原标题: 青岛怎么除毛快问频道
Have you ever gone to the store just for milk, but walked out with eight sale-priced cans ofsomething youd never tasted and eight candy bars?你是否亲身经历过下面的情况:走进超市时的你只是想买一瓶牛奶,但当你离开时,手上拿着八罐你从未尝过的打折商品,以及八条糖果。How does that happen?怎么会这样呢?Brian Wansink and colleagues have studied how people make decisions in stores.伊利诺斯大学食品与商标研究所的布莱恩·万斯克士研究了人们在商场里是如何作出购买决定的。The results areinteresting not only for merchandisers hoping to increase sales, but customers trying to resistthe temptation.研究结果无论是对想提高营业额的商家,还是对想要抵抗诱惑的消费者来说都十分有趣。One way stores increase sales is that standby of merchandising, the multiple unit price.商场提升营业额的一种方法就是备用促销,即多件商品组合标价。Thatswhen a sign lists the price for several items, instead of one, say,4 cans for .该销售模式下,一个标签上会有多件商品的总价,比如说4美元4罐。Of course, youcould buy one, but its hard to resist the suggestion to buy more.你当然可以只买一罐,但你很难抵抗再多买一点的心理暗示。Wansink found that multipleunit pricing increased sales by almost a third.万斯克士发现该销售策略能使营业额提高近三分之一。Heres an even more astounding technique.还有一种更令人张口结舌的方法。When Wansink put up a sign that said,Buy Snickers Bars for your Freezer, people tended to buy one.万斯克士首先打出一条标语:为您的冰箱添置一些士力架吧!这时人们往往会买一条。Next though, he changed the sign to ,Buy 18 Snickers Bars for Your Freezer.然而接下来他将标语换成为您的冰箱添置18条士力架吧!It probably sounded ridiculous to customers too, but they tripled their purchases to three candy bars, on average.这也许对顾客而言,也荒谬不已,但顾客们的平均购买量却增加到三根。The limit sign is another trick of the numbers that increases sales, even though stores usuallyintend it to do just the opposite.而限制购买的标语则是商场增加营业额的另一个常用伎俩,尽管商家的本意是完全与之相反的。Lets say soup is marked way down, to bring in customers.比如,商场正通过大幅调低汤罐头价格以招徕顾客。The addition of a sign limiting purchase to 12 cans had a dramatic effect in Wansinks study, increasingsales by 112%!而万斯克的研究发现,一条限购12罐的标语能起到惊人的作用:使营业额激增112%!To resist the power of supermarket suggestion, write a grocery list at home, including how muchyou need.如果你想抵抗超市的心理暗示的话,最好在家中就列好购物单,包括你所需要的。At the store, remember how the numbers games work!当你在超市里时,千万记住商家们是如何玩弄数字游戏的。 /201404/283745Don: Say youre looking at an object on a table in front of you. How long do you think your eyeballs stay in one position? 看你一直在看你面前那张桌上的东西。你眼球能持续盯在一个地方多长时间?Yael: You mean, how long before they move? Im going to guess... a minute. 你的意思是,眼球能保持多长时间不动?我想……一分钟吧。D: More like less than a second. 更像是不到一秒钟。Y: Yow! 哎唷!D: Though we feel as if our eyes stay completely still when we focus on something, researchers have found they only stay still at most for a couple seconds--often just a few milliseconds. Whats fascinating about this is that every time our eyes move, we are momentarily visually impaired. We arent seeing anything but a blur. So if were always moving our eyeballs, and are always impaired, why dont we experience the world as a confusing rush? 虽然我们感觉我们在一直盯着某物看,但研究者发现,我们甚至至多只保持了几秒钟——往往是几毫秒。有意思的是,实际上当每次我们的眼睛转动的时候,我们会有短时的视觉失效。我们看到的就是一片模糊。所以如果我们总是移动眼珠,视力总被削弱,那为什么我们没感觉世界是一片混乱的呢?Y: I bet you have an answer. 我赌你有。D: Researchers at the University of Delaware have a good guess. They have done studies that show the brain is always extending the boundaries of what it sees-- adding in made-up information along the edges. This process is called ;boundary extension,; and it seems to be going on all the time. Say youre looking at a brick wall. You really only see a small section of it, but your visual processing system essentially says, ;I can assume that beyond my visual field on either side are more red bricks, so for now Ill just add them in until I get better information.; That process ofconstantly extrapolating on what you see may be what allows you to experience a calm and consistent visual world, even though the actual data coming in is much more fragmented. 特拉华大学的研究人员有个很好的猜想。他们所做的研究表明,大脑总是人为扩充我们的视野范围——添加一些凭空捏造的东西。此过程称为“边界扩展”,而且一直进行着。就拿你看着砌墙来说。你只是看到了一小部分,但你的视觉处理系统会告诉你,“我视线之外的一边会有更多的红砖头,那么我就会一直给自己输入这种信息直到我真的看到那一边到底有什么为止。”在对你可能看到的事物进行持续的推断过程中,你感觉到世界是平静、持续不变的,即使实际接收到的信息是片断式的。 201308/254470

So you made lasagna last night, and it was delicious.你昨晚做了千层面,之后享用了一顿大餐。You saved the leftovers by wrapping aluminum foil over the top of the pan, and putting it in the fridge.大快朵颐之后,你将剩下的千层面用铝箔纸包好放入冰箱中。When you get hungry today, you go to look for that lasagna, but it looks like the lasagna was getting hungry too!今天你饿的时候,便去拿昨天吃剩的千层面,但是你会发现千层面似乎也饿了!Its eaten tiny holes in the aluminum foil that was covering it.包裹它的铝箔纸上出现了一个个的小洞,好像被咬过一样。Why does this happen?为什么会这样呢?A listener asked this question and well find the answer on todays moment of science.一位听众问到了这个问题,我们将在今天的科学一刻中为你解答。There are really two things responsible for those holes in the aluminum foil: the acidic nature ofthe lasagna and some curious properties of aluminum.铝箔上出现这些洞有两个原因:一个是千层面本身具有酸性,另一个就是铝具有一些非常奇特的属性。Lasagna gets most of its acid from the tomatoes in its sauce.千层面的酸性主要是来自酱汁中的番茄酱。Almost everything you eat is at leastslightly acidic, but tomatoes are especially so.几乎你吃的每样东西都会至少呈轻微酸性,而番茄的酸性尤为明显。This acid wouldnt be a problem for a glasscontainer, or stainless steel, or plastic wrap, or for most of the materials we use to store andprepare food.这种酸对玻璃容器,不锈钢,塑料袋或大多数我们用于储藏和准备食物所用的材料都不会产生任何影响。Aluminum, though, is especially vulnerable to acid.但铝却非常容易受到酸的侵蚀。Heres why.这就是原因。Most metals form a protective layer on their surface called an oxide layer.大多数金属会在表面生成一种叫做氧化层的保护膜。Aluminum forms an oxide layer too, but it is very thin, allowing the tomatos acid to easily break through.铝金属也会形成氧化层,但是这层膜很薄,番茄中的酸能轻易腐蚀透。This lets the tomato sauce dissolve the aluminum, and it creates grey or black chemicalson top of the lasagna that taste very bad.由此番茄酱就会溶解铝,在千层面上产生一种灰色或黑色的化学物质,会使千层面变得非常难吃。The same thing can happen if you use aluminum cookware for acidic sauces.如果用铝制厨具来做酸味儿酱料,也会发生相同的情况。Sauce made in an aluminum pot will be grayer and not as tasty as sauce made in other cookware.铝制锅所做的酱料颜色看起来会更灰些,吃起来也不如其他厨具所做的酱料味道好。 201403/282540

