襄阳男性前列腺病百度卫生

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原标题: 襄阳男性前列腺病网上新闻
On Dec. 5, 1952, a thick layer of fog settled over the streets of London, blanketing the city. This was no ordinary wintery mist, but rather a noxious haze of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired industrial factories and cookstoves in London homes. London#39;s Great Smog hung in the air for five consecutive days; visibility was reduced to mere feet and cars were abandoned or led off the road by police with traffic flares. It was the ;nation#39;s worst air pollution disaster; and remains the deadliest smog event on record. 1952年12月5日,一层浓雾笼罩着伦敦的大街小巷,覆盖了整座城市。这可不是普通冬雾,而是一种由工业燃煤和家庭燃炉产生的有毒二氧化硫烟雾。伦敦浓雾持续笼罩了五天,能见度仅为几英尺,车辆要么被遗弃,要么被警方清理出了路面。这是英国最严重的一次大气污染灾难,也是迄今为止最严重的雾霾事件。According to the Telegraph, the devastation the smog wrought ;only became apparent when undertakers reported that they were running out of coffins and florists had sold all their flowers.; In the following three months, an estimated 13,000 people died of respiratory complications.据《电讯报》报道,直到受害者反应棺材短缺、花农表示鲜花售罄,这场雾霾造成的危害才昭然显现。接下来三个月,将近有13000人死于呼吸道并发症。The hazy scenes of London#39;s Great Smog bear a striking resemblence to modern-day images of China#39;s urban centers on their most polluted days. And though China has never had an event to match those four days in London, its pollution problem is persistent and pervasive. In 2010, air pollution contributed to 1.2 million deaths in China. Between 1981 and 2001, particulate levels in its major cities were five times greater than what the ed States experienced before 1970.伦敦雾霾事件的朦胧境况和当下严重污染的中国城市的情形有着惊人的相似。尽管中国尚未遭遇伦敦烟雾那样的事件,其污染状况也一直持续蔓延。2010年,中国约有120万人死于空气污染。1981年至2001年,中国大城市的颗粒物指数是美国在1970年之前的五倍。And the problem is worsening at an incredible rate. In 2009, the concentration of particulate pollution in the Chinese city of Harbin averaged 101 micrograms per meter, according to the World Health Organization. Four years later, in October 2013, levels were up tenfold, a new record.而且,其污染问题仍在急剧加重。据世界卫生组织统计,2009年,中国哈尔滨的颗粒物污染浓度达到101微克/米。四年后也就是2013年10月,相关指数已涨了十倍,创下新的记录。This week, Gina McCarthy, the new head of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), said she would be meeting with partners in China in the coming days to address air pollution issues, but was careful to stress that this is not an challenge limited to China. The West, too, has faced hazardous pollution. ;We have been there before,; she said on Monday, Dec. 2. The comparison bears consideration; what follows is a series of photo pairings -- smog in London then, and in China now.本周美国国家环保局局长吉娜-麦卡锡表示,接下来她将与中国负责人会晤,力求解决环境污染问题;同时她也谨慎强调,空气污染不只是中国面临的挑战,西方国家也存在严重的污染问题。12月2日(星期一),她说:“我们也曾遇过这个问题。” 通过系列图片来对比当时的伦敦和现在的中国,将很有意义。London#39;s Great Smog rolled into city#39;s streets on a ;mass of cold air,; and remained, trapped by a layer of warmer air above. PM 2.5 -- the mass, in micrograms, of particles larger than 2.5 micrometers in a cubic centimeter, a common measure of hazardous air pollution -- rocketed to 1,600, a record China has yet to approach even on its worst days.伦敦烟雾是伴着大范围冷空气席卷整座城市,并将暖空气隔断在上层的。根据测量有害空气污染的常规方法,当时的PM2.5——即量直径小于2.5微米的物质,高达1600。而中国即便在最严重时也没有这么高的指数。Perhaps the closest China has come was the smog that settled over Harbin, a city of 10 million people in northeast China, in October. As PM 2.5 climbed to 1,000, the city effectively shut down, closing schools, airports, and highways.中国受雾霾袭击最严重的城市怕是哈尔滨——一座拥有1000万人口的东北城市。10月份,哈尔滨的PM2.5值达到1000,政府采取有效措施,关闭了学校、机场和高速。The Great Smog of 1952 prompted Britain#39;s 1956 Clean Air Act, which led to legislation in the ed States. In New York, in particular, pollution had become a major problem: particularly deadly clouds of smog were blamed for 200 deaths in 1963 and 168 more in 1966. These events were pivotal in motivating Congress to establish the EPA and pass landmark clean air laws. Like China today, most of that pollution was caused by burning coal and, to a lesser extent, by heavy traffic in cities like Los Angeles.1952年烟雾事件后,英国颁布了《1956大气净化法》,进而也促进了美国的相关立法。