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Red Cross: Nightmare Scenario Unfolding in Cholera-Stricken Zimbabwe红十字会:津霍乱疫情像恶梦  The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies says a nightmare scenario is unfolding in Zimbabwe as the number of cholera deaths and cases continues to mount. The Red Cross says it is hit with a severe funding crisis and this is hampering its ability to contain the deadly disease. 国际红十字会与红新月会联合会说,津巴布韦霍乱疫情造成的死亡和患病人数还在增加,那里正在出现恶梦一样的惨状。红十字会说,严重的资金危机正在削弱红十字会控制这场疫情的能力。Senior health officer for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Tammam Aloudat, has recently returned from Zimbabwe. He says the cholera outbreak in the country is increasing in scale and it is claiming more lives. 国际红十字会与红新月会联合会的高级医疗官员阿洛达最近刚刚从津巴布韦返回。他说,津巴布韦霍乱疫情的规模正在扩大,死亡人数也在增加。"The scenario that was described a few weeks ago and was told to be an excessive nightmare scenario is happening," said Aloudat. "It is unraveling in front of our eyes. We have close to 50,000 cases and close to 3,000 deaths aly."  他说:“几个星期前,有人告诉我们那里的情况就像可怕的恶梦,这种惨状目前正在发生,就在我们的眼前出现。已经有近5万人得了霍乱,近3000人死亡。”Several weeks ago, humanitarian agencies were warning that Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic could peak at 60,000. They called this a nightmare scenario and said all measures must be taken to contain the disease.  几个星期前,一些人道主义机构警告说,津巴布韦的霍乱疫情可能导致6万人患病。它们把这种情况称为恶梦,并说必须采取一切行动控制霍乱。Aloudat says the Red Cross and other aid agencies have the expertise and the will to control a disease that, under more normal circumstances, can be fairly easily contained and prevented. 阿洛达说,红十字会和其它组织有控制疫情的专业知识和意愿。在比较正常的条件下,霍乱是一种相对容易控制和预防的疾病。"Today as we speak, the Red Cross is providing treatment, providing sanitation, water and providing volunteers who are going to their communities to educate them and providing personal hygiene materials," said Aloudat. "This is what has the potential to avert a cholera outbreak. We can definitely contain this outbreak given the resources. We are not anymore in the 19th century."  他说:“就在此刻,红十字会正在提供治疗、卫生设备、水和志愿者。这些志愿者进入他们所在的社区,教人们如何防病,发放个人卫生用品。这些工作本来有可能防止霍乱发生。如果有人力物力,我们一定可以控制疫情。毕竟我们不是生活在19世纪了。”But, that is the problem. The Red Cross is not being given the resources, the money it needs to carry out its life-saving mission. The agency appealed for over million at the end of last year. Aloudat says this appeal is about 60 percent under-funded. 不过,问题正在于红十字会并没有得到这些治病救人所需的资源和资金。红十字会曾在去年底呼吁得到900多万美元的资助。但阿洛达说,红十字会最终只得到大约40%的资金。"The lack of funding is probably a mixture of several aspects and most important, we have seen the funding drop when Zimbabwe dropped off the TV screens. It is not about the politics or persons here. It is about the ability to reach people who are now dying of cholera and need assistance now. I think linking the humanitarian assistance to cholera to politics is not a good idea."  他说:“缺乏资金可能是多种因素造成的,其中最重要的是,当津巴布韦不再出现在电视新闻中时,我们得到的资助就减少了。我们谈论的不是津巴布韦的政治或领导人,而是为那些即将被霍乱夺走生命的人提供帮助的能力,这些人现在就需要救助。我认为,把对霍乱疫情的人道主义援助同津巴布韦的政治联系起来是不明智的。”Aloudat says Zimbabwe's health system is completely shattered. He says health professionals are not going to work because they are hungry and they are not being paid. He says one of the most important things that must be done to control the epidemic is to top off the salaries of doctors and nurses so they report for work. 阿洛达说,津巴布韦的医疗系统已经完全崩溃。他说,医疗工作者由于饥饿和得不到工资而不去上班。他说,为了控制疫情,最重要的是必须补发医生和护士的薪水,以便让他们回去上班。