Health reform医疗改革Mississippi spurning密西西比吐槽不断Obamacare hits trouble in the states奥巴马的医保改革在美国麻烦不小Jul 13th 2013 | JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI 2013年7月13日BARACK OBAMA’S health reform was supposed to bring universal health coverage to America on January 1st, 2014. It won’t. To understand why, consider states such as Mississippi.奥巴马的医疗改革原本预计从2014年1月1日开始实施,大范围的美国人将享受医保待遇,但事实上事与愿违。为什么?让我们以密西西比州为例一探究竟。Terry Brown, a Republican state senator there, stood before his colleagues on June 28th, as they lounged in summer poplin and seersucker. They had assembled to decide whether Mississippi would expand Medicaid, the public health program for the poor, as Obamacare urges. That day Mississippi said it would not. “I don’t want Mississippi to be a part of that train wreck,” said Mr Brown.泰瑞·布朗,是一名共和党议员,6月28日那天他带领他的同僚聚在一起,商讨密西西比是否要扩大医保范围。此举,用奥巴马的话讲,是惠及广大贫困群众的公共医疗项目。但当天密西西比就表示不会实施新医保。“我不想密西西比受到新医保的牵连而蒙受损失”布朗说。Obamacare aims to extend insurance to the poor in two main ways, both starting in 2014. First, it required states to offer Medicaid to all those with incomes of up to 138% of the federal poverty level, or ,856 for an individual. (At present Medicaid must cover only some poor people, such as pregnant women.) The federal government and the states usually share the cost of Medicaid. But Obamacare would pay for the expansion through 2016, with the feds’ share falling to 90% in 2020.奥巴马的医疗改革,旨在从2014年开始使医保覆盖到广大贫困群众,主要通过两项政策实现。政策一,对于收入不高于联邦贫困线38%的人员,或者个人收入不高于15,856美金的人员,州政府需要为他们提供医保(目前的医保只覆盖到部分贫困人群,例如怀妇女)。联邦政府和州政府一般共同提供医保资金,但是奥巴马的医保普及政策是2016年之前联邦政府会付新医保的费用,2020年付90%的费用,其余由州政府承担。Second, individuals would be able to shop for insurance on new state-based markets, called health exchanges. Those with incomes between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty level would qualify for federal subsidies.政策二,今后个人可从州政府主导的医疗保险交易所购买保险。个人收入在联邦贫困标准及其4倍之间的人群才有资格申请联邦补贴。Neither provision is going as planned. Last year the Supreme Court made the Medicaid expansion optional. At least 21 states say they will opt out. Even more are refusing to set up their own exchanges, leaving the task to federal bureaucrats.不管是以上哪条新政,估计都要搁浅了。去年最高法院宣布此次医疗普及政策并非强制执行。至少有21个州宣布他们不会参与其中。甚至多数拒绝建立各自的医疗保险交易所,将这一难题留给联邦政府处理。Mississippi would seem the ideal place to cover more poor people. It is America’s poorest state and has the shortest life expectancy. Its current Medicaid programme is among America’s least generous. Mississippians devote an unusually large share of their income to health care (see chart). One resident in five is uninsured.作为美国最贫穷以及居民寿命最短的州,密西西比看上去是此次医疗改革的理想试点。它现有的医保计划位列全美最不惠民的政策之一,尽管出人意外地,它的大部分政府收入用于医保出,(见图表),但两成居民都不能享受医保。But Obamacare’s main provisions have gone nowhere in the Magnolia State. The fight over the Medicaid expansion involved hair-raising brinkmanship. Had lawmakers not voted before July 1st, the state’s entire Medicaid programme would have stopped functioning. Republicans insisted an expansion was unaffordable. State Medicaid costs would have increased by 7% from 2013 to 2022, estimates the Urban Institute, a think-tank. That is much less than the expected 30% increase in Medicaid subsidies from the central government. But the 7% rise would have been bigger than in any other state, mostly because Mississippi’s current Medicaid programme is so skimpy.但是奥巴马的医疗保障政策在马格诺利亚州却悄无声息。为了抵抗医保普及政策,反对者不惜铤而走险。要不是立法机关7月1日前没有进行投票表决,不然马格诺利亚的全部医保计划都将暂停。共和党人坚称州政府根本付不起医保普及政策。据智囊团“城市研究所”预估,若新医保从2013年开始实施,密西西比州政府因此承担的医保资金到2022年要增加7%。而中央政府的医保补贴预计要增加三成。而其他州的的资金投入增幅远远不及7%,主要是因为密西西比目前的基数太小了。The fight over the state’s exchanges was equally bareknuckle. Mississippi’s elected insurance commissioner wanted a state-based exchange. The Republican governor, Phil Bryant, wanted nothing to do with Obamacare. After a messy spat, plans for a state exchange dissolved. By default, Mississippi will have a “federally facilitated exchange”, managed by the health secretary’s deputies. So far only two insurers have made bids to sell health plans on it. Residents of 42 counties will have a choice of only one subsidised plan; 36 counties will have none. And many poor Mississippians will be ineligible for Medicaid.对于另一条医保交易政策,反对的声音同样激烈坚决。在密西西比,推举出的医保代理机构希望医保交易所是由州政府主导的。但是州长费勒·布莱恩特是共和党人,不想参与奥巴马的新医保。经过一番舌战,政府主导的医保交易计划也搁浅了。大家心照不宣,密西西比的医保交易所将由“联邦政府辅助引导”,由卫生部的副秘书长们管理。至此只有两家保险公司竞价参与医保计划。42个郡的居民将可以选择性的享受一项医疗补贴计划,也是唯一的一项;另外36个郡将不参与。另外还有许多人将无权享受医保。Stansel Harvey is the boss of the Delta Regional Medical Centre, in the heart of old cotton country. The Mississippi Delta contains some of America’s poorest counties. About 10% of Mr Harvey’s patients fail to pay their bills. The insurance expansion would have made many of them paying customers. Crucially, that new revenue would have helped offset another Obamacare change: lower payment rates to hospitals. Without new insurance revenue, Mr Harvey reckons that he may need to cut services. If other hospitals follow suit, Mississippians will have a problem. In the age of Obamacare, they may have less access to health care, not more.斯坦索尔·哈雷,是位于科顿郡中心的德尔塔医疗中心的老板。很多美国最穷的郡就位于密西西比河三角洲。在哈雷的医疗中心看病的病人中,大约一成都无法付医疗费用。医保普及后他们中的许多人将看得起病。重要的是,因此受益的医院收入将增加,这将抵消奥巴马医改带来的另外一个变化:医院的缴费率将下降。如果没有新医保带来的增收,哈雷说他可能不得不关门大吉。如果其他的医院也纷纷歇业,密西西比将面临一个新问题。奥巴马医改之下,尽管医保覆盖范围广了,但是人民可以看病的地方也少了。201307/248277Science and technology科学技术Cancer therapy癌症治疗Checkpoint Charlie查理检查站A new class of drugs is being deployed in the struggle against cancer部署新药部队投入抗癌战斗THE lexicon of oncology is filled with military metaphors: the war on cancer, aggressive tumours, magic bullets.