纽约的污染尤为堪忧:1963年,致命雾霾造成200人死亡;1966年,死亡人数增加了168人以上。这些事件有效促使美国国会成立环境保护署并通过了具有里程碑意义的《大气净化法》。和当今中国一样,当时的污染多由燃煤造成,此外像洛杉矶等城市的大量交通废气排放也是致因。;We know what planning can do,; McCarthy said of the EPA#39;s work with China. ;We know there are many ways in which you can engage your states, and in China#39;s case provinces, to bring a sense of urgency to this issue.;提及环境保护署与中国的合作,麦卡锡表示:“我们知道什么方案行得通,也有很多适用于中国及其问题省份的解决措施,以便提高对此问题的紧迫感。”;I am hopeful,; she said. ;One of the reasons I am hopeful is that I know what we#39;ve been able to accomplish in the ed States.;她还说:“我很有信心。之所以有信心,是因为我清楚美国也曾遇到并成功解决过这个问题。” /201312/268697美国早期的高等教育学校沿袭英国而称为College,19世纪后期,私立的College开设研究所后多改名为University,每州也将其首要之州立大学由Institute﹑Seminary﹑College或类似之名改为University。另早期许多科学、工程和理工的专门学校都称为Institute,有些后来也改名为University,但少数学校仍以Institute为名,如:麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)和加州理工学院(California Institute of Technology)。   现在College与University的意义如下:   UNIVERSITY通常是指一所设有文理科及专业课程的大学,且有至少一种领域的研究所,和至少一种的学士学位后的专业课程(如:医学、牙医或法律)。但也有少数例外情行,而有些私立文理学院只有大学部但也称为University。   COLLEGE则有几个意义:   所有高等教育学校的通称。   只有大学部的大学:然而也有学校具University之条件却名为College的学校,如:Dartmouth College in New Hampshire,有硕士、士和医学士之学位,而且又是美国最好的四年制大学之一。 属于University的学院。   二年制大学:有的称为junior college,有的称为community college,也有的就叫college,还有几个是technical college。 /200803/29055

Maybe it#39;s the speed-of-light pace of technology, or the stress of having too much to do and not enough time to do it, or both, but when British bank Lloyds TSB set out to study what causes careless (and costly) household accidents, the researchers made an interesting discovery: The average adult attention span has plummeted from 12 minutes a decade ago to just 5 minutes now. That may be especially true at this time of year, when most of us would rather be at the beach.到底是什么导致了粗心(且成本高昂)的家务事故?是科技的快速进步,还是因为有太多事情要做但却没有足够的时间?抑或两者皆有?为了探明究竟,英国劳埃德TSB集团(Lloyds TSB)进行了一项研究,结果有了一个有趣的发现:成年人的平均注意力持续时间从十年前的12分钟已经缩短到现在仅有5分钟。每年到了现在这个季节尤其如此,因为我们大多数人宁愿待在海滩上。So there you are, planning a presentation that could have a big impact on your career, for better or worse, and it#39;s half an hour long. ;With an attention span of five minutes, the average audience is going to tune out 84% of your 30-minute speech,; says Sean O#39;Brien -- unless, that is, you find ways to keep them interested.假如你正在规划一次至关重要的陈述,它可能会决定你的职业生涯未来是向着更好的方向还是更坏的方向发展,而陈述的时间是半个小时。西恩#8226;奥布莱恩说:“因为听众平均注意力持续时间只有5分钟,所以在30分钟的演讲期间,听众有84%的时间是在走神。”——除非,你能找到保持听众注意力的方法。An executive vice president at Atlanta-based online meeting and collaboration firm PGi, O#39;Brien offers these suggestions for doing just that. They#39;re drawn from a new PGi e-book (free on the company#39;s website) called The Little Black Book of Presentation Ideas.奥布莱恩是亚特兰大一家在线会议与合作公司PGi的执行副总裁。他将为读者提供一些吸引听众注意力的建议。这些建议来自PGi的一本新电子书(可在该公司网站上免费下载)——《讲演妙招黑皮书》(The Little Black Book of Presentation Ideas) /201307/249060

Whether you#39;re a millionaire or a middle-class father of two, we all make the same mistakes when it comes to money – we think the more we earn, the happier we#39;ll be.不管你是百万富翁还有有两个孩子的中产阶级父亲,涉及到钱时我们都犯同样的错误——我们认为赚得越多越快乐。If you really want to buy yourself a more fulfilling life, it#39;s not how much money you earn that matters, but figuring out the right way to spend it.如果你真的想为自己买来更充实的生活,重要的不是你赚多少钱,而是找出正确的花费方式。 /201307/249793Going on holiday not only makes you feel good while you#39;re there - you reap the health benefits for months, new research shows.新研究显示,度假不仅让你在当时感觉良好,而且给你的健康带来的益处可维持数月之久。