻风在九百岁古老紫杉的树叶间悄然私语。我可以想象宾利先生和简,或者伊丽莎白和达西先生穿着摄政时期的结婚礼,走出大门迎接亲友祝福的一幕。但此刻的史蒂文顿,除了轻风,只有静谧。This tiny village in the English county of Hampshire is where Jane Austen was born on Dec. 16, 1775, lived the first quarter century of her short life, and wrote the first drafts of three of her novels, including “Pride and Prejudice” — originally called “First Impressions.” I had come to Hampshire hoping to soak up some of Austen’s world in preparation for writing my next novel, also called “First Impressions,” which would feature Jane Austen as a character. Immediately I sensed that the first scene should be set in this churchyard.这个村庄位于英国的汉普郡,1775年12月16日,简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)诞生于此。在短暂一生的最初25年中,她住在这里,写出了三本名著的初稿,包括《傲慢与偏见》(Pride and Prejudice)。最开始时,这本书的名字是《第一印象》(First Impressions)。我之所以来到汉普郡,是希望从奥斯汀的世界汲取灵感,因为我正在写一本新小说,书名也叫《第一印象》,主角正是简·奥斯汀。很快我就发觉,游览的第一个景点应该是这座墓园。Tourists tend to associate Jane Austen with the Georgian facades of Bath, a bustling city in Somerset; but she lived most of her life, and did most of her writing, in two villages in Hampshire, in south central England. She died and was buried in Hampshire’s cathedral city of Winchester. In her tribute to English books and booksellers, “84 Charing Cross Road,” Helene Hanff writes of telling a friend that if she ever goes to England, she’ll go looking for the England of English literature, to which he replies, “It’s there.”很多游客一想到奥斯汀,就会想起萨默塞特繁华的巴斯市乔治王朝的华美建筑,但其实,她的一生几乎都生活在英格兰中南部汉普郡的两个村庄(史蒂文顿和查顿)里,著作也基本在这里完成。去世之后,她被埋葬在汉普郡的温彻斯特大教堂。在《查令十字街84号》(84 Charing Cross Road)中,海莲·汉芙(Helene Hanff)向英文名著与书商致敬时写道,她曾告诉朋友如果去英国,她将会寻找英国文学中的英格兰,也就是这个地方。Nearly 200 years after her death, the Hampshire of Jane Austen is certainly there. Steventon feels as isolated now as it was in 1775. One would hardly guess that the busy road to London, which Jane knew as a stagecoach route, lies less than two miles away. My walk down the aptly named Church Walk from the village center to the Church of St. Nicholas, where Jane’s father served as rector, felt like stepping back in time. With woods on my right and open fields on my left, I saw no modern buildings. Even the rectory in which Austen was born and lived, and which stood along this route, was pulled down in the 1820s.简·奥斯汀去世近200年之后,她的汉普郡当然还在。史蒂文顿依然像1775年那样遗世独立。人们很难猜到,通向伦敦的繁忙大道,即当年简·奥斯汀的公共马车路线,就在2英里之外。沿着那条名符其实的教堂之路,我从村庄中心走到了圣尼古拉斯教堂,仿佛步入了往日的时光。简·奥斯汀的父亲曾是这座教堂的牧师。我的右边是树林,左边是开阔的田野,视野中没有任何现代的房屋。路旁曾是当年的教区,奥斯汀出生与成长的地方,但早在19世纪20年代就推平了。St. Nicholas is a simple medieval structure, little changed from the Austen years, save for the addition of a Victorian steeple. The church is generally unlocked during daylight hours and, though redecorated in the Victorian period, still has the feel of an 18th-century country chapel. On the walls hang memorials to many members of the Austen family.圣尼古拉斯教堂是一座朴素的中世纪建筑,自奥斯汀时代以来就几乎不曾改变,只增加了一座维多利亚时期的尖塔。白天教堂一般不上锁,尽管在维多利亚时期重新装潢过,却仍有18世纪乡村教堂的氛围。室内的墙壁上挂满了奥斯汀家族的纪念品。