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上海玻尿酸费用上海曙光医院美容整形科Lexington莱克星顿Marco Rubio and the safety net马克罗·鲁比奥和他的安全网The Republican Party should take the Florida senators ideas seriously共和党应该把这位佛罗里达州议员的想法当真MARCO RUBIOS shoulder is sore. The junior senator from Florida has just had a cortisone injection to ease the pain from an old football injury. Congress is not short of square-jawed jocks. Given that politics often resembles a professional sport for the over-40s, this may be no coincidence. Mr Rubio, who won a college football scholarship, is an extreme case: his autobiography contains 26 references to the Miami Dolphins. This mania for running back and forth can overshadow another, distinctly un-jock, interest of Mr Rubios, which is in social policy.马克罗·鲁比奥最近肩膀酸痛。这位来自佛罗里达的中年译员刚刚进行了可的松激素注射,以缓解身上因踢足球所受旧伤的疼痛。国会里从来不乏这种方颌运动健将。鉴于政治一向像是40多岁中年人踢的职业比赛,这也许并不是巧合。曾获得过大学足球奖学金的鲁比奥则是其中的极端典型,他的自传里提到迈阿密海豚队的次数高达26次。这种对运动场上跑动的狂热掩盖了鲁比奥另外一个显然不那么运动的兴趣,即对社会政策的关注。Over the past few months, while many of his colleagues have devoted themselves to mauling the president, he has proposed a series of government interventions to improve the lot of cash-strapped Americans. His aim is to have bills y to go if Republicans take control of the Senate in November. This is not the first thing people associate with Mr Rubio, who came to national prominence when he defeated Floridas governor, Charlie Crist, in a Senate race in 2010. At the time he was described as the first Tea Party senator, which implied a desire to burn down government and pour salt on the ashes. This was mistaken.过去的几个月里,在他的许多同事都投身于总统打压战时,鲁比奥却提出了一系列政府干预措施,以改善众多囊中羞涩的美国人的生活。在他的算盘中,如果共和党能够在11月份掌控参议院,这项议案也应当蓄势待发。但这不是人们提起鲁比奥时,最先联想起的事情。早在2010年,当他在参议员竞选中击败佛罗里达州州长查理·克里斯特时,鲁比奥就一战成名了。当时,他被描述成第一位茶党参议员。这个名号总让人觉得他想把政府一烧了之,还要在灰烬里撒盐以免其鬼魂为祸人间。但这其实只是误解。Though Mr Rubio fitted the description of a young insurgent, his background is not that of an anti-government crusader. He first ran for public office aged 26, becoming a member of the city commission in West Miami, a town of 6,000 people. His tenure is remembered, if at all, for the introduction of a bicycle-mounted policeman. When Alberto Gutman, a state senator of distinctively Floridian heritage (he described himself as “Jewban”: ie, Jewish and Cuban) was indicted for a distinctively Floridian crime (Medicare fraud), opening up positions further down the food chain, Mr Rubio was elected to the statehouse aged just 28. His nine years there were mostly spent turning the agenda of Jeb Bush, a centrist Republican governor, into law. He also showed a wonkish streak, travelling around the state holding rather earnest-sounding “idea-raisers”: 100 proposals that emerged from them were subsequently turned into a book.尽管鲁比奥很符合年轻异见者的形象,但他的背景却远不是那种反政府圣战士的标配。26岁时,他第一次竞选官职,成为了拥有6000万人口的西迈阿密城市委员会中的一员。如果他的任期中有值得铭记的事情,那一定是自行车骑警队伍的建立。28岁那年,因为很有佛罗里达特色的州议员阿尔贝托· 古特曼被以很有佛罗里达特色的罪名—医保欺诈—控告,为其下属腾出了席位,鲁比奥被选入州议会。他在这里工作了九年,绝大多数时间是把中立派民主党州长杰布·布什的议程付诸于法。他还展示出了他的书呆子潜质,曾真诚地打着“集中民智”的旗号,游历全州。征集到的百条提案随后都被出书。