Jetting off to exotic destinations such as the Maldives cuts your blood pressure, helps you sleep better and bounce back from stress, it found.研究发现,乘飞机到马尔代夫等颇具异国情调的旅游目的地度个假,不仅会让你的血压降下来,而且有助于改善你的睡眠,帮助你从压力中恢复过来。The benefits last at least a fortnight longer than the vacation and can be felt for months in some cases it is claimed.度假带来的益处可在假期结束后持续至少两周,据称有时还能持续数月之久。Experts say workers should always take their full holiday entitlement each year - as many as one in three don’t - to reap the benefits.专家认为,员工应当充分享受其每年的休假权,从中获益——而事实上,多达三分之一的员工没有休掉年假。The study compared key health markers in holidaymakers visiting Thailand, Peru or the Maldives, with people who stayed at home and continued working.此项研究将去泰国、秘鲁或马尔代夫等国度假的人的主要健康指数与留在家里继续工作的人进行了对比。The average blood pressure of those on holiday dropped by six percent while the workers saw their blood pressure rise by two percent over the same period.度假者的平均血压降低了6%,而同一期间继续工作的人的血压则上升了2%。The sleep quality of holidaymakers improved by 17 percent while that of the non-holidaymakers deteriorated by 14 percent.度假者的睡眠质量提高了17%,而不度假者的睡眠质量则下降了14%。The study also found the ability of vacationers to recover from stress - known as the stress-resilience test - improved by 29 percent.通过压力恢复力测试,研究还发现,度假者从压力中恢复过来的能力提高了29%。There was a 71 percent fall in stress resilience scores among workers.假期工作的人这一能力的得分则下降了71%。Tests showed a fall in blood glucose levels, reducing the risk of diabetes, trimmer waistlines and enhanced mood and energy levels, with the effects sustained for at least two weeks after returning home.测试表明,度假者的血糖水平降低了,患糖尿病的风险减少了,腰围变细了,情绪和精力均有所改善,而且这种影响可以在度假回家后持续至少两周。The Holiday Health Experiment was conducted by tour operator Kuoni and Nuffield Health, the UK’s largest healthcare charity.这项度假健康实验是由瑞士旅业集团与英国最大的健康慈善机构纳菲尔德健康中心联合开展的。 /201302/223723

Swiss national Louis Palmer fulfilled a childhood dream when he set off from his home country on July 3, travelling over desert, city and sea in 17 countries by a “solar taxi” to reach UN Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia."In 1986, I was a 14-year-old boy, I was dreaming that when I will be an adult, I want to drive around the world," he told reporters."Then it came to my mind, how can I travel around the world and enjoy the beauty of this world with a car that is polluting the world? Then I thought the perfect car would be a solar car."His car, which has become a major attraction at the gates of the summit of some 188 nations, was built in three years with scientific help from four universities and 15 Swiss companies.The car pulls a trailer with six squares metres of solar panels which soak up the sun. The electricity is fed into the battery which powers the car, and can run for up to 100 kilometres a day."It's the first time in history that a car is driving around the world without a single drop of petrol," boasted Palmer, a teacher by training.His epic solar journey is not his first adventure -- he traversed Africa on a bicycle and North America in a light aircraft.So far, Palmer has gone by land through Europe and the Middle East, then by sea to India and on to Indonesia.After traversing much of Asia, Australia, North America and Africa, he will return to Switzerland to try and drum up support for the commercial possibilities of solar cars.For the moment, he has his hands full, with more curious customers waiting to take a ride in his unique automobile which, he said, "works like a Swiss clock." 瑞士男子路易斯#8226;帕尔莫终于圆了他儿时的一个梦。今年7月3日,他驾驶一辆“太阳能出租车”从瑞士出发,穿越了沙漠、城市和海洋,途经17个国家,最终抵达印度尼西亚的巴厘岛,参加在此召开的联合国气候变化大会。他在接受记者采访时说:“早在1986年,当我还是个14岁的小男孩时,我就梦想着长大以后能开车环游世界。”“后来我想,我怎么能开着一辆会给世界各地带来污染的车环游世界,欣赏各地美景呢?所以,我觉得最理想的工具应该是一辆太阳能车。”在约有188个国家参加的联合国气候变化大会会场外,帕尔莫的车成了最大亮点。这辆车在四所大学和15家瑞士公司的技术持下,用时三年制造而成。太阳能轿车后面是一个拖车,上面载有6平米太阳能采集面板。轿车依靠太阳能电池供电,每天能行驶100公里。身为培训教师的帕尔莫自豪地说:“一辆车没费一滴汽油,就跑遍了全世界,这在历史上还是首例吧!”