肿瘤学词典里充斥着军事比喻:抗癌战,侵袭性肿瘤,魔术弹。And although these are indeed only metaphors, they do reflect an underlying attitude—that it is the clinicians job to attack and destroy his patients tumour directly, with whatever weapons are to hand.虽然只是些比喻,它们却凸显出人们对待肿瘤的态度。临床医生的工作就是直接攻击和摧毁病人体内的肿瘤,无论是用什么武器装备。As in real warfare, those weapons may be conventional, chemical or nuclear.就像在真实的战场上一样,这些武器可能是常规武器,化学武器,或者核武器。There is even talk of biological agents, in the form of viruses specifically tailored to seek out and eliminate their tumorous targets.有时甚至会使用生物制剂,即能找出并消灭肿瘤标靶的特制病毒。Which is all well and good as strategies go. But as Sun Tzu observed, the wisest general is not one who wins one hundred victories in one hundred battles, but rather one who overcomes the armies of his enemies without having to fight them himself.癌症治疗和兵法一样好用。但是正如孙子所言,善用兵的将军不是指百战不殆,而是能不战而屈人之兵。And one way to do that is to get someone else to do your fighting for you.有个办法就可以做到,那便是让别人帮你战斗。That, in an oncological context, is where immunotherapy comes in.在肿瘤学领域,这就需要免疫疗法出山。Instead of attacking cancer directly, immunotherapy recruits a patients immune system to do the attacking.免疫疗法并不直接攻击癌症,而是招募病人的免疫系统来做这件事,最新的方法是解除那些为保护人体在健康时期免受免疫系统伤害而对其进行检查的控制机制。The latest way of doing so is by removing the controls which keep the immune system in check during times of bodily peace, lest it damage the person it is supposed to be protecting. Such checkpoint-inhibitor immunotherapy has proved itself over the past three years in the treatment of advanced melanoma, hitherto a death sentence.晚期黑色素瘤目前被视为对病人判了死刑,而过去三年的这类病症相关治疗明检查抑制剂免疫疗法确实有效。Now, as a series of papers presented this week to the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, in Chicago, shows, its range is being extended.现在,在芝加哥举办的美国临床肿瘤学协会年度会议上,研究人员发表一系列论文表明该疗法可以推广到其它肿瘤治疗领域。More effective versions are being brought to bear on melanoma.目前更多有效的同类治疗手段正在用于治疗黑色素瘤,And the whole approach is being tried out—often successfully—on lots of other cancers, including those of the lungs, the kidneys, the bladder, the colon, the stomach, the head and the neck.这种方法正在经受其它癌症的考验,如肺部、肾脏、膀胱、结肠、胃部、头部和颈部等出现的癌症,并且常常很有效果。Checkout time检查时间到The treatment of melanoma that started the ball rolling employed a drug called ipilimumab.这种黑色素瘤治疗是研究人员在三年前的协会会议上公布的。This belongs to a class known as monoclonal antibodies.它使用一种名为易普利姆玛的单克隆抗体药物。An antibody is an immune-system protein shaped to lock onto a particular chemical target. And specific varieties of antibody, aimed at specific targets, can be generated from cultures of genetically identical cells created for the task—in other words, cellular clones.抗体是一种能够锁定特异化学标靶的免疫系统蛋白。不同类型的抗体针对不同的特定性标靶,可以通过培养那些为实现特定功能而出现且具有相同基因的细胞获取,换句话说就是采用细胞克隆的方法。Ipilimumab locks onto and thus blocks the action of a protein, CTLA-4, which sits on the outer membranes of immune-system cells called T-lymphocytes.易普利姆玛锁定并抑制CTLA-4的活动,这种蛋白位于T淋巴细胞的细胞膜外层。These lymphocytes exist to kill body cells that pose a threat, such as cells infected by viruses, and also cancer cells.这些T淋巴细胞杀死构成威胁的身体细胞,比如被病毒感染的细胞或者癌细胞等。CTLA-4s role is to calm lymphocytes down and stop them proliferating.CTLA-4的作用是让淋巴细胞冷静下来,阻止它们增殖。That is a good thing when there is no threat around.这在人体未受威胁时是件好事,但是有些癌细胞非常善于躲避免疫系统。But some cancer cells are skilled at hiding from the immune system, so a drug that switches CTLA-4 off can unleash lymphocytes in circumstances when they are needed but otherwise unavailable.在需要淋巴细胞活动却无法激活的情况下,一种关闭CTLA-4功能的药物可以解放更多的淋巴细胞。Ipilimumabs success has spurred the development of further antibodies that work in similar ways.易普利姆玛的成功激励研究人员深入研究有着类似工作机制的抗体。Nivolumab and lambrolizumab gum up another surface protein, PD-1; and a fourth, so new that it still goes by its laboratory identifier of MPDL3280A, binds to PD-L1, a protein that would otherwise help PD-1 to do its job.Nivolumab和lambrolizumab扰乱另一种表面蛋白PD-1。第四种蛋白最近才发现,还使用着实验室标识符MPDL3280A,它可以绑定到PD-L1上,而PD-L1会反过来协助PD-1蛋白完成任务。Though they have slightly different modi operandi, all four antibodies work by shutting down biochemical checkpoints that limit the proliferation of lymphocytes.尽管方式稍微不同,四种抗体采取关闭生物检查站,解除淋巴细胞扩散限制的方法,Hence the name checkpoint inhibitors.因此得名检查抑制剂In the original trials of ipilimumab, 11% of patients responded.易普利姆玛在最初进行试验时,有11%的病人对药物产生反应。That might not sound many, but those who did respond often did so strongly—surviving in some cases for years with no evidence of disease.虽然人数不是很多,但这些病人的反应很强烈。有些人可以存活几年而没有疾病特征。Ipilimumabs successors have pushed the response rate up while maintaining the long-term benefits.易普利姆玛的后续制剂提高了反应比例,同时维持长期效果。A trial of nivolumab, led by Mario Sznol of the Yale Cancer Centre, showed a success rate of almost a third in a group of 107 melanoma patients, when success was defined as a tumour shrinking by 30% or more.耶鲁大学癌症中心Mario Sznol 对Nivolumab进行了试验,按照肿瘤缩小至少30%的标准,参与该试验的107名黑色素瘤病人中有三分之一取得了良好的治疗效果,The median survival time of these successes has so far been 16.8 months, quite a gain over the nine months that might have been expected for such people just a few years ago.目前存活时间的中位数为16.8个月,这要比前些年对这类病人存活期的预期增加了9个月,已经算相当长了。Lambrolizumab, too, looks promising.Lambrolizumab也很有前景。Antoni Ribas of the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues reported to the meeting that the tumours of more than a third of the 135 advanced-melanoma patients whom they had treated with it have shrunk.洛杉矶加利福尼亚大学的Antoni Ribas及其同事在会议上报告称,135名接受Lambrolizumab治疗的黑色素瘤病人中,有超过三分之一的肿瘤缩小了。Some of these people had previously been treated, unsuccessfully, with ipilimumab, confirming that the two drugs really do work in different ways.有些人之前接受ipilimumab治疗却没有成效,明了这两种药物确实有着不同的工作机制。