When he arrived in the Senate Mr Rubio was hailed as a future saviour of a Republican Party struggling to appeal to Hispanic voters, on the basis that his parents had left Cuba in 1956. An aly difficult task was made harder when he had a fight with Univision, the biggest Spanish-language network, in 2011. It became impossible when House Republicans declined to consider an immigration reform bill that Mr Rubio, along with three other Republicans and four Democrats, had put his name to. He has since concluded that a law to address the 12m undocumented migrants in the country will be impossible until the border is secure and the criteria for deciding who gets to come change from prioritising family reunification to favouring workers.他一进入参议院,就被看做共和党未来的救星,因为共和党正在努力吸引西班牙裔选民,而父母在1956年离开古巴的鲁比奥自然吃香。但2011年,当鲁比奥与美国最大的西班牙语网站环球电视台展开口角时,这一本就艰难的任务变得难上加难。而当众议院的共和党人拒绝考虑鲁比奥、三名其他共和党人士和四名民主党人士签署的移民改革法案时,希望彻底破灭。自此,鲁比奥得出了一个结论,即除非边境安全得到确保,以及移民标准不再致力于让家庭重新团圆而是更加偏爱工人,解决国内1200万未登记移民问题的法律是不可能被通过的。This will not win over the voters that the GOP had hoped Mr Rubio would magically deliver: even young Cubans, who have long stood out among Latinos for their attachment to the Republican Party, have started to switch their loyalties to the Democrats. On climate change, too, Mr Rubio is hardly a breath of fresh air. Most scientists, he says, agree that man is to blame, but he sees no point in imposing heavy economic costs on Americans for uncertain benefits.但这也不能争取到大老党希望鲁比奥施展魔力吸引到的选民群们,长期以来,连拉美裔中一直因为亲近共和党而格外显眼的古巴年轻人群,都开始转而向民主党效忠。在气候变化问题上,鲁比奥也难以让人耳目一新。尽管他也承认,大多数科学家都认为人类就是气候变化的罪魁祸首,但却并无意为了不确定的利益,让美国人担起沉重的经济代价。If Mr Rubio is going to rescue his party from anything it is from an overly narrow view of what government ought to do. Both Mr Rubios parents worked at low-wage jobs—his father as a bartender, his mother at Kmart—but were able to provide a life for him and his siblings that was within touching distance of the middle class. In the years since then, he argues, a mixture of globalisation and automation have held down wages for low-skilled workers, making it harder for people without university degrees to repeat what his own parents managed to do.如果鲁比奥真的要拯救共和党,那就必须改变其党派对政府职能过度狭隘的观点。鲁比奥的父母都是低薪工作者,他的父亲是一位酒保,而母亲则在零售商店凯马特中工作,但父母两人却能够为鲁比奥及其兄弟提供媲美中产阶级的生活。然而,鲁比奥认为,自那以后,全球化和自动化压低了技艺水平较低的工人的工资,使得没有大学学历的工人越来越重演鲁比奥父母的故事。Mr Rubio has various proposals for addressing this, including a federal wage subsidy to top up the incomes of the low-paid. He wants to help more students go to college, but also thinks the federal government should experiment with hiring people without degrees for white-collar work, as an example to other employers. Some of these ideas are unlikely to fly, such as a scheme to allow students to sell a share of their future income in exchange for money to fund tuition up front. But they show an urge to innovate that the GOPs Congressional wing has been missing.对此,鲁比奥提出了不同议案,包括一项联邦工资补贴,来补贴低收入者的工资水平。他想要帮助更多的学生就读大学,但与此同时,他认为联邦政府也应当试着雇佣没有大学学历的人群来从事白领工作,以为其他的雇主带个好头。但鲁比奥的有些构想是不可能有前途的,比如他曾计划让学生放弃一部分未来的收入,以预先用来付学费。尽管如此,这些想法仍然展现了共和党在国会中缺失的一种创新欲望。Does a safety net give people courage to soar?