然而,对于帕尔莫而言,类似这种壮观的“太阳能之旅”的冒险可不是第一次了。他曾骑车穿越非洲大陆,还曾开着一架轻型飞机穿越北美。截至目前,帕尔莫从陆路穿越了欧洲和中东地区,通过海路抵达了印度和印度尼西亚。在穿越亚洲、澳大利亚、北美和非洲的大部分地区后,帕尔莫将打道回府,并打算为太阳能轿车争取商业机会。而眼下,帕尔莫可是忙得不可开交,很多好奇的人们都等着上这辆奇特的车过把车瘾,帕尔莫说:“它现在简直像个瑞士钟一样连轴转。” /200803/2970345 seconds. One billion viewers. Oscar winners are given one of the largest platforms in the world for public speech. Here are some tips for how to write good acceptance speech.The Napkin(1) SpeechA repugnant(2) form of false modesty somehow the winners always end up pulling out some chicken scratch speech written on a lottery ticket or coaster(3). "Forgive me," one 2006 winner said, "I wrote this on my valet parking ticket(4)." I, for one, won't forgive you or anyone else who fumbles(5) for a piece of scrap paper and then mumbles incoherently(6) until the orchestra(7) starts playing. Where's your sense of show?Thanking Your AgentIf you don't thank everyone at CAA you might as well take that shovel from the hands of the golden statue and start digging your own grave. Or at least that's the common thought. Nowadays, people just rattle off(8) a bunch of studio heads. I say if you're going to give us a laundry list of names, at least out your 4th grade English teacher along the way, as Tom Hanks once did.When to pull out the tearsThis is a tough one. Tears can be moving or just plain distracting. It's all in the timing, so never cry before reaching the podium(9). Sniffling(10) is acceptable, and wiping tears is downright(11) encouraged, but if one of the presenters has to help you off stage, then your performance has gone too far. Also, and this is important, the supporting actor or actress should never cry. They're receiving an Oscar for being supportive, not for being a blubbery mess.Be Yourself, Even if That Self is ShallowWhen Cher won an Oscar for her role in "Moonstruck," she received a lot of flack(12) for showering her makeup artist, hairdresser, and assistant with thanks, while failing to mention her co-stars or director. While this may have been politically incorrect, at least she said what was on her mind, which is something that has been absent from Oscar speeches of recent memory.Never Underestimate the Appeal of Your MotherThanking your mom is a must. It's the only person to thank really. And talking about the sacrifices she made is even better. If she's in the audience, have her stand up. If this seems excessive, keep in mind that David Letterman has made a living off of exploiting his innocent mother on air.Phrases to avoid"Wow, this thing is heavy." Talk about the world's smallest violin. You just won an academy award, and the first thing you do is complain about how difficult it is to hold?"The list is too long." How many people want to be one in a long list of many? You might as well just thank "the little people.""The gold boy" This just sounds wrong. Isn't the nickname Oscar cute enough?"The man with the stick" This impolite term for conductor was coined by Julia Roberts. 45秒,一百万观众。奥斯卡获奖者能够登上世界上最宏大的演讲台。这里有一些写好获奖感言的建议。破纸片感言有些获奖者总是错误地表现自己的谦虚,当众拿出一张奖券或者杯子垫,上面写着蛛蛛爬般的感言。2006年一位获奖者说:“不好意思,我写在汽车罚款单上了。” 我不会原谅他或者任何获奖者摸索出一张破纸,吾吾地哼唧到音乐响起。您有没有点表演感?感谢你的公司如果你不感谢每位CAA人员,就如同接过小金人手中的铲子自掘坟墓。这是常识。如今,人们只是快速地背诵一连串工作室老板的名字。要我说,如果你真的要给出一箩筐人名,至少要参考Tom Hanks的感言,也说说四年级的英语老师。何时挥泪这点很难掌握。挥好了是感动,挥不好就只能让观众觉得迷惑。关键是何时挥,千万不要还没上台泪先洒。抽泣不错,能流出眼泪就更好了,但如果哭到需要人搀扶才能下台就过火了。还有一点也很重要,获奖配角不要哭。配角因为搭配优秀而获奖,而不是因为哭得一团糟。本色发言,即便本色很肤浅Cher凭借电影《Moonstruck》获奖发表感言后声名远扬,因为她感谢了化妆师,发型师和助理却没提合作明星和导演。虽然她犯了政策性错误,但至少说了真心话,这在近年的奥斯卡颁奖感言中很少见了。永远不要忽视妈妈感谢母亲是必须的,因为这是唯一一个真正应该感谢的。如果能说说她为你所作的牺牲就更好了。如果她在场,让她起身示意。如果你觉得这有些多余,看看David Letterman,他无辜的妈妈总被他拉上节目。需要避免的语言“喔,这东西真沉。”你在说世界上最小的小提琴么?你刚刚赢得一项奥斯卡大奖,要做的第一件事情就是抱怨拿着它有多困难?“名单真长啊。” 你知道有多少人想成为长名单中的一员么?不如你只感谢“小人”一个算了。“金男孩”。这听上去可不怎么样。难道Oscar这个昵称还不够可爱么?“拿棍儿的人”。这个对乐队指挥的戏称是Julia Roberts的专利。 /200805/39039A few summers ago, I stuffed my car full of the last flattened cardboard boxes from a cross-country move and headed to the recycling depot of my suburban New Jersey town. I pulled up behind a queue of slender women at the wheels of shiny SUVs. Their eyes concealed by giant sunglasses, they hopped from their seats to their open trunks and, one by one, reached for the bags that are the totems of upper-middle-class life: silver ones from Nordstrom, plain ones from Whole Foods. Out poured wine bottles, clanking into the rusted recycling truck. 几年前的一个夏天,我把长途搬家后剩下的最后一批压平的硬纸板箱塞满我的车,然后前往我所在的新泽西州郊区小镇上的回收站。我停在一队耀眼的SUV车后方,开车的是一群身材苗条的女士。她们的眼睛隐藏在硕大的太阳镜下,她们从座位上下来,打开后车厢,一个接一个去拿象征中产阶级上层生活图腾的那些袋子:Nordstrom的银色袋子,全食超市(Whole Foods)的普通袋子。葡萄酒瓶从这些袋子里倾泻而出,叮叮当当地落进锈迹斑斑的回收车里。 In Portland, Ore., where I lived for six years, I would watch most Sunday nights as a neighbor deposited two giant Merlot bottles in my recycling bin. Her house was a block away, and she had her own bin─but apparently mine seemed like a more discreet place to stash her empties. In New York#39;s Westchester County, where I had lived previously, women would pass around a flask at dreary school functions. Alcohol and motherhood were intertwined, so much so that after I had my third daughter in the anxious autumn after 9/11, I received bottle after bottle of wine as baby gifts. 在我住过六年的俄勒冈州波特兰(Portland),几乎每个周日晚上我都会看见一个邻居在我的垃圾箱里扔上两个大的梅乐(Merlot)酒瓶。她家离我家一个街区远,她也有自己的垃圾箱,但显然把空酒瓶藏在我这里似乎更谨慎。在我之前住过的纽约州韦斯特切斯特郡(Westchester County),女人们会在沉闷的学校活动期间拿出一瓶酒轮着喝。酒精和母亲的身份交织在一起,二者结合得如此紧密,以至于我在911后那个焦虑的秋天生下第三个女儿后,人们送我一瓶又一瓶葡萄酒作为婴儿礼物。 The growing female predilection for wine seems at first glance like a harmless indulgence for harried mothers who deserve a break. There are T-shirts with a spilled wineglass that say, #39;Not so loud, I had book club last night.#39; Nearly 650,000 women follow #39;Moms Who Need Wine#39; on Facebook, and another 131,000 women are fans of the group called #39;OMG, I So Need a Glass of Wine or I#39;m Gonna Sell My Kids.#39; The drinking mom has become a cultural trope, from highbrow to pop: Jonathan Franzen#39;s Patty Berglund wanders through the first half of #39;Freedom#39; with a ruddy complexion he calls the #39;Chardonnay Splotch.#39; Wine is so linked to the women of #39;Real Housewives#39; that several cast members have introduced their own brands. That#39;s no accident: According to the Wine Institute, an industry trade group, women buy the lion#39;s share of the nearly 800 million gallons of wine sold in the U.S. annually─and they are its primary drinkers. 越来越多的女性开始偏爱葡萄酒,乍看之下这对过着紧绷生活的妈妈们来说是无伤大雅的放纵,她们放松一下是应该的。有T恤上印着一个洒出酒的葡萄酒杯,上面写着“别那么大声,我昨晚参加了书会。”有近65万名女性在Facebook上关注了“需要酒的妈妈们(Moms Who Need Wine)”账号,还有13.1万女性是名为“噢天啊,我需要一杯酒,否则我会卖掉我孩子 (OMG, I So Need a Glass of Wine or I#39;m Gonna Sell My Kids)”(的组织的粉丝。从知识界到普罗大众,“喝酒的妈妈”已经成为一种文化隐喻:在乔纳森#8226;弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)的小说《自由》(Freedom)的上半部分中,帕蒂#8226;伯格兰(Patty Berglund)一直带着一种被作者称为“霞多丽斑点”(Chardonnay Splotch)的红润面色。另外,酒和“家庭主妇真人秀”(Real Housewives)如此密不可分,以至于几位剧组人员都推出了自己的红酒品牌。无独有偶:据行业贸易组织美国葡萄酒协会(Wine Institute)统计,在美国每年售出的近8亿加仑(约30亿升)葡萄酒中,女性购买的比例更大,而且她们是饮酒的主力军。 Indeed, more women are drinking now than at any time in recent history, according to health surveys. In the nine years between 1998 and 2007, the number of women arrested for drunken driving rose 30%, while male arrests dropped more than 7%. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of young women who showed up in emergency rooms for being dangerously intoxicated rose by 52%. The rate for young men, though higher, rose just 9%. 的确,据健康调查显示,现今饮酒的女性比近代历史上任何时候都多。在1998至2007年这九年间,因醉酒驾驶被捕的女性人数上涨了30%,而男性人数却下降了7%以上。1999年至2008年间,因严重醉酒被送往急诊室的年轻女性人数上涨了52%,而年轻男性的人数虽然更多,但只上涨了9%。 