01/61491Human evolution人类进化史You look familiar似曾相识Another piece of humanity’s family tree is fitted into place南方古猿sediba的发现填补了人类家族谱系的关键空白Sep 10th 2011 | from the print edition THE opening scene of Mel Brooks’s film “History of the World: Part One” dispenses with human origins in one line: “And the ape stood, and became man.” Would that it were that easy for palaeontologists to sort out. The transition to humanity is generally agreed to have occurred between Australopithecus, a genus of small-brained, bipedal primates whose most famous member is a fossil nicknamed “Lucy”, and the big-brained species Homo erectus. But pinning down when precisely this took place, and which of the various australopithecine species were involved, has been challenging. Now the most human-like australopithecine found to date is clarifying things—and staking a claim to be the species from which early humans evolved.梅尔·布鲁克斯执导的电影“世界史:序幕”开场仅用一句话就概括了人类起源:“类人猿直立起来,变成了人类。” 要是古生物学家也能如此轻而易举地阐释人类进化的奥秘就好了。人们普遍认为人类是由南方古猿和直立人之间的某个物种演化而来。南方古猿头部较小,属双足灵长类动物,其最有名的家族成员是一具被称做“露西”的化石,比较而言,直立人的头部就大多了。不过,要想确定确切的人类演化时间和哪些南方古猿物种参与了演化,仍是极具挑战性的课题。目前,迄今为止发现的与人类最为相似的南方古猿正逐渐解开这团迷雾——它阐明了早期人类是由哪个物种演化而来的。Fossils of the new species, Australopithecus sediba, were discovered in 2008 in a cave in South Africa. Initial research, led by Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg, concluded that the species came too late in the fossil record to be the ancestor of the Homo lineage. This week, however, a range of new research into sediba, again led by Dr Berger, has been published in Science. These studies conclude that sediba did in fact predate Homo erectus and, moreover, that parts of its anatomy are surprisingly similar to modern man.2008年在南非一个洞穴内发现一个新物种化石,称做南方古猿sediba。约翰内斯堡金山大学的李·伯格尔领导的最初研究结果表明南方古猿sediba在化石记录中出现的年份过晚而无法被认定为人类的祖先。然而本周,李·伯格尔士领导的一系列关于sediba的最新研究成果在《科学》杂志上发表。这些研究结果表明,南方古猿sediba确实早于直立人存在,并且它的一些骨骼结构与现代人类有着惊人的相似之处。201109/154667Bush Marks Thanksgiving Holiday, Monitors India Attacks布什感恩节讲话 慰问孟买遇袭者 U.S. President George Bush is monitoring developments in India from Camp David, where he is observing America's Thanksgiving holiday with members of his family. Mr. Bush called India's prime minister from the presidential retreat to express condolences in the wake of terrorist attacks in Mumbai. 美国总统布什在戴维营密切关注印度事态的发展,布什在戴维营跟家人一道欢度美国的感恩节。孟买恐怖袭击发生之后,布什从总统度假地戴维营向袭击受害人表示慰问。White House spokeswoman Dana Perino says President Bush called Prime Minister Singh to stress his solidarity with the Indian people. 白宫发言人佩里诺说,布什总统通过电话向印度总理辛格强调要跟印度人民站在一起。She says Mr. Bush offered support and assistance as the Indian government works to restore order, comfort the victims and investigate "these despicable acts." 佩里诺说,布什提出,在印度政府努力恢复秩序、抚慰受害者、并调查卑鄙行径的同时,布什要给予印度人民持和援助。Mr. Bush placed the call in the early morning hours from Camp David. A short time later, he was back on the telephone, carrying out what has become a holiday tradition. 布什一大早就从戴维营拨打电话。稍后,他开始进行已成为传统的节日通话。He called members of the U.S. military to thank them for their service - speaking with soldiers, sailors, airmen, Marines and Coast Guard personnel now deployed in Iraq, Afghanistan and in support operations around the world. 他通过电话向美国军人致谢,感谢他们的贡献,布什在电话里跟现在驻扎在伊拉克、阿富汗以及在世界各地执行援助行动的士兵、水兵、空军战士、海军陆战队员以及海岸警备队队员交谈。In his weekly radio address - released early to coincide with the holiday - he saluted their bravery, and said he will miss serving as their commander-in-chief. 布什在为了配合感恩节而提前发表的每周例行广播讲话中,赞扬了美国军人的勇敢精神,说他将怀念担任他们的军队统帅的这段时光。"During this holiday season, we give thanks for those who defend our freedom," President Bush said. "America's men and women in uniform deserve our highest respect and so do the families who love and support them." 布什说:“在节日期间,我们向那些保卫我们自由的人们表示感谢。美国的男女军人应该得到我们最高的尊重,热爱和持,而且他们的家人也应该得到同样的尊重。”President-elect Barack Obama once again delivered the Democratic Party response. He talked about the challenges facing the ed States as it observes Thanksgiving Day 2008. 当选总统巴拉克·奥巴马再次代表民主党发表每周广播讲话。他谈到在美国人民欢度2008年感恩节时美国面临的各种挑战。"Times are tough. There are difficult months ahead," he said. "But we can renew our nation the same way that we have in the many years since Lincoln's first Thanksgiving: by coming together to overcome adversity; by reaching for and working for new horizons of opportunity for all Americans." 