安全网会让美国人更加勇敢地高飞吗?This is daring stuff in the context of todays Republican Party because it envisages a role for government that many conservatives would find distasteful. Where Republican orthodoxy suggests saving poor people from welfare dependency by mercifully reducing the amount of money they receive, Mr Rubio aims to cut welfare spending by reducing the demand for it, keeping funding at the same level but handing anti-poverty programmes over to the states to figure out what works. “I dont take my children to the circus very often,” he says, “but when I do I have noticed that acrobats tend to be much more daring when they have a safety net beneath them.” Such support “is essential for the success of the free enterprise system”.鲁比奥代表了当今共和党派中富有胆识的一派,因为他们为政府构想的职能,是许多保守党派深觉反感的。当共和党中的老派人士建议通过仁慈地降低福利水平,以拯救穷人对福利项目的依赖时,鲁比奥却计划通过降低需求来减少福利开,将补助水平维持原有标准不改变的同时,把反贫困项目下放到各州,来找出其中有效的方案。他说:“我并不经常带小孩去马戏团,不过有时候去,我注意到当下面有安全网时,杂技演员会更勇敢。”因此,这样的持“对自由企业体制的成功至关重要”。It is hard to imagine some other Republicans with presidential ambitions saying anything like that. Senators Rand Paul of Kentucky and Ted Cruz of Texas, for example, often give the impression that the only thing standing between America and a restoration of the upwardly mobile society of the 1950s is a more faithful interpretation of the constitution. Mr Rubio is only 43, so he is probably not experienced enough to take on Hillary Clinton in 2016. But right now he is the most effective standard-bearer for conservatives who worry more about reducing poverty and long-term unemployment than about waging culture wars and cutting income tax. Whoever wins in November, these thoughts are worth taking seriously.很难想象其他有志成为总统的共和党人士会说出这样的话。举个例子,肯塔基州的参议员保罗·兰德和德克萨斯州的特德·克鲁兹常常给人的印象就是,挡在美国和复兴上个世纪五十年代处在上升时期的移动社会之间的唯一阻碍,就是对宪法更为诚实的解读。鲁比奥今年仅有43岁,因此他的资历也许不足以使他在2016年接替希拉里·克林顿。但就目前而言,他是保守党最具效率的旗手,因为比起发动战争和减少个人所得税,现在的保守党显然更担忧减少贫困和降低长期失业率的问题。不管在11月份谁将笑到最后,鲁比奥的想法都值得认真考虑。 /201407/312305第六人民医院金山分院激光祛痣价格费用 Business this week一周商业要闻Aug 24th 2013 |From the print editionIndia was plunged into financial turmoil. Markets swooned in response to the government’s imposition of capital controls on domestic investors to stop cash flowing out of the country in order to halt the decline of the rupee. Investors fret that India’s large current-account deficit makes it particularly exposed to capital flight out of emerging markets prompted by the Federal Reserve’s plan to taper quantitative easing. As share prices in Indian banks fell and Indian bond yields rose, the central bank promised to intervene to boost liquidity.印度陷入金融危机。印度政府为了抑制卢比贬值,对国内投资者实行了强制资本管制,以防止现金外流导致市场混乱。受美联储缩减量化宽松规模的影响,印度大量的经常账户赤字使该国大量资本流出。由于印度业股价下跌,国债收益增加,印度央行承诺将进行市场干预以增加流动性。However, the rupee fell to a new low against the dollar after the minutes from the Fed’s latest meeting confirmed it was on track to ease bond-buying this year. Currencies in other emerging markets also came under pressure. In a surprise move Turkey’s central bank raised interest rates to support the lira. The Brazilian real sank to its lowest level against the dollar in four years.然而,美联储召开最新一次会议,确认将缩减本年度购买债券规模。消息披露数分钟后,卢比兑美元汇率跌至历史新低点。其他新兴市场里的货币也面临压力。土耳其央行采取了令人吃惊的举措——提高利率,以此持里拉汇率。巴西货币雷亚尔兑美元的汇率跌至四年来的最低点。