Those separate modes of action were also confirmed by work announced to the meeting by Jedd Wolchok of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre, in New York.两种制剂相互独立的作用机制也由Jedd Wolchok向大会所做的工作汇报明。He and his colleagues reported that a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab causes faster and more complete responses than either does on its own. So far, they have treated 52 people.Jedd来自纽约斯隆–凯特林癌病中心,他和同事们称ipilimumab和nivolumab结合使用比单独使用产生更快更彻底的效果。The tumours of around three-quarters of these patients began shrinking in the first 12 weeks of treatment.目前他们治疗了52位病人,约有四分之三的的肿瘤在治疗初的12周内开始缩小,In a third of cases tumours shrank by 80% or more in that period and in 90% the patient was continuing to respond at his last check-up.同时有三分之一的肿瘤缩小了至少80%。在最后一次的检查中,这种治疗对90%的病人继续有效。This, then, is good news for those with melanoma.这对于患有黑色素瘤的病人是个莫大的好消息。But the most intriguing paper of the series was delivered by Roy Herbst, who also works at Yale.然而这些论文中最令人激动的要数同在耶鲁工作的Roy Herbst所发表的论文。He and his colleagues are testing MPDL3280A in a trial open to people who have any type of metastatic or otherwise incurable tumour—those, in other words, for whom established treatments offer no hope.他和同事们在一轮实验中测试MPDL3280A,并且面向所有患有任何转移性或者不可治愈肿瘤的人,换句话说,这些病人的肿瘤是目前成熟的治疗手段所不能治疗的。Preliminary results suggest a fifth of the 140 patients in this trial are responding. And, as in the case of Dr Wolchoks work, these responses are long-lasting.该实验的初步结果显示140名病人中有五分之一产生反应,并且这些反应长期持续,恰如Wolchok士研究中观察到的那样。The crucial point in the MPDL3280A trial is that those who have responded have a range of cancers—not just melanoma.MPDL3280A试验的关键点在于那些产生反应的病人患有的癌症多种多样,不局限在黑色素瘤。What was once a treatment specifically for melanoma now looks as if it might work for at least some cases of half a dozen common cancers.曾经专门用于黑色毒瘤的治疗现在看似至少对六种常见肿瘤的部分病例起效。If such results are confirmed by future studies, a new front will have opened in the war on cancer.这一结论如果能在未来的研究中得以验,抗癌战争就开拓了新前线。Moreover, the troops on this front will be not untested conscripts but confederates who are familiar with the enemy and just needed a little encouragement to join the battle.此外,守在前线的部队不是没有经验的新兵,他们对敌人十分了解,只需要一点点鼓励参加战斗,Sun Tzu would surely have approved.而孙子必定会批准下命令。 /201311/265144Oh,betty. Thats a horrible picture.哦 betty 这照片很吓人What is the name of that cut dog? Betty.这个家伙叫什么 BettyBetty? yes?betty吗 是的Oh my god. is it a Yorkie? its, yes.天哪 它是只约克夏 是啊And then this is your kitten. Thats Millie bubu.这个是你家的猫咪 Millie的宝贝And millie was how old when you rescued her?你在它多大的时候救了它She was ah... three or four weeks old.大概在它三四周的时候Wow,thats young to get a kitten. she was a baby.哇 那很小 她还是只小猫Well,they told me she was older but she wasnt.他们跟我说她年龄更大一些 可是却不是Youre not supposed to be able to get them until theyre你本不应该在它们还没长大到能够like you know, healthy.确认是否健康就领养But ah... she was sick so I ... right.但是因为她生病了 所以 哦Give her all her medicine. oh, I mean...给她需要的药 哦 我是说Look, my baby ,my baby.看看 我的宝贝Have you ever had a kitten before?你在此之前养过小猫吗Ah, I fostered a few kittens. oh.养过几只 哦Theres nothing cuter than a kitten.没有比小猫更可爱的了I mean... nothing.我是说 还真没有They are hilarious, arent they?它们超好笑的 是不Yeah,theyre the funniest...是啊 它们最好玩的She is...she still does that, shes six months now.她已经六个月大了 现在还会那样but I fostered like a pair of kittens I got adopted.是啊 我领养过一对小猫And it was like one of the the hardest saddest things to let them go.放他们走是最最悲伤艰难的事了To let them go. yeah, but its good now.恩 不过现在好多了They can climb anything and get in things.什么都能往上爬 试图钻进任何东西Thats the thing about kittens. and they got little knife teeth.猫星人都这样 而且还长着小尖牙Yes, and when theyre teething like that是的 如果真咬下去I mean, your hand is just gone.你的手就危险了Well,so puppies ,too.小也一样They have little sharp teeth like that.yeah.他们也有小尖牙And your dog is a Yokie or no. it is ,yeah,yeah.你的是约克夏 是的So what are these apps that you do?来聊聊你那个app吧This is an app that we discovered这是我们发现的一个应用That we love to send photos back and forth with this app.平时用它来交流彼此的宠物照Its called My Talking Pet.叫做 我的宠物会说话Okay, lets see.好的 我们来看看注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201402/275074

Finance and economics财经商业India in trouble印度身陷困境The reckoning最后审判日Why India is particularly vulnerable to the turbulence rattling emerging markets为什么印度新兴市场特别容易受到震荡ON THE morning of August 17th most of Indias economic policymakers gathered in the prime ministers house in Delhi.8月17日上午,大多数印度经济政策制定者聚集在德里的总理府邸。They were there to launch an official economic history of 1981-97, a period which included the balance-of-payments crisis of 1991.他们聚集那里为了发布一项官方的1981年到1997年间的经济史,这个时期包括1991年的国际收危机。The mood was tense.氛围十分紧张。India, said Manmohan Singh, the prime minister, faced very difficult circumstances.总理曼莫汉·辛格说,印度面临十分困难的状况。Does history repeat itself? asked Duvvuri Subbarao, the outgoing head of the Reserve Bank of India.历史重演了吗?即将退休的印度央行行长苏巴拉奥问道,As if we learn nothing from one crisis to another?好像我们没有从一次经济危机到另一次经济危机中什么都没有学到?The day before Indian financial markets had had their rockiest session for many years.之前,印度金融市场最困难的时期持续了很多年了。The rupee sank and stockmarkets tumbled.卢比贬值,股市坍塌。Money-market rates rose.货币市场汇率上升。The shares of banks thought to be either full of bad debts or short of deposit funding fell sharply.人们认为满是坏账或者缺少存款资金的股份迅速贬值。The sell-off had been made worse by new capital controls introduced on August 14th in response to incipient signs of capital flight.为应对早期资金外流现象,8月14日实施的资本控制使得券抛售变得更糟糕。They reduce the amount Indian residents and firms can take out of the country.他们减少了印度居民和公司可以带出国家的资金量。Foreign investors took fright, fearful that India might freeze their funds too, much as Malaysia did during its crisis in 1998.外国投资者受到了惊吓,担心印度也会冻结他们的资金,就像马来西亚1998年经济危机的时候采取的措施一样。Indias authorities have since ruled that out.