To the west of the church lies open farmland, backed by a small forest called West Wood. It was easy to imagine, as I wandered among the gravestones, Miss Austen enjoying long walks through this landscape. She seems to have loved Steventon: When she heard the news that her father was retiring in 1801 and moving the family to Bath, she fainted dead away.教堂西边是开阔的农田,远处是一片叫做西部森林的林子。走在墓石之间,我不禁想起奥斯汀穿过这片美景悠然漫步的模样。她是那么的热爱史蒂文顿,听说父亲即将在1801年退休并阖家搬到巴斯,竟昏了过去。While Bath is full of Regency buildings, which would have been well known to Jane Austen, my novel would focus on Jane Austen as a writer, and her years in Bath (as well as those spent in Southampton following the death of her father in 1805) were not a time of great creative output. However, soon after her 1809 move to another quiet Hampshire village, she began to write again.而巴斯市却到处是摄政时期的建筑,简·奥斯汀早已知晓。我的小说会着重描写奥斯汀身为作家的生活,也涉及她在巴斯的日子(还有1805年父亲去世之后,她在南汉普郡度过的时光),那段时间她的作品非常少。可是没多久,1809年,她又搬到了汉普郡另一个安静的村庄,重新开始了创作。The village was Chawton, and it is a mecca for Janeites. Here stands Chawton Cottage, where Jane lived with her mother and sister, Cassandra, for the last eight years of her life — years of great productivity that saw the publication of four major novels. The drive from Steventon to Chawton covers just 15 miles, but while the former village is generally void of visitors, tourists disgorge in the latter by the busload, especially in the summertime. I came in the off-season, though, and found the village almost as peaceful as it was when Miss Austen lived here.那个村庄就是查顿,全球奥斯汀迷心中的圣地。简·奥斯汀与母亲及卡桑德拉一起,在查顿小屋度过了她一生中最后的八年。在这极为多产的八年里,她出版了四部巨著。从史蒂文顿到查顿的路程其实只有15英里,但前者门可罗雀,后者却总会迎来整车整车的游客,尤其是夏天。我来的时候正值淡季,只觉得这个村庄几乎像奥斯汀生活的时代那样宁静。Chawton Cottage is now the Jane Austen’s House Museum. Here the visitor can walk through the rooms where Austen lived and worked, and view many relics of her family: her father’s bookcase; a quilt made by the Austen women; and, famously, a turquoise ring belonging to Austen, which the museum was able to purchase in 2013, preventing its export to America by Kelly Clarkson. To me, though, the most moving object was a simple 12-sided walnut table, barely wide enough to hold an inkwell, a quill pen and a few sheets of paper. Here, Jane Austen revised her early work (including transforming “First Impressions” into “Pride and Prejudice”), and wrote her later novels “Mansfield Park,” “Emma” and “Persuasion.”而今,查顿小屋就是简·奥斯汀故居物馆。在这里,游人可以在简·奥斯汀当年生活与写作的各个房间里穿行,浏览她与家人的众多遗物:奥斯汀父亲的书柜、奥斯汀母女手缝的被子,最知名的是奥斯汀的一枚绿松石戒指,2013年,物馆为了防止它被美国歌手凯利·克莱森(Kelly Clarkson)带走,花大钱赎了回来。然而对我来说,最动人的物品是一张简陋的十二面胡桃木桌,宽度只够放下墨水池、鹅毛笔和一沓纸。就在这张桌前,简·奥斯汀修订了她早年的几部作品(包括将《第一印象》改名为《傲慢与偏见》),写下了后来的几本小说——《曼斯菲尔德庄园》(Mansfield Park)、《爱玛》(Emma)和《劝导》(Persuasion)。I lingered by the table for several minutes, trying to imagine plying the trade of novelist, and plying it at Austen’s heights, on this modest surface. It is humbling enough as a writer to feel the presence of Jane Austen, more humbling still to consider with what meager tools she achieved so much.我在书桌边停留了几分钟,想象自己就是奥斯汀,想象她的身体坐在这张粗朴的桌前是什么情景。身为一名小说作者,面对简·奥斯汀足以让我赧颜,更让我惭愧的是,她用如此简陋的工具,竟做出了那样伟大的成就。