Falcone has his wings clipped法尔康羽翼受损The Securities and Exchange Commission fined Philip Falcone and Harbinger, the hedge fund he runs, m for his misuse of clients’ cash to pay a tax bill. More importantly, Mr Falcone had to admit to wrongdoing, the first such admission under the SEC’s policy of reducing the number of deals it cuts with defendants in which they neither admit nor deny guilt.美国券交易委员会(SEC)给菲利普·法尔康和他经营的对冲基金公司Harbinger开出了高达1800万美元的罚单,原因是他挪用客户的现金去付税单。更重要的是,法尔康不得不承认违约行为,这也是交会出台减少与被告交易的政策以来第一个承认不法行为的被告;此前,被告总是不承认其不法行为或者不认罪。Two electronic-trading mishaps further undermined confidence in automated markets. A sudden spike in the Shanghai stockmarket was caused by a computer glitch at Everbright Securities. Chinese regulators banned the broker from proprietary trading for three months as a result. And a software error at Goldman Sachs saw it place enough mistaken orders for stock options on American exchanges to drive prices lower. The blunder could potentially cost the bank hundreds of millions of dollars.两笔电子交易的失误进一步打击了人们对自动交易市场的信心。日前,上海股票交易所股指骤升,起因是光大券的电脑系统出现了小故障。为此,中国监会决定在3个月内,禁止光大券进行自营交易业务。此外,由于高盛投资公司的一个软件故障,美国股市出现了大量订购股票期权的错误订单,导致股价下跌。这个错误可能会给造成数亿美元的损失。BHP Billiton’s net profit for the year to June fell by 30%, to .9 billion. The mining company is to invest heavily in potash, an ingredient used in fertiliser and for which there is a burgeoning demand worldwide. This should offset some of its decline in prices for iron ore and copper, as the Chinese-led commodities boom cools.截止今年六月,必和必拓公司净利润下降30%,仅为109亿美元。由于全球对化肥原料碳酸钾的需求急速上升,这家矿业公司打算斥巨资投资碳酸钾。随着中国掀起的大宗商品交易的热潮的降温,必和必拓公司投资碳酸钾的举措将会弥补由于铁矿石和铜矿价格下跌而遭受的损失。Glencore Xstrata reported its first earnings since merging as a new company in May, and announced a .7 billion write-down of its mining assets.近日,今年5月刚完成合并的嘉能可斯特拉塔公司报告了其首份收入报告。这份报告显示,自并购以来,其矿业资产已经减记了77亿美元。Vestas, a Danish maker of wind turbines, replaced its chief executive, after its quarterly earnings revealed steeper losses. Once a leader in the industry, Vestas’s windpower business has been buffeted by competition from China; it also gets less from European subsidies for green energy. Anders Runevad, who used to work at Ericsson, a Swedish telecoms firm, is the new boss.丹麦风电巨头维斯塔斯在本季度收益进一步下滑后,更换了其首席执行官。受到不断来自中国市场竞争冲击和欧洲对清洁能源的补贴的缩减压力,当年的巨头风光不再。曾在瑞典电信企业爱立信工作的安德斯·伦沃德成为其新任首席。Brewers’ droop天气让啤酒市场“遇冷”Carlsberg and Heineken saw profits slip in their latest set of earnings, partly because the cooler-than-usual European spring watered down the demand for beer. Carlsberg said the closure of outdoor beer kiosks in Russia in an effort to curb public drunkenness had also hurt it. Both companies pointed to Asia as a bright spot.嘉士伯和喜力最近收益下滑,部分原因是由于欧洲天气较往年偏低,使啤酒的需求减少。嘉士伯公司分析说,俄罗斯为了抑制在公共场所喝酒行为关闭了各种户外啤酒亭,这也是销量减少的原因。现在两家公司都把亚洲作为翻盘之地。The Bank of Israel issued new rules to banks on mortgages, including a requirement that monthly repayments be no more than half of a borrower’s household income. Lending has surged over the years, though the economy is slowing and unemployment rising.以色列央行对于抵押贷款颁布了新规定,包括月还贷额不能高于家庭总收入的一半的要求。经济增势缓慢和失业率的增高并没有给贷款热降温。Meg Whitman’s turnaround plan for Hewlett-Packard hit a bump in the road, when she said she now no longer expects to see a return to revenue growth next year after almost all its divisions recorded a drop in quarterly sales. HP’s big push into computer servers has so far failed to offset the decline of its PC business.