印度当局后来排除了那种可能。But markets keep sliding.但是市场持续下滑。On August 20th the RBI said it would intervene to try to calm bond yields.8月20日,印度央行称会试着稳定债券收益率。The rupee has dropped to over 64 to the dollar, an all-time low and 13% below its level three months ago.卢比已贬值至一美元64卢比,价值空前的低,比三个月前水平低13%。It is widely agreed the country is in its worst economic bind since 1991.人们普遍认为,这个国家处在自从1991年以来最糟糕的经济窘境中。India is not being singled out.印度不是被单挑出来的。Since May, when the Federal Reserve first said it might slow the pace of its asset purchases,investors have begun adjusting to a world without ultra-cheap money.从五月份以来,当美联储首次表明会放慢其资产收购的进程时,投资者已经开始适应没有超低息政策的世界。There has been a great withdrawal of funds from emerging markets, where most currencies have fallen by 5-15% against the dollar in the past three months.大量资金从新兴市场撤出,这些市场过去的三个月卢比对美元汇率下降了5-15%。Bond yields have risen from Brazil to Thailand.债券收益从巴西上升到了泰国水平。Some governments have intervened.一些政府介入了。On July 11th Indonesia raised its benchmark interest rate to bolster its currency.7月11日,印度尼西亚提升了其基准利率来加强货币。On August 21st its president said he would soon announce further measures to ensure stability.8月21日,印尼总统表明不久就会宣布进一步的措施来确保经济稳定。India, Asias third-biggest economy, is more vulnerable than most, however.印度,亚洲第三大经济,却比大多数国家更脆弱。Economic news has disappointed for two years, with growth falling to 4-5%, half the rate seen during the 2003-08 boom.经济新闻让人们失望了两年了,经济增长率降到4-5%,其中一半的经济增长率还是在2003-08年经济蓬勃时期发展起来的。It may fall further.经济增长率还会进一步下跌。Consumer-price inflation remains stubborn at 10%.消费物价上涨仍保持在10%。A drive by Palaniappan Chidambaram, the finance minister, to push through a package of reforms and free big industrial projects from red tape has not worked.由财务部长帕拉尼亚潘·奇丹巴南为从繁文缛节中通过一系列改革和免费的大型工业项目而发起的运动还没有效果。An election is due by May 2014, adding to uncertainty.选举在2014年5月,也增加了不确定性。Indias dependence on foreign capital is also high and has risen sharply.印度对外资的依赖程度也很高并且上升很迅速。The current-account deficit soared to almost 7% of GDP at the end of 2012, although it is expected to be 4-5% this year.往来账户逆差2012年底急升至将近GDP的7%,虽然今年预期逆差是4-5%。External borrowing has not risen by much relative to GDP—the ratio stands at 21% today—but debt has become more short-term, and therefore riskier.外债相对于GDP没有上升很多—现在比例在21%—但是债务更多是短期的,因此更危险。Total financing needs are 0 billion over the next year.财政需求总额下一年是2.5亿美元。Indias reserves are 9 billion, giving a coverage ratio of 1.1 times.印度的储备是2.79亿,是偿还能力系数的1.1倍。That has fallen sharply from over three times in 2007-08 and leaves India looking weaker than many of its peers.2007-08这个储备下降了3倍多,也使印度看起来比许多同样的国家看起来更弱。It is therefore vital that foreign equity investors stay put.因此,外资股权投资者留在原处很重要。They own perhaps 0 billion of shares at current prices.按现时价格计算,他们可能拥有2亿美元的股份。They have sold only about billion since May, but if they head for the exit India would have no defence.自从五月份以来,他们只卖了大约3百万股份,但是如果他们撤出,印度将失去所有的防御。This is not a repeat of 1991.这不是1991年的一种重复。When India last had a crisis Boris Yeltsin was about to stand on a tank in Moscow and Nirvana was hitting the big time.当印度最后一次经济危机的时候,鲍里斯·叶利钦在莫斯科正要上台,涅槃乐队正出名。Things have changed in financial terms, too.融资条件也发生了变化。Back then India had a fixed exchange rate, which the state almost bankrupted itself trying to defend—it had to fly gold to the Bank of England in return for a loan.当时,印度有固定汇率,这是即将破产的国家努力维护的,为了还贷款,它必须空运黄金给英格兰。Today India has a floating exchange rate and a government with almost no foreign-currency debt.今天,印度有浮动汇率,还有一个几乎没有外币债务的政府。A slump in the currency poses no immediate threat to the governments solvency.货币的贬值对政府的偿付能力没有直接的威胁。The pain will be felt in other ways.痛苦会以其他方式感受到。Private firms that owe most of Indias foreign debt will be under intense strain, particularly if the rupee drops further.欠了绝大多数印度外国债务的私人公司将会非常紧张,尤其是如果卢比进一步下跌。Some will go bust.有些公司会破产。Market interest rates will stay high, causing a liquidity squeeze.市场利率会居高不下,导致流动性短缺。All this makes life even tougher for Indias state-owned banks, which aly have sour loans equivalent to 10-12% of their loan books.这些情况使得印度国有的日子更难过,这已经恶化了等同于贷款账项的10-12%。Inflation will rise.通货膨胀会加剧。And the governments finances will be under strain as the cost of its subsidies on imported fuel gets bigger.政府财政会随着进口燃料补贴上升而承受巨大压力。There is probably little the authorities can do to shore up the currency in the short term.短期内,政府当局可能没有什么可以做撑货币。The rupee is one of the worlds most actively traded currencies and at least half the turnover is abroad.卢比是世界上最活跃的交易货币之一,至少有一半的营业额在国外。Privately, officials reckon the rupees fair value, taking into account Indias higher inflation and productivity over the past few years, is a little less than 60 per dollar, so the market has yet to overshoot wildly.私底下,考虑到近几年印度更严重的通货膨胀和生产率,官员认为卢比的公允价值低于1美元60卢比,所以市场还没有严重超过。Raghuram Rajan, the incoming governor of the RBI, is likely to take a hands-off approach.即将上任的印度央行管理人拉古拉姆·拉詹可能会采取不干涉的措施。That doesnt mean the government will—or should.这不意味着政府会或者必须这么做。On August 19th it banned the import through airports of duty-free flat-screen TVs, which Indians can often be seen heaving through check-in at Dubai.8月19日,印度禁止空运进口免税平板电视,经常可以看到印度人在迪拜办理登记手续处拖着这些东西。It may seek to raise duties further on gold imports, which Indians are addicted to in part because it is seen as a hedge against inflation.印度人在某种程度上沉迷于此因为这被看做是来抵消通过膨胀造成损失。Gross gold imports were 3% of GDP last year, blowing a huge hole in the external finances.去年黄金进口总值是GDP的3%,给外部融资带来了巨大的损失。History suggests the higher taxes on gold imports are, the worse smuggling gets.历史表明进口黄金税收越高,走私越严重。But India imports 800-odd tonnes of bullion a year. Thats a lot of gold to hide in suitcases.但是印度每年进口大约800公吨金条,那会有很多金子要藏在箱子里。