These numbers are not driven solely by young women living it up on spring break. A recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study of binge drinking─that is, having four or more drinks for women or five or more for men within two hours─revealed a surprising statistic. While the greatest number, 24%, of binge-drinking women are college-age, 10% of women between 45 and 64 said they binge drink─and so did 3% of women older than 65. The college-age binge drinkers and the senior binge drinkers overdid it with a similar frequency, about three times a month. 这些数字的上涨并不只是因为春假狂欢的年轻女性。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)最近一项针对酗酒(指女性两小时内摄入四杯或以上,男性摄入五杯或以上)的研究得出了出人意料的数据。24%的酗酒女性是大学生,这个人群比重最大;而年龄在45至64岁的女性中有10%酗酒,65岁以上女性中有3%也表示自己酗酒。大学生和老年人群会反复酗酒,频率相似,大概每个月三次。 Gallup pollsters have repeatedly found that the more educated and well off a woman is, the more likely she is to imbibe. White women are more likely to drink than women of other racial backgrounds, but in the past few decades the percentage of women who classify themselves as regular drinkers has risen across the board. An analysis of the drinking habits of 85,000 Americans in 2002 found that 47% of white women reported being regular drinkers, up from 37% in 1992. The percentage of black women who said they drank regularly rose from 21% to 30%, and the percentage of Hispanic women who said the same grew from 24% to 32%. (American Indian and Asian-American women were not included in the study.) 盖洛普(Gallup)民意测验多次发现,女性受教育程度越高、处境越优越,就越容易饮酒。白人女性比其他族裔女性更易饮酒,但过去数十年里,认为自己经常喝酒的女性比例整体有所上升。2002年一项针对8.5万名美国人饮酒习惯所做的分析发现,47%的白人女性表示自己经常喝酒,较1992年的37%有所上升。表示经常饮酒的黑人女性比例从21%升至30%,西班牙裔女性的比例从24%升至32%。(该研究未纳入美国印第安人及亚裔女性。) In one sense, the rising rates of alcohol consumption by women are a sign of parity. But this is one arena in which equal treatment yields unequal outcomes. Women are more vulnerable than men to alcohol#39;s toxic effects. Their bodies have more fat, which retains alcohol, and less water, which dilutes it, so women drinking the same amount as men their size and weight become intoxicated more quickly. Males also have more of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol before it enters the bloodstream. This may be one reason why alcohol-related liver and brain damage appear more quickly in heavy-drinking women than men. 从某种意义来说,女性饮酒比例的升高是男女平等迹象的一种。但这是一个平等对待却会产生不平等结果的领域。对于酒精的毒性反应,女性比男性更易受影响。女性体内脂肪更多,会留存酒精,而起稀释作用的水却比较少,因此同样身高和体重的女性和男性摄入相同量的酒时,女性醉得更快。男性体内的乙醇脱氢 也更多,这种物质可以在酒精进入血液前分解酒精。这或许也是为什么酒精导致的肝脏和大脑损伤在嗜酒女性身上比男性更快出现的一个原因。 Still, modern women haven#39;t caught up to the drinking habits of America#39;s early settlers, whose only safe beverage was alcohol. Historians estimate that colonial men and women drank about a gallon of low-alcohol beer or hard cider a day. In a collection of 500 recipes that Martha Washington left to her granddaughter, 50 were for boozy drinks, plus a couple of hangover cures. 尽管如此,现代女性还是赶不上美国早期殖民者的饮酒习惯,当时他们唯一的安全饮料就是酒。历史学家估计,殖民时期的男性和女性每天喝大约一加仑(约3.8升)的低度啤酒或苹果酒。在玛莎#8226;华盛顿(Martha Washington)留给孙女包括500份食谱的集子里,有50份是酒的配方,还有好几种解酒方子。 The growing sales of wine to women can be traced to some clever marketing decisions in the 1960s by California#39;s vintners. Wineries had all but perished during Prohibition, and the beverage was considered the drink of poor immigrants and Skid Row drunks. Americans, accustomed to more straightforward spirits and beer, were slow to warm to wine#39;s complexities. 葡萄酒针对女性销售量的增加可追溯至20世纪60年代加州葡萄酒商精明的营销决策。酿酒厂在禁酒时期(Prohibition)纷纷没落,葡萄酒被认为是贫穷移民及贫民窟酒鬼才喝的东西。习惯于喝更直接的烈酒或啤酒的美国人花了很长时间才开始喜欢葡萄酒复杂的味道。 Wine also felt off-limits to women. It was consumed mostly in restaurants, where waiters offered men the wine list, the first taste and the cork. Strategists saw a growth opportunity in the vast numbers of postwar housewives. #39;We used to joke that if we could just get a bottle of sherry into the kitchen, we#39;d be off and running,#39; says Harvey Posert, one of the industry#39;s early promoters. 