惠普的复兴之路可谓是崎岖不平。本季度几乎所有部门销售量都有下滑之后,梅格·惠特曼说她不再对明年收益增长抱有期望。虽然在务器方面取得一定的成绩,但对于想以此缓解陷入个人电脑销售困境的惠普来说无异于杯水车薪。A judge refused Carl Icahn’s request to speed up his lawsuit to stop the proposed buy-out of Dell, the latest setback to the activist investor’s alternative takeover proposal for the computer-maker. A postponed shareholders’ vote is now due to take place on September 12th. Dell, meanwhile, reported a 72% drop in quarterly net profit, after heavily discounting sales of its PCs and servers.卡尔·伊坎为阻止戴尔按计划被收购提出了加速审理诉讼请求,而这一要求被法官驳回。这对于激进投资者卡尔·伊坎另外提出收购提议无疑是一个新的打击。9月12号将召开延期的股东投票大会。本季度,戴尔公司由于对个人电脑和终端务器的打折销售,净利润降低了72%。Al Jazeera began broadcasting on its new news channel in the ed States, building on the network of Al Gore’s Current TV, which it bought in January. With bureaus in 12 American cities, the Qatari company promises to provide an alternative on cable to CNN, Fox and MSN.半岛电视台已在美国开播了新的新闻频道。此频道原属于阿尔·戈尔创办的美国潮流有线电视台,于今年1月份被半岛电视台收购。卡塔尔半岛电视台已经在美国建立了12个分部,它承诺将为看惯了CNN,FOX和MSN的美国观众提供一个新的选择。That lost Kodak moment重拾柯达时刻A judge approved Eastman Kodak’s plan to restructure and leave bankruptcy protection, which it filed for in January last year. The company has shed its photography business (and .1 billion in debt) to focus on commercial printing technologies. It designed the world’s first working digital camera in 1975, only to discard the project and stick to film.法院通过了伊士曼柯达公司重建计划和脱离2012年1月提交的破产保护的申请。此前,柯达为专注于商业成像领域出售了负债41亿的照相机业务。柯达放弃负债41美元的摄影业务,以专注于商业印刷技术。1975年,柯达制造了世界上第一台数码相机,然而现在却转向数码影像业务。201309/254933Science and technology科学技术The Cambrian explosion寒武纪大爆发Kingdom come 动物王国出现Chinese palaeontologists hope to explain the rise of the animals中国古生物学家希望解释动物的起源AMONG the mysteries of evolution, one of the most profound is what exactly happened at the beginning of the Cambrian period.在众多进化之谜中,其中意义最深远的就是在寒武纪开始时期到底发生了什么。Before that period, which started 541m years ago and ran on for 56m years, life was a modest thing.在寒武纪之前,从5.41亿年前开始持续5600万年的时代里,生命是适度存在的。Bacteria had been around for about 3 billion years, but for most of this time they had had the Earth to themselves.细菌已经存在了大约30亿年,但是在多数时间里,它们主宰着地球。Seaweeds, jellyfish-like creatures, sponges and the odd worm do start to put in an appearance a few million years before the Cambrian begins.海藻、类似水母的生物、海绵生物和奇怪的虫子确实在寒武纪开始的前几百万年已经出现。But red in tooth and claw the Precambrian was not—for neither teeth nor claws existed.但是前寒武纪时期却不是腥牙血爪,因为那个时候牙齿和爪子都没有出现。Then, in the 20m-year blink of a geological eye, animals arrived in force.然后,在地质学看来一眨眼的2000万年中,动物大规模的出现了。Most of the main groups of the animal kingdom—arthropods, brachiopods, coelenterates, echinoderms, molluscs and even chordates, the branch from which vertebrates went on to develop—are found in the fossil beds of the Cambrian.人们在寒武纪群落里发现了动物王国的主要动物集群,包括腕足、腔肠、棘皮、软体和脊索。The sudden evolution of this megafauna is known as the Cambrian explosion.寒武纪因威尔士的群山而得名,But two centuries after it was noticed, in the mountains of Wales after which the Cambrian period is named, nobody knows what detonated it.