The government will also try to persuade the Supreme Court to lift its ban on iron-ore exports, imposed after a series of corruption scams.在一系列腐败骗局发生后,政府也会试着说最高法院解除铁矿出口的禁令。At its peak this industry generated exports worth about 0.4% of GDP, although experts doubt that mothballed mines can be ramped up fast.在其全盛时期,这项工业出口价值约0.4%的GDP,虽然专家们怀疑封存矿山是否会增加很快。The government may also cut fuel subsidies.政府可能还会减少燃料补贴。That would reduce demand for imported fuel and help it hit a fiscal-deficit target of about 7% of GDP.这会减少对进口燃料的需求,并帮助达成GDP7%的财政赤字目标。The longer-term solution to the balance-of-payments problem may be to ramp up Indias manufacturing sector, and thus its industrial exports.国际收差额问题的长期解决措施可能是增加印度制造业以及其工业出口。But that will take a big improvement in the business climate, not just a cheap currency.但是那样会大幅改善商业环境,不仅仅是廉价的货币。Despite the rupees 27% tumble in the past three years there is scant sign of global manufacturers shifting production to India.虽然卢比价值在过去三年下跌了27%,有迹象表明全球制造商正将生产向印度转移。Indias position could still get worse.印度的处境可能仍然在恶化。But assuming things stabilise, when the official histories come to be written about 2013, what might they say?但是如果形势稳定下来了,当要记载2013年的官方历史时,他们会说什么呢?Most likely that the rupees slump caused a severe shock to the economy that made a recovery in growth rates even harder.最有可能的是卢比下跌对经济产生严重冲击,使得经济增长率恢复更加困难。But perhaps, also, that it prompted a more serious debate about the policies that India needs to become less vulnerable to the whims of an unforgiving world.但是也有可能会激起更严肃的讨论,关于印度要变得更能应对变化多端难以应付世界。 /201309/256143German politics德国政治The Alternatives astonishing ascent新选项党的崛起As the large centrist parties become more alike, the radical fringe gets stronger大部分中立派议员趋同,激进派边缘增强SINCE reunification in 1990, Saxony has been the former East Germanys biggest success story. As one of Germanys 16 federal states since then, it has been governed continuously by the centre-right Christian Democrats (CDU). Its education system is considered Germanys best. Its economy is thriving, with world-class regional clusters in high-tech and carmaking. So there was never any question that Stanislaw Tillich, the states understated and popular CDU premier, would stay in power after Saxonys election on August 31st. His party won more votes than the three leftist parties combined. With 39.4% of votes, Mr Tillich claimed victory.自从1990年德国重新统一以后,萨克森州已经变成了前东德地区最成功的故事。自那时开始,作为联邦十六州之一的萨克森一直处在中右派的基督民主党统治之下。它的教育制度被认为是德国最好的,高科技与汽车制造业的地域集聚也使得它的经济情况日趋繁荣。毋庸置疑,低调行事且广受赞誉的基民党州长斯塔尼斯拉夫·提里希将在8月31日的大选后继续执政。基民党获得了超过三个左翼政党联盟的持率,34.9%的得票率宣告了提里希的胜利。And yet that result was the CDUs worst ever in Saxony, causing worries as the party approaches elections on September 14th in Thuringia and Brandenburg, also in former East Germany. The left-leaning Social Democrats (SPD) and ecology-minded Greens have reason to fret, too. They all did worse than they had hoped, largely because they lost votes to a populist party to the right of the CDU: the Alternative for Germany, led by Frauke Petry.但这是基民党在萨克森选举历史上最糟糕的结果,导致了他们对同样归属前东德地区的图林根州与勃兰登堡在9月14日政党换届大选的担忧。而左翼党派德国社会民主党与生态主义绿党也有同样的烦恼。他们比预期中做的更糟,很大程度上因为他们票选输给了一个比基民党作风更为保守的民粹新政党—由弗劳克·佩特里领导的新选项党。Founded last year, the Alternative began with only one policy: a call for the orderly unravelling of the euro as a currency zone. To this it has since added other conservative positions, such as opposition to public deficits and gay marriage. In some ways it resembles Americas Tea Party. In Saxony, where it is strongest, it has increasingly emphasised tougher controls on immigration and border crime, often with xenophobic innuendo.去年开始,新选项党遵循的唯一政策:呼吁有序解散欧元经济区。为此,党内开始增加其他保守立场,例如反对财政赤字与同性婚姻。在某种程度上它类似美国的茶党。在新选项党势力最强的萨克森州,它加强了对外来移民与边境犯罪的严格管控,并经常伴有排外情绪。Though still chaotic in its party organisation and evolving in its views—for example, the party is squabbling over whether to criticise Vladimir Putin or coddle him—the Alternative has been rising stunningly fast. It came close to entering the federal parliament last September and succeeded in entering the European one in May. With 9.7% of the vote in Saxony, it now enters its first state parliament. It hopes to do so in Thuringia and Brandenburg, too.即使政党内部观点开展的混乱不堪——比如为了要批评还是要优待普京而争吵——新选项党的依然在迅速成长。在去年九月它尝试进入联邦议院,并在五月份成功进入欧盟接替了一个席位。凭借在萨克森州9.7%的持率,它首次进入州议院并希望在图林根州与勃兰登堡市也能取得同样的结果。The new partys success is causing upheaval in the German political landscape, accelerating the implosion of its only liberal party, the Free Democrats (FDP). With just 3.8% of votes in Saxony, the FDP failed to clear the 5% threshold to enter parliament and was ejected, as it has been from seven other state parliaments since 2011 and the Bundestag last year. For the first time since 1946, the FDP does not participate in any state or federal government. This eliminates the liberals as the CDUs coalition partner, perhaps permanently.新政党的成功引起了德国政坛格局的转变,也加速了德国唯一一个自由党派—自由民主党的分裂。自2011年起它已经相继被其他7个州议院与去年的联邦议会大选“除名”,而今年萨克森选举中,3.8%的得票率让自民党又一次在议院5%持率的门槛前止步。这也是自1946年以来自民党首次未能进入任何州立或联邦政府,这种情况对于基民党的盟友—自民党的消除也许是永久性的。A more positive side-effect of the Alternatives ascent is its cannibalisation of the NPD, a neo-Nazi party.About 13,000 of its voters migrated to the Alternative, causing the NPD to fall 809 votes short of re-entering the Saxon parliament. After that loss, it has seats in only one other state and could fade away, with or without a ban.新选项党的成长带来的积极作用是与民粹政党—德国国家民主党的同类相残。约有1.3万名该党的持者转向了新选项党,缺少809个持票也直接导致了民主党无法重回议会。失败以后,无论同类相残是否被禁止,它在另一个州保留的仅有席位也可能消失。