葡萄酒对女性来说也是禁区。葡萄酒大都是在餐厅消费,务员会把葡萄酒单、试饮杯和软木塞递给男性客人。有战略眼光者看到了葡萄酒在战后大量家庭主妇人群中的增长机遇。行业早期推动者之一哈维#8226;波泽特(Harvey Posert)说:“我们以前开玩笑说,如果能把一瓶雪利酒弄到厨房去,我们就飞黄腾达了。” Vineyards got an unexpected boost from Jacqueline Kennedy, who in 1962 led 56 million viewers on a televised tour of the White House. In the dining room, the camera panned to the elegantly laid table, lingering for a few seconds on the crystal glasses next to each place setting. Few could afford the first lady#39;s designer clothes, but the crystal, manufactured in West Virginia, was a small piece of Camelot glamour that women could own for themselves. It took the Morgantown Glass Co. factory years to fill all the orders. 葡萄园因为杰奎琳#8226;肯尼迪(Jackie Kennedy)而意外得到了提振。1962年,她引导5,600万电视观众参观了白宫(White House)。在餐厅,镜头摇到精心摆放好餐具的餐桌前,在每份餐具旁的水晶杯上停留几秒钟。很少有人能买得起第一夫人的名牌衣,但产于西弗吉尼亚的水晶杯却是女人们能拥有的可感受到卡米洛特(Camelot)宫殿般豪华的小物件。Morgantown Glass Co.玻璃工厂花了好几年时间才完成了所有订单。 Getting female buyers for the wine, though, was another challenge. In California, where laws allowed wine to be sold in supermarkets, Robert Mondavi#39;s marketers hired middle-age housewives to stand at in-store tasting booths. The saleswomen offered shoppers sips from bottles that would pair perfectly with what they had planned for dinner. The friendly older women helped turn the younger women into confident consumers. 不过让女性买葡萄酒又是一个挑战。在加州,法律允许超市销售葡萄酒,于是罗伯特#8226;蒙达维(Robert Mondavi)酒庄的市场推广人员雇佣中年家庭主妇站在店里的试喝摊位旁边。女销售员为购物者挑选能与她们所计划的晚餐完美搭配的葡萄酒,并让她们品尝。那位友善的老妇人帮助年轻女性们成为有信心的消费者。 Women#39;s magazines offered tips on how to order, serve and drink the stuff; McCall#39;s magazine, in 1977, featured wine as essential to an #39;Anti-Stress Diet.#39; Meanwhile, women in California were beginning to make wine, too, experimenting with tastes and textures that appealed to them. 女性杂志提供点酒、倒酒和喝酒的技巧;1977年,McCall#39;s杂志将葡萄酒标榜为“抗压食谱”的必需品。与此同时,加州的女性也开始酿酒,探索自己喜欢的口感和质地。 Today, wine is certainly in American kitchens. It#39;s there for enjoyment, of course, but also as a respectable antidote to modern stress─especially for women. 如今,美国厨房里必定会有葡萄酒。当然是为了享受,但同时也是应对现代生活压力的一剂体面的良药,尤其是对于女性。 Some social scientists link the rise in female alcohol consumption to the changing role of women in society. Rick Grucza, an epidemiologist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis who studies alcohol-use disorders, correlates women#39;s drinking to the rise in female college attendance. Others suggest that many women continue unhealthy postcollege drinking patterns in male-dominated industries such as finance and technology. Still others find a link among women who step away from their careers to be at home. #39;The baby#39;s crying, they#39;re not getting paid, they#39;re bored and anxious─and feel guilty that they#39;re bored and anxious,#39; says Mary Ellen Barnes, a psychologist in Rolling Hills Estates, Calif., who treats many female heavy drinkers. Drinking several tall glasses of wine can make those feelings recede─at least for a few hours. 有社会学家将女性饮酒量增加与女性在社会中角色的变化联系起来。路易斯华盛顿大学医学院(Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis)专门研究酒精使用障碍的流行病学家里克#8226;格鲁恰(Rick Grucza)认为女性饮酒与女性上大学比例的上升成正比。还有人表示,许多女性大学毕业后会在金融和科技等男性主导行业继续不健康的饮酒习惯。还有人则发现与离职回家的女性人群有关。加州Rolling Hills Estates治疗过许多女性嗜酒者的心理学家玛丽#8226;艾伦#8226;巴恩斯(Mary Ellen Barnes)说:“孩子在哭,又没人付她们薪水,无聊又焦虑,而且她们为自己无聊和焦虑的状态感到内疚。”喝几杯葡萄酒可以使这些情绪消退──至少能维持几个小时。 Does that amount to a drinking problem? Doctors around the world differ. The National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Department of Health and Human Services say that for American women, anything more than a drink a day is risky. In countries such as France, Italy and Spain, where life expectancy for women is longer, authorities set the safe threshold at double that─and sometimes higher. 