在寒武纪被注意到的两个多世纪里,没人知道到底为什么会发生大爆炸。A group of Chinese scientists, led by Zhu Maoyan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, plan to change that with a project called “From the Snowball Earth to the Cambrian explosion: the evolution of life and environment 600m years ago”.由南京地质古生物研究所的朱茂炎领导的中国科学家小组计划通过一个名为“从雪球事件到寒武纪大爆发:距今6亿年前后的生物与环境演变”的项目改变这种情况。The “Snowball Earth” refers to a series of ice ages that happened between 725m and 541m years ago.雪球事件指的是7.25亿-5.41年前一系列的冰川时代。These were, at their maxima, among the most extensive glaciations in the Earth’s history.在顶峰时期,它们是地球史上最大规模的冰川时期。They alternated, though, with periods that make the modern tropics seem chilly: the planet’s average temperature was sometimes as high as 50C.不过他们是交替发生的,在某些时候,使得现在的热带地区变的寒冷,有时候全球的平均温度却高达50度。Add the fact that a supercontinent was breaking up at this time, and you have a picture of a world in chaos.从而导致了一个超大陆分裂,从此我们就有了一个混乱的地球,Just the sort of thing that might drive evolution.就是这些事情可能导致进化的发生。Dr Zhu and his colleagues hope to find out exactly how these environmental changes correspond to changes in the fossil record.朱士和他的同事希望从化石记录的变化中发现这个时期环境是如何确切变化的。The animals’ carnival动物狂欢节Fortunately, China’s fossil record for this period is rich.幸运的是,中国在这个时期的化石资料是非常丰富的。Until recently, the only known fossils of Precambrian animals were what is called the Ediacaran fauna—a handful of strange creatures found in Australia, Canada and the English Midlands that lived in the Ediacaran period, between 635m and 541m years ago, and which bear little resemblance to what came afterwards.直到目前,唯一知道的前寒武纪一少部分化石是埃迪卡拉动物群。它们生活与生活在距今6.35亿年到5.42亿年之间埃迪卡拉纪,在澳大利亚、加拿大、英格兰中部等地区被发现,但是他们和寒武纪的生物相似性很少。In 1998, however, a team led by Chen Junyuan, also of the Nanjing Institute, and another led by Xiao Shuhai of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, in America, discovered a 580m-year-old Lagersttte—a place where fossils are particularly well preserved—in a geological formation called the Doushantuo, which sps out across southern China.然而,1998年,一个由同样来自南京所的陈俊元和美国弗吉尼亚理工大学的肖书海共同领导的小组在中国南部一个广泛存在的陡山沱地质构造中发现了一个距今5.8亿年且保存出奇的好的生物群。Portents of the modern world 现代世界的前兆This Lagersttte has yielded many previously unknown species, including microscopic sponges, small tubular organisms of unknown nature, things that look like jellyfish but might not be and a range of what appear to be embryos that show bilateral symmetry.这个生物群落发现了许多之前不知道的物种,包括微型海绵生物,不知名物种的小管器官,一些似是而非的软体动物,以及一些有对称结构的像是胚胎的生物。What these embryos would have grown into is unclear. But some might be the ancestors of the Cambrian megafauna.这些胚胎将会长成什么不得而知,但是他们中的一些可能就是寒武纪大型动物的祖先。To try to link the evolution of these species with changes in the environment, Chu Xuelei of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics in Beijing and his colleagues have been looking at carbon isotopes in the Doushantuo rocks.为了把这些物种的进化和环境变化联系起来,北京地质与地球物理研究所的储雪雷和他的同事用碳同位素方法测试陡山沱石块。They have found that the proportion of 12C—a light isotope of carbon that is more easily incorporated by living organisms into organic matter than its heavy cousin, 13C—increased on at least three occasions during the Ediacaran period.