The CDU so far refuses to contemplate a coalition with the Alternative. Led nationally by the chancellor, Angela Merkel, the CDU is pro-European and pro-euro, and so moderate as to be increasingly indistinguishable to many voters from the SPD, with which it governs in a “grand coalition” in the Bundestag. On September 1st Mrs Merkel, Mr Tillich and the CDU leaders in Thuringia and Brandenburg said again that discussions with the Alternative are taboo. Mr Tillich will try to form a coalition with the SPD or the Greens.基民党至今拒绝考虑与新选项党联盟。在德国总理默克尔领导下的基民党是亲欧盟亲欧元的,如此温和的作风让人们越来越难以区分基民党与社民党,同时基民党还在西德联邦议会中掌管着大联盟。9月1日,默克尔、提里希和基民党其他领导人在图林根州与勃兰登堡市再一次表示,与新选项党讨论是被禁止的。提里希将会尝试与社民党或绿党建立联盟。Ignoring the Alternative will not remove it as a problem for the CDU. In effect, the Alternative has in one year become on the far right what The Left is on the left. Descended from East Germanys Communist Party and unreconciled to Germanys capitalist system and its Western alliances, The Left remains strong in the eastern states. In Saxony it came in second with 18.9% of the vote. The comparatively moderate SPD has so far ruled out The Left as a partner in the Bundestag. But their competition splits the left vote and often leads to unproductive ideological bidding wars.基民党的联盟问题不会因为忽视新选项党而解决。事实上,新选项党已经在一年以内成为了极右派,如同左派党是左翼倾向。起源于东德共产党的新选项党,虽然没有与德国资本主义系统以及西部联盟达成一致,但在东部各州实力依然强大。它在萨克森州公投中以18.9%的持率位居第二。相对温和的社民党已经排除了基民党在西联邦议院的左党伙伴。但是他们的竞争使得左派选票分裂,并且经常带来无意义的竞投战。The Alternative will increasingly play the same role on the right vis-a-vis the CDU. On September 1st, Mrs Merkel suggested that, short of negotiating with the Alternative, the CDU must begin dealing with the concerns, rational or not, of its supporters. These range from fears about crime in the regions along the borders with the Czech Republic and Poland, to hysteria about “welfare tourism” by foreigners. The Alternative will be at its shrillest and strongest every time the euro crisis returns to the headlines. This will restrict Mrs Merkels leeway to agree to new rescue packages, or even to ease her austerity drive.新选项党将逐渐与基民党扮演同样重要的角色。九月一日,默克尔建议,由于缺少与新选项党磋商,基民党必须开始解决来自它的持者们关心的问题,无论问题合理与否。持者们关心的范围从对捷克和波兰接壤的边境地区犯罪的担忧,到对外国人“公益旅行”的歇斯底里。新选项党在欧元危机重回一线的每时每刻都表现出尖利强硬的一面。这将限制默克尔的回旋余地,被迫同意新计划,甚至缓和她的紧缩计划 /201409/327426Science and technology科学技术Medical devices医疗设备Inhaling information有关吸入器的吸入信息How to collect data on asthma while, at the same time, treating it在处置哮喘的同时如何收集哮喘数据IN 1985 and 1986 an epidemic of asthma hit Barcelona.1985年和1986年巴塞罗那哮喘病流行。The citys researchers first turned to the usual suspects,这个城市的研究人员首先调查了一般的怀疑对象,such as air pollution, pollen and mould.如空气污染、花粉和霉菌等。But a series of telephone interviews with the sufferers pointed to a much more precise cause.但从一连串对患者的电话随访中得出了一个更为确切原因。All the attacks had occurred by the harbour, and at times when ships were unloading soya beans.所有的哮喘发作都发生在港口,且都在货船卸大豆的时候。The cause was clear: soya-bean dust.原因很清楚:大豆灰尘。So was the solution: the installation of filters on the harbours silos.所以解决办法就是:在港口的筒仓上安装过滤器。Asthma is one of the worlds most common chronic diseases.哮喘是世界上最常见的慢性病之一。It affects about 300m people.大约有3亿人患有哮喘。Yet what triggers any given asthma attack is often unclear and,然而,人们往往并不清楚是什么诱发了任何特定哮喘的发作,as a consequence, most asthmatics are not properly treated. Stories of success, like that of Barcelona, are rare.其结果,大多数哮喘患者得不到妥善处置。象巴塞罗那这样成功的故事是很罕见的。Part of the reason for that lack of clarity is inadequate data on where and when attacks happen.缺乏确切了解的部分原因在于对哮喘在何时何地发作没有足够的数据。But David Van Sickle, an epidemiologist and medical anthropologist who once worked for Americas Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, has come up with a solution.但是曾在美国疾病控制和预防中工作过的流行病学家和医学人类学家大卫·凡·西科勒想出了一个解决方案。This is to use the asthma inhalers carried around routinely by patients to record the time and location of symptoms as they happen.这个解决方案就是利用患者例行性随身携带的哮喘吸入器来记录他们的哮喘症状出现时的时间和位置。To develop his idea, Dr Van Sickle left CDC and founded a company, Asthmapolis, which is based in Madison, Wisconsin.为了开发他的想法,凡·西克尔士离开美国疾病控制和预防中心并成立了一家公司,公司名为Asthmapolis,总部设在威斯康星州的麦迪逊市。The result is Spiroscout, an inhaler with a built-in Global Positioning System locator and a wireless link to the internet.其结果就是一款名为肺量测定法侦察员的吸入器问世,这款吸入器带有内置的全球定位系统定位和联到互联网的无线连接。Whenever someone uses the inhaler, it broadcasts the location and time to a central computer.每当有人使用吸入器时,吸入器就把位置和时间播报到中央计算机。Asthmapolis plots and analyses the data, and sends weekly reports to participating patients and their doctors summarising the observations and making recommendations.这家公司把播报来的数据绘制成图并加以分析,每周向参与播报的患者以及他们的医生发送报告,以便他们的医生总结观察并提出建议。That is useful for the individuals involved, since it may illuminate patterns of which they were unaware.这对有关个人很有用,因为它可以阐释未明的诱发哮喘模式。It could also help doctors identify those patients whose asthma is not under proper control.它还可以帮助医生确定那些哮喘无法适当控制的病人。Use of the inhaler more than a couple of times a month suggests there is something wrong, and that the patients medication may need to be changed.每月使用吸入器超过了一两次的情况说明有问题存在,而病人的药物可能需要更换了。Patients do not, however, always report such problems, and so do not get the right drugs.然而,如果患者一直不报告这种问题,那么就无法得到正确的药物。The big public gain, though, will come from pooling all the data from the inhalers, once they have been suitably anonymised.不过,最大公共收益将出自汇集所有吸入器播报的数据,这些数据从前被适当地隐藏了。That will open the way for a much more detailed analysis of what is going on, and may allow the triggers to be identified and ranked in order of importance.这将开辟一种对发生的事情进行更详细分析的方法,而且也可能让哮喘的诱因得以识别并按照重要性的顺序加以排列。Over the past three years Dr Van Sickle has run two pilot studies to test the new tool.过去三年来,凡·西克尔士已经完成了两次试点研究,以测试新的工具。Both of these showed useful improvements in patients management and understanding of their disease.两次试点研究都显示了对患者管理及疾病认识的有益改进。They have also resulted in him questioning some longstanding theories about asthma,这两次试点研究也让凡·西克尔士质疑一些长期存在的哮喘理论,including the ideas that symptoms occur primarily at home and that the affliction is more prevalent in urban areas than rural ones.