A short walk up the road from the museum is Chawton House. Behind the chapel of this impressive country home, set in a large sheep-dotted park, are the graves of Jane’s mother and sister. The house itself once belonged to Jane’s brother Edward Austen Knight who, when he was about 15, in a scene right out of “Downton Abbey,” was adopted by childless distant relatives and became heir to the Chawton estate and other properties.从物馆出门步行一小段,就是查顿庄园。这座美丽的乡村宅邸里,小礼拜堂后面是一座大公园,草地上有绵羊在吃草。那是简的母亲与的墓地。过去,这座庄园是简的哥哥爱德华·奥斯汀爵士(Edward Austen Knight)的家产。他在15岁那年被过继到远亲家,由此成为查顿庄园及其他家产的继承人,简直如同《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)中的情节。The house was renovated in the 1990s by the American philanthropist and book collector Sandy Lerner and now serves as a study center housing her collection of early British woman writers. Chawton House is open only on certain days, and tours must be arranged in advance. My group consisted of myself and one other couple plus our two tour guides.20世纪90年代,美国慈善家兼图书收藏家珊迪·勒内(Sandy Lerner)修缮了这座庄园,而今此地成了研究中心,收藏着许多早期英国女作家的著作。查顿庄园仅在某些特定日子开放,游览必须提前预约。我们一行除了我,还有一对夫妇及两名导游。In the dining room we sat comfortably around a highly polished table. Our guides pointed out the late-19th-century decorated paneling, then casually mentioned that Jane Austen had frequently dined at the very table on which we were resting our elbows; we instantly sat upright with respect. The gem of Chawton House for me is a painting hanging in the former “Ladies Withdrawing Room.” The 1780 gouache by Adam Callender shows the house from across the park. It is now intimately familiar to me, as it graces the dust jacket of my new novel.我们走进餐厅,在一张光洁的桌子前舒适地坐下。导游指给我们看那些19世纪晚期的装饰嵌板,又不经意地提到,简·奥斯汀常在我们落座的这张桌子前吃饭,我们好几次肃然起敬,坐直了身躯。对我来说,查顿庄园的瑰宝是挂在昔日女士休息厅里的一张画。那是一张1780年的水粉画,作者亚当·卡伦德(Adam Callender),画的是庄园对面的一座房屋。在我眼中它散发着私密的熟稔,因为它就在我新小说的封面上,为我的封面平添了几分优雅。In May 1817 Jane Austen went to Winchester for medical treatment. Here, on July 18, she died, and six days later was buried in Winchester Cathedral. The house in which she died stands just outside the cathedral precincts and bears a plaque marking its place in literary history. After the short drive from Chawton, I arrived in Winchester in time to have a look around the cathedral before evensong began at 5:30.1817年5月,简·奥斯汀去温彻斯特治病,7月18日,她在这里与世长辞,六天后在温彻斯特大教堂下葬。她去世时的庄园就在大教堂的界域之外,如今那里挂着一块牌子,标明它在文学史上的地位。我从查顿坐车,很快就到了温彻斯特大教堂,赶在5:30晚课开始之前,把它里里外外看了个遍。The soaring nave of Winchester holds twin inspirations for me — one of the final scenes in my novel “First Impressions” is the death of Jane Austen, while one of the early scenes in my novel “The Bookman’s Tale” takes place on the north side of the nave at the elaborate tomb of Bishop William of Wykeham. Before paying my respects to Austen, I walked through a heavy wooden door in the north transept and up a creaking flight of stairs to the cathedral library. Well hidden, and not always open, the library displays a short manuscript by Jane Austen: “To the Memory of Mrs. Lefroy,” a poem of mourning written when Austen was just 23.