他们发现在埃迪卡拉纪有至少三次12C的增加,而较轻的碳同位素12C相比于它的同胞13C更容易被生物体吸收转化为有机物。They suggest these increases mark moments when the amount of oxygen in seawater went up, because more oxygen would mean more oxidisation of buried organic matter. That would liberate its 12C, for incorporation into rocks.他们推测这些增长标志当时海水中的氧含量在增长,因为更多的氧气意味着更多的埋藏的有机物的氧化。他们在变成化石的过程中就将释放12C。Each of Dr Chu’s oxidation events corresponds with an increase in the size, complexity and diversity of life, both plant and animal.褚士的每个氧化事项都与动植物在其体积,复杂性、多样性上的增加有关。What triggered what, however, is unclear.然而,哪一个引发哪一个却不得而知。There may have been an increase in photosynthesis because there were more algae around.这有可能因为出现了更多的藻类,光合作用增强,Or eroded material from newly formed mountains may have buried organic matter that would otherwise have reacted with oxygen, leading to a build-up of the gas.或者是新形成的山脉上的腐蚀物质埋藏本该和氧气反应的有机物,导致气体的增加。The last—and most dramatic—rise in oxygen took place towards the end of the Ediacaran.最戏剧性的,也是氧气含量最后的增长发生在埃迪卡拉纪末期。Follow-up work by Dr Zhu, in nine other sections of the Doushantuo formation, suggests this surge started just after the final Precambrian glacial period about 560m years ago, and went on for 9m years.后续的工作由朱士完成,有九个其他的陡山沱构造说明这个激增仅仅是在最后一次前寒武纪冰川之后,大约5.6亿年前,并且持续了900万年。These dates overlap with those of signs of oxidation found in rocks in other parts of the world, confirming that whatever was going on affected the entire planet.这些数据和全球其他地方发现的化石中的氧化物一起确定了到底是什么将影响整个星球。Dr Zhu suspects this global environmental shift propelled the evolution of complex animals.朱士认为是全球环境的变化促进了复杂动物的进化。Dr Zhu also plans to push back before the Ediacaran period.朱士还计划回推到埃迪卡拉纪之前。Other researchers have found fossils of algae and wormlike creatures in rocks in northern China that pre-date the end of the Marinoan glaciation, 635m years ago, which marks the boundary between the Ediacaran and the Cryogenian period that precedes it.其他研究者已经在中国北部的石块中发现了藻类和类似虫子的生物的化石,其年代在6.35亿年之前的圣马力诺冰期末端之前,圣马力诺冰期确定了其之前埃迪卡拉纪和成冰纪之间的边界。Such fossils are hard to study, so Dr Zhu will use new imaging technologies that can look at them without having to clean away the surrounding rock, and are also able to detect traces of fossil organic matter invisible to the eye.这些化石很难去研究,所以朱士利用可以清晰成像而不用去清除周边石块的新成像技术,并且可以探测不被肉眼可见的化石有机物的踪迹。Besides digging back before the Ediacaran, the new project’s researchers also intend to analyse the unfolding of the Cambrian explosion itself by taking advantage of other Lagersttten—for China has several that date from the Cambrian.除了研究埃迪卡拉纪之前以外,新项目的研究者还利用其他生物群去分析未解开的寒武纪大爆炸,因为中国有好几个这样寒武纪的群落。Dr Chen, indeed, first made his name in 1984, when he excavated one at Chengjiang in Yunnan province.陈士因为1984年发掘了云南澄江生物群而出名,It dates from 525m years ago, which make it 20m years older than the most famous CambrianLagersttte in the West, the Burgess shale of British Columbia, in Canada.澄江生物群大概在5.25亿年以前,这就使得他比西方著名的加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚的波基斯页岩寒武纪群落早了2000万年。The project’s researchers plan to see how, evolutionarily speaking, the various Lagerst?tten relate to one another, to try to determine exactly when different groups of organisms emerged.