包括症状主要发生在家里以及在城市地区比农村地区感染更盛行这样的观念。If those insights are confirmed, they will change the way asthma is managed.如果这些质疑结果得到实,它们将改变控制哮喘的方法。The next step, commercialisation, is planned for the autumn.下一步的商业化计划在秋季进行。With nearly 500,000 asthma-related hospital admissions every year in America alone, the market could be large.鉴于仅在美国每年就有近50万与哮喘有关的病人入院治疗,市场可能很大。Alternatively, Dr Van Sickles old friends at the CDC or some other medical-research agency might think the data sufficiently valuable to buy and distribute the things themselves.另外,在美国疾病控制和预防中心或其它医疗研究机构工作的凡·西克尔士的老朋友们可能会觉得这些数据有足够的购买价值,并把它们用到自身的研究上。Either way, the upshot would be better lives for patients in the short term and,无论哪种方式,其结果都将会在短期内让患者的生活更好,if all went well, a true understanding of the triggers of this debilitating and occasionally life-threatening condition.且一切顺利的话,人们就会真正了解这种令人衰弱、有时危及生命的病症的诱因。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244318

Diarmuid:Dear, oh dear.戴拉蒙德:哦,我的天啊。Feifei:Hi Diarmuid. What are you laughing at?飞飞:嗨,戴拉蒙德。你在笑什么呢?Diarmuid:Im just looking at these. My mum found them in the attic.戴拉蒙德:我只是在看这些。我妈妈在阁楼上找到的。Feifei:What are they?飞飞:是什么?Diarmuid:Theyre my old class reports from my school days. Theyve been stored away for all these years.戴拉蒙德:是我上学时候的成绩报告。这些东西多年来一直保存着。Feifei:What do the reports say?飞飞:上面写些什么?Diarmuid:Have a look for yourself.戴拉蒙德:你一看便知。Feifei:Let me see.飞飞:让我看看。Lets choose a subject… here we are, History:Diarmuid has failed to learn anything this year because he spends all his time chatting at the back of the classroom.让我们随便看一个课程的…历史老师这样写道:戴拉蒙德今年什么都没学会,因为他将自己所有的时间都浪费在教室后面的聊天上。Lets look at another… Maths:Diarmuid must learn that it is not enough just to sit at his desk.让我们看看另一个…数学老师的评语:戴拉蒙德必须清楚,仅仅在学校用功是远远不够的。He must pay attention to the lesson, and study hard out of class and do his homework.他上课必须集中注意力,课外也努力学习并完成他的家庭作业。Diarmuid:I wasnt very good at maths.戴拉蒙德:我不太擅长数学。Feifei:So I see.飞飞:所以我明白了。Lets have another… Science:This lazy boy is a disgrace to the school uniform!还有另一个来自科学:这个懒惰的男孩有辱学校的这身制!Diarmuid:That teacher never liked me.戴拉蒙德:那个老师从来都不喜欢我。 201309/257511Social attitudes社会态度Generation gap代沟Why a resurgence in support for the welfare state won’t help Labour为什么持福利国家的呼声重起不利于工党Sep 14th 2013 |From the print editionMANY reasons can be found why public support for Britain’s welfare system should be waning. The economy remains debt-ridden, the deficit large. Five more years of austerity will drain funding from services Britons cherish, like schools and the NHS. It explains why politicians talk of “strivers”, aiming to tap into a perceived view that those receiving benefits have it easy.可以找到很多公众持英国福利制度逐渐减弱的原因。经济仍然债台高筑,财政赤字巨大。接下来五年的财政紧缩会耗尽英国人珍惜的公共务所需资金,比如说学校和国民保健务。这解释了为什么政治家谈论“奋斗者”,目的在于改变人们的观点,说明上述福利来之不易。But new data suggest that politicians may have misjudged the public mood. The latest British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, published on September 10th, revealed that sympathy for those on benefits, on a downwards trend since 1989, has started to rise. Those agreeing that benefits should “provide a decent standard of living for the unemployed” rose from 50% to 59% in the period between 2006 and 2012.但是,最新数据表明政治家可能误判了公众的情绪。发布于9月10日的最新的英国社会态度调查显示自1989年以来都呈下降趋势的同情那些福利的情绪开始上升。同意福利应该给失业者提供一个合适的生活标准的比例从2006年的50%上升到了2012年的59%。Those who thought benefits were “too high and discourage work” fell from 62% in 2011 to 51%, and more people thought cutting benefits “would damage too many people’s lives.” Alison Park, of the BSA team, says sympathy for benefits claimants often rises in recessions, but in this downturn the effect had not clearly appeared until this year’s data.认为福利太高,抑制了工作积极性的比例从2011年的62%下降到了现在的51%,越来越多的人认为削减福利会损害太多人的生活。英国社会态度调查团队的Alison Park表示,同情福利救济者的比例会在经济衰退期有所上升,但是在这个衰退期,知道今年的数据出来作用才变得清晰。Britons disagree on who should get cash, however. A report published by Demos, a think-tank, and Ipsos MORI, a pollster, showed that more than four-fifths of those born before 1965 would prioritise pensions over other benefits. Yet less than half of those born after 1980 would do so (see chart). Britons born before 1945 are less likely to support benefits for working-age groups than the average. Generations favour their own.然而,对谁应该获得救济资金,英国人有分歧。一个智囊团Demos和民意调查机构Ipsos MORI发表的一份报告显示,超过五分之四的1965年以前出生的人将优先考虑养老金。而1980年以后出生的人中只有不到一半的人持这样做。1945年以前出生的英国人更不可能持给适龄工作人员增加福利,低于平均持率。每一代人都维护自己的利益。With more cuts expected after the next general election, which part of the welfare budget to spare divides Britain’s political parties. The Conservatives have promised to exclude pensions from any spending cap. With their own pots safe, the BSA data suggests grey-haired voters might welcome other cuts. Only 10% of the pre-war generation regard unemployment benefit as a priority. Single parent handouts are especially unpopular with older Britons: only 3% support them.预计下一届大选之后福利削减会加大,福利预算的富裕与否是英国各政党之间的区别。保守党已经承诺排除养老金的付上限。英国社会态度数据显示,老年人自己的福利有保障之后,他们可能会欢迎其他福利的削减。只有10%的战前公民会优先选择失业福利。单亲救济在英国老年人中最不受欢迎,他们中只有3%的人持这项福利。Labour’s brand of austerity should appeal more to the young. They propose to cap pensions, and oppose further cuts to child and housing benefits. It may prove a risky strategy: 76% of over 65s turned out to vote at the last election, whereas only 44% of those aged 18-24 bothered to do so. Labour’s poll lead is aly dwindling, rising support for welfare may well quicken the pace.工党紧缩的形象对年轻人更有吸引力。他们提出限制养老金,反对对儿童和住房福利的进一步缩减。这可能是一项有风险的策略:上次选举的时候76%的65岁以上的民众参与选举,而18到24岁的民众只有44%的比例参与选举。工党的领先优势已经在减少了,对福利的持可能会加快其优势减少的步伐。201309/257606

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