这是不是酗酒问题呢?世界各地的医生们看法迥异。美国国家酗酒与酒精中毒研究所(National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)以及美国卫生及公共务部(Department of Health and Human Services)表示,每天喝一杯酒以上都是有风险的。在女性预期寿命比较长的法国、意大利和西班牙,政府将安全标准定在两杯,有时更高。 Many of the women whom I interviewed said that the strict limits set by American law helped to drive their drinking underground. A few glasses slide into a whole bottle, which becomes an embarrassing habit that needs to be concealed. 在我采访过的女性中,很多人说美国法律规定的严格标准让她们的喝酒变成了地下行为。从瓶子里倒出几杯酒成了需要隐藏的见不得人的习惯。 /201308/251048

久仰! I've heard so much about you!  好久不见了! Long time no see.  辛苦了! You've had a long day.You've had a long flight.  尊敬的朋友们! Distinguished/Honorable/Respected friends  阁下(多用于称呼大使) Your Excellency  我代表北京市政府欢迎各位朋友访问北京。 On behalf of the Beijing Municipal government, I wish to extend our warm welcome to the friends who have come to visit Beijing.  对您的大力协助,我谨代表北京市政府表示衷心的感谢。 On behalf of the Beijing Municipal government, i wish to express our heartfelt thanks to you for your gracious assistance.  在北京过得怎么样? How are you making out in Beijing?  我一定向他转达您的问候和邀请。 I'll surely remember you and your invitation to him.  欢迎美商来北京投资。 American businessmen are welcome to make investment in Beijing.  欢迎多提宝贵意见。 Your valuable advice is most welcome.   不虚此行! It's a rewarding trip!  您的日程很紧,我们的会见是否就到此为止。 As you have a tight schedule, I will not take up more of your time.  请代我问候王先生。 Please remember me to Mr.Wang.  感谢光临! Thank you so much for coming.  欢迎再来! Hope you'll come again.  欢迎以后多来北京! Hope you'll visit Beijing more often.  请留步,不用送了! I will see myself out, please.  多保重! Take care!  祝您一路平安! Have a nice trip!  愿为您效劳! At your service!  为…举行宴会/宴请 Host a dinner/banquet/luncheon in honor of …  欢迎宴会 Welcome dinner  便宴 Informal dinner  午宴(附有情况介绍或专题演讲等内容) Luncheon  便餐 Light meal  工作午餐 Working luncheon  自助餐 Buffet dinner/luncheon   答谢宴会 Return dinner  告别宴会 Farewell dinner  庆功宴 Glee feast  招待会 Reception  庆祝中华人民共和国成立四十五周年招待会 Reception Celebrating the 45th Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China  鸡尾酒会 Cocktail party  茶话会 Tea party  包餐/点餐 Table d'hote/a la carte  上菜 Serve a courst  您的位置在这里。 Here is your seat.  请入席! Please have a seat.  欢聚一堂 Enjoy this happy get-together  请随便! Please enjoy yourself.  请各位随意用餐。 Help yourself please.  您喝点什么? What would you like to drink?  现在我提议,为了…和…之间的合作,为了…参议员的健康,干杯! At this point, I propose a toast: to the cooperation between … And … , to the health of Senator…, cheers!   最后,我借主人的酒,提议为…干杯! Lastly, taking up this glass of fine wine, I propose a toast to …  请各位举杯并同我一起为所有在座的朋友们的健康干杯! I'd ask you to raise your glass and join me in a toast ot the health of all our friends present here.  敬您一杯! Here's to you!  祝你健康! To your health!  我要为此干杯! I'll drink to that!  随量! Whatever you like!  我失陪一会儿! Excuse me for a minute.  菜不好,请多多包涵! Hope you enjoy yourself.  女士们先生们,欢迎各位光临,演出很快就要开始了,请尽快就坐。 Ladies and gentlemen, good evening. The concert/show would start soon. Please get yourself seated. Thank you.  招待会现在开始。 The reception will now begin.  全体起立,奏国歌! All rise please. For the P.R.C.National Anthem!  出席今天招待会的贵宾有… The distinguished guests paarticipating the reception are …   现在请…讲话 I have the honour to call upon …  开幕式现在结束。 This concludes the opening ceremony.  隆重庆祝 Grand celebration  庆祝成立…一周年 Celebrating the 1st Anniversary of the Establishment of …  热烈祝贺第一届…锦标赛 Hail the first FIFA of …  值此节日之际致以节日的祝贺! On the occasion of the season, I would like to extend season's greetings.  祝您工作顺利、事业成功、身体健康、家庭幸福! Wish you the very best of luck in your job, every successin your future endeavours, good health and a happy family!  衷心祝贺您当选… Hearty congratulations on your recent ecletion as … /200803/29279

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