温彻斯特大教堂高耸的中殿对我来说,寓意着两处灵感:我的小说《第一印象》中,最终场景之一是简·奥斯汀之死,而我的小说《学者传说》(The Bookman’s Tale)中最初几个场景就发生在威廉·威克姆主教(Bishop William of Wykeham)精美陵墓的中殿南侧。为了向奥斯汀表达敬意,我穿过北侧袖廊一道厚重的木门,踏上一段吱吱作响的楼梯,来到大教堂图书馆。此地深藏不露,不常开放,里面陈列着简·奥斯汀的一小段手稿:《纪念勒弗罗伊太太》。写这首悼亡诗的时候,奥斯汀年仅23岁。Back in the nave I reached the final stop in my tour — a slab of black marble marking the grave of Jane Austen. Much has been made of the fact that the stone’s inscription makes no mention of her writing career, but this was not unusual at the time. I had for years (and still do in most sources) that the Biographical Note composed by her brother Henry for the posthumous edition of “Persuasion” and “Northanger Abbey” (published in December 1817) was the first public identification of her as an author.在中殿,我抵达了游览的最后一步——一块黑色大理石板,简·奥斯汀的墓碑。碑上的铭文没有提及她的写作生涯,但在当时这不算奇怪。她去世之后,哥哥亨利为她的小说《劝导》和《诺桑觉寺》(Northanger Abbey)写了一本注释笔记(1817年12月出版),这本书我早已读过并时常查阅。那是她第一次以作家身份被众人知晓。However, while researching my novel I discovered this note, which local residents could have in the Salisbury and Winchester Journal on July 28, 1817, 10 days after her death:然而,当我为自己的小说做研究时,发现了一份告示。本地人有可能在1817年7月28日,奥斯汀去世10天后的《索尔兹伯里与温彻斯特杂志》(Salisbury and Winchester Journal)上读到这条公告。它写着:“On Friday the 18th inst. died in this city Miss Jane Austen, youngest daughter of the late Rev. George Austen, Rector of Steventon, in this county, and the Authoress of Emma, Mansfield Park, Pride and Prejudice, and Sense and Sensibility. Her manners were most gentle, her affection ardent, her candour was not to be surpassed, and she lived and died as became an humble christian.”“本月18日星期五,简·奥斯汀在本城去世。她是已故的史蒂文顿教区牧师乔治·奥斯汀的小女儿,也是《爱玛》《曼斯菲尔德庄园》《傲慢与偏见》及《理智与情感》(Sense and Sensibility)的作者。她的仪态极其温和,她的感情格外热烈,她的正直无法超越,从生至死,她都是一位谦逊的基督徒。”The wonderful thing about English cathedrals is that, in spite of the changes in décor and furnishings over the years, many spots remain unchanged from centuries past. The floor of Winchester’s south nave aisle, and the gravestone set into it, are, but for the wear of pilgrims’ feet, much the same as when the first mourners paid tribute to Jane Austen.英国的大教堂真好,尽管装饰和家具在岁月的风雨中有所变化,但许多地方在几百年后依然不变。温彻斯特南侧中殿走廊地板上镶嵌的墓石,在承受朝圣者多年的足印磨损之后,依然与简·奥斯汀最早一批哀悼者所见的差不多。Her gravestone elaborates on the qualities of her character: The benevolence of her heart, the sweetness of her temper and the extraordinary endowments of her mind obtained the regard of all who knew her, and the warmest love of her intimate connections.墓碑上详细记述了她的优秀品行:善良的心、温和的脾性、杰出的才华令所有认识她的人都尊敬不已,她对亲人怀有无比温柔的爱。As I sat in the cathedral choir, listening to the soaring music of evensong — repeating prayers that Austen would have known well — I felt I had come a little closer to the great “authoress,” to whom life in the small villages of Hampshire had given the peace and the insight to create works that are more widely loved than she could have imagined.我坐在大讲堂的唱诗班里聆听清越的晚课歌声,奥斯汀当年再熟悉不过的歌声,感觉自己与这位伟大的女作家更近了一分。在汉普郡村庄里度过的一生赋予了她一种宁静与洞察,让她写出煌煌巨著,受到了远超自己想象的爱戴。 /201501/353631


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