奥巴马说:“世事艰难。未来的几个月将非常困难。不过我们能够让我们的国家获得新生。林肯总统在第一个感恩节时说过:齐心协力能克逆境;通过我们为全体美国人民追求新天地和新机遇,我们能排除万难。从当初到如今这么多年来,我们都是用这样的方式振兴国家的,这次也不例外。”Mr. Obama spent the holiday at his home in Chicago with his wife, daughters and a houseful of guests. He has also been monitoring the situation in India, and getting updates from Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. 奥巴马在芝加哥的家里跟夫人、女儿以及一屋子的客人一起过节。他也一直关注着印度的局势,并且不断从国务卿赖斯那里得到事态发展的最新报告。200811/57396We would never know about diamonds were it not for volcanic activity, for thatrsquo;s what delivers diamonds from deep inside the earth to where we can get to them. Theoretically diamonds can remain diamonds only at high temperature and pressure. In theory, at atmospheric pressure and lower temperature chemical changes are liable to take place that change diamond into graphite, similar to the stuff pencil leads are made of. However, it has been calculated that even if this change were to take place it would take over ten billion years to happen. Now back to the diamondrsquo;s age. Scientists think diamonds may have been forming throughout earthrsquo;s history. Many have been found that are three-point-three billion years old. And the young ones are a mere one billion years old.我们永远不会知道钻石是否火山活动形成的,因为正是火山活动将砖石从地球内部深处带到我们能找到钻石的地方。理论上钻石只有在高温和高压下才能是钻石。从理论上讲,可在大气压力和温度较低下钻石很可能发生化学变化,变成类似铅笔芯的石墨。但是,据估算即使这种变化发生,这需要十亿年。现在再来说下钻石的年龄。科学家认为,钻石的形成可能贯穿整个地球的历史。许多钻石的年龄是33亿年。新形成的只有10亿年。165257The ed Nations and international aid agencies are ramping up their assistance to earthquake victims in Haiti. But, they report the extent of devastation caused by the powerful quake is hampering their relief efforts. 联合国和国际援助机构正加紧向海地的地震受难者提供援助。但是,他们报告说,强烈地震造成的灾害程度阻碍着他们的救援努力。Haiti is prone to disasters, but this huge quake is the worst to hit the Caribbean island state in two centuries. The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti on Tuesday destroyed much of the country's capital, Port-au-Prince. 海地经常受到灾害的威胁,但是这次大地震是两个世纪以来袭击这个加勒比岛国的最严重的一次。星期二发生的里氏7.0级地震给海地首都太子港带来严重破坏。The International Red Cross fears up to three million people may have been affected by the earthquake, which not only devastated the capital city, but many smaller nearby communities. 国际红十字会担心有多达300万人可能受到了地震的影响。这次地震不仅给首都带来毁灭性破坏,还央及附近很多其他较小的社区。The ed Nations reports electricity has been cut off and communications are difficult. It says bridges have been knocked out, hospitals and care facilities have been damaged or destroyed. Haiti's envoy to the ed States estimates losses could run into the billions.联合国的报告说,当地电力供应中断,通讯存在困难。报告说,桥梁被毁坏,医院和医疗设施也受到破坏或者被毁掉。海地驻美国的特使预计损失可能达到数十亿美元。The World Food Program is leading the ed Nations emergency operation in Haiti. The director of the WF office in Geneva, Charles Vincent, says the airport in Port-au-Prince is open. But, he says access to the town from the airport is limited because of debris and other obstacles on the roads.世界粮食计划署主导联合国在海地的紧急救援行动。日内瓦的世界粮食计划署负责人文森特说,太子港的机场仍然开放。但是他表示,因为道路被废墟和其它障碍阻拦,从机场到城市的交通受到限制。"The Dominican Republic, which … could be an important hub for us to bring relief material on behalf of the humanitarian community has not been damaged, so we can use the Dominican Republic assets. And, we are beefing up our teams on the other side of the border," he said. “多米尼加共和国没有遭到破坏,那里可能成为我们一个重要的中转站,把人道组织的救援物资送进去,所以我们可以利用多米尼加共和国的资源。同时,我们也在边境的另一边增加救援力量。”201001/94531

President Barack Obama on Tuesday visited the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico.美国总统奥巴马星期二抵达美国属地波多黎各,受到当地民众欢迎。“Buenas tardes!”With a greeting of “Good afternoon” in Spanish, President Obama began his five-hour visit to Puerto Rico and offered support for next year’s vote on the island’s future.奥巴马总统用西班牙语问候了一句:“下午好!”,以此开始了对波多黎各的五个小时的访问。Puerto Ricans will have the choice of becoming an independent nation, becoming America’s 51st state or remaining a U.S. territory.奥巴马总统对波多黎各明年举行的决定前途的公投表示持。波多黎各将面临抉择:要么成为独立国家,要么留在美国,成为美国第51个州。“And when the people of Puerto Rico make a clear decision, my administration will stand by you," said President Obama.奥巴马总统说:“波多黎各人民作出明确决定,本届行政当局就持你们。”The president’s visit to Puerto Rico fulfills a promise he made in his 2008 campaign.奥巴马总统2008年竞选时就作出承诺要来波多黎各,这次到访是来履行其诺言的。Puerto Ricans cannot vote in U.S. general elections, but more Puerto Ricans live on the U.S. mainland than on the island. Many are in Florida and North Carolina, states the president will need to win in next year’s election.波多黎各人民不能在美国大选中投票,但大多数波多黎各人是生活在美国本土,而不是居住在这个南美岛国。有许多人居住在佛罗里达还有南卡罗来纳州。而奥巴马总统若想连任,就必须赢得这些州的选举。201106/140765

Israeli Soldiers Drag Jewish Settlers From House in Hebron以军强制驱逐西岸非法犹太定居者Israeli forces have evicted scores of Jewish settlers who had refused court orders to leave a house in the West Bank town of Hebron. The violence Thursday left about 20 people injured and has raised concerns of wider protests by Jewish settlers. 以色列军队将几十名犹太定居者从约旦河西岸城市希伯伦的一座房屋里驱逐出去,因为他们拒绝执行法院要求他们离开的命令。星期四的暴力事件造成大约20人受伤。人们因此担心犹太定居者会发起规模更大的抗议。Television images of soldiers dragging Jewish settlers - some kicking, punching, and screaming - from the disputed building in Hebron brought back images for Israelis who remember Israel's 2005 withdrawal of Jewish residents from the Gaza Strip. 电视画面上,以色列军人把一些犹太定居者拖离希伯伦那座有争议的建筑物,一些定居者拳打脚踢,高声尖叫。这些画面让人们想起以色列2005年从加沙地带撤出犹太定居者的情形。Israel's high court two weeks ago ordered the settlers to move out of the dwelling. Tensions over the eviction orders sparked clashes between Jews and Palestinians in the town in the last few days. Jewish residents prepared for a confrontation. The standoff came Thursday when Israeli security forces went into the house, using batons and tear gas. 以色列最高法院两个星期前签署了希伯伦犹太定居者搬出这座房屋的强制撤离令。强制撤离令在过去的几天里导致犹太人和巴勒斯坦人之间在该城镇发生冲突。犹太居民做好了对抗的准备。星期四,以色列安全部队进入这座房子,使用了警棍和催泪瓦斯,对峙随即开始。Some residents left voluntarily, while others had to be dragged out. None were arrested.  一些居民自愿离开,另一些人则被拖出去。The violence has raised concerns among Israeli leaders who fear that settlers' resistance to leave their homes in disputed areas may jeopardize the peace process. The presence of Jewish settlements in the Palestinian territories is one of the main sticking points in peace negotiations.  暴力事件引起以色列领导人的关切,他们担心定居者拒绝从有争议地区的住房搬出可能会危及和平进程。巴勒斯坦人领土上存在犹太人定居点,这是和平谈判的主要症结之一。After the eviction Thursday in Hebron, Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak told reporters the ability of the state to impose law and order upon its citizens was put to the test.  在星期四希伯伦的强制撤离之后,以色列国防部长巴拉克对记者说,国家对公民执行法律和维持秩序的能力受到考验。He said there is no alternative for him but to maintain order under any circumstances. He said the internal violence that Israel has seen in the last few days puts Israel very close to "complete anarchy."  他说,他没有任何选择,在任何情况下他只有去维持秩序。他说,以色列人在最近几天看到的国内暴力冲突正在使以色列非常接近完全无政府状态。Hebron has long been the scene of tension between Jews and Palestinians. About 700 Jewish people live in fortified, separate neighborhoods in the center of the town. They are surrounded by nearly 200,000 Palestinian residents. 希伯伦的犹太人和巴勒斯坦人之间的关系一直紧张。大约700名犹太人生活在市中心一个戒备森严的单独地区。他们周围是近20万巴勒斯坦居民。Palestinian officials on Thursday welcomed the eviction in Hebron, but called on Israel to do more and remove all Jewish residents from the city.  巴勒斯坦官员周四表示欢迎在希伯伦的驱逐行动,但是他们呼吁以色列采取更多措施,把这个城市的所有犹太人撤走。Jewish settlers in other parts of the West Bank have vowed to resist any further evictions. On Thursday, scores of demonstrators temporarily blocked one of the main highways into Jerusalem in protest of the eviction in Hebron. 约旦河西岸其它地区的犹太定居者表示,一定要抵制任何进一步的撤离。上个星期四,几十名示威者一度堵塞了一条通往耶路撒冷的主要公路,以抗议在希伯伦的驱逐行动。200812/58006

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