这个项目的研究者计划从进化学上解释,不同的群落是怎么和其他的群落发生联系,并且试图解决到底什么时候出现了不同的生物分类。They will also look at the chemistry of elements other than carbon and oxygen—particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential to life, and sulphur, which often indicates the absence of oxygen and is thus antithetical to much animal life.他们不单单只是观察氧和碳元素,尤其是生命必须的氮和磷,以及经常指示缺少氧且和大部分动物生命对立的硫。Dr Zhu hopes to map changes in the distribution of these chemicals across time and space.朱士希望绘制这些元素随着时间和空间分布变化图,确认这些变化的关联性,He will assess how these changes correlate, whether they are related to weathering, mountain building and the ebb and flow of glaciers, how they could have affected the evolution of life, and how plants and animals might themselves have altered the chemistry of air and sea.它们是否和天气,造山,冰川的起伏有关,他们怎样影响生命的进化,以及动植物他们自己是如何改变空气和海洋中的化学组成。Most ambitiously, Dr Zhu, Dr Xiao and their colleagues hope to drill right through several fossiliferous sites in southern China where Ediacaran rocks turn seamlessly into Cambrian ones.朱士,肖士以及他们的团队很有雄心的希望在中国南部那些无缝连接埃迪卡拉纪和寒武纪的几个含有化石的地方穿凿而过。Such places are valuable because in most parts of the world there is a gap, known as an unconformity, between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian.这些地方都很有价值,世界的大部分地区,埃迪卡拉和寒武纪之间都有空白,这种空白被称为不整合面。Unconformities are places where rocks have been eroded before new ones are deposited, and the widesp Ediacaran-Cambrian unconformity has been a big obstacle to understanding the Cambrian explosion.不整合面地方的石块在新的沉积之前已经被侵蚀,埃迪卡拉纪-寒武纪之间广泛的不整合面是了解寒武纪大爆发的一个重大障碍。With luck, then, a mystery first noticed in the Welsh mountains in the early 19th century will be solved in the Chinese ones in the early 21st.幸运的是,在19世纪早期威尔士群山中发现的神奇事件将被21世纪中国发现的群落所解决。If it is, the origin of the animal kingdom will have become clear, and an important gap in the history of humanity itself will have been filled.如果是的话,那动物王国的起源将会变得更清晰,人类历史中一个重要的空白将被填补。 /201312/268598上海治疗狐臭的医院

上海整形美容医院排名玫瑰李鸿君鼻翼整形 奉贤区奉城医院隆胸价格费用

上海玫瑰整形美容医院祛痣好吗Boy or girl?是男还是女?Thats the first question we ask about new babies, new puppies and newly-found fossils.这是我们询问新生婴儿,新降生小及新发现化石的第一个问题。Fossils? Yep.化石?是的。Experts can tell if an ancient Egyptian mummy or a prehistoric human was a boy or a girl just by looking at the skeleton.专家仅仅通过观察骨骼就可以分辨出一个古埃及木乃伊或史前人类的性别。Heres how they do it. 以下是他们所进行的实验。The human skeleton offers insight into a persons life:人类骨骼展现了人一生的生活轨迹:it will show the signs of disease, malnutrition, and injuries, as well as aging and sex.它可以显示疾病的征兆,营养不良,伤患以及衰老和性别。Experts can identify a skeletons sex by looking at two key areas: the skull and the pelvis.专家通过观察头骨和骨盆两个关键区域可以确定一个骨架的性别。Male skulls tend to be larger than female skulls, with heavier bones and a larger braincase.从头骨比较,男性往往比女性大,他们的骨头更重而且具有更大的脑壳。On the face area, there are bigger brow ridges, thicker jawbones and cheekbones,而在脸部区域,有更大的眉弓,更厚的下颌和颧骨,and the chin is more square than a females chin, which is generally more pointed.下巴则比女性的更厚,通常更为尖锐。On the other hand, well, not hand, theres the pelvis.另一方面,不是手,而是通过骨盆。The female pelvis is shaped like a wide, oval bowl with a large opening at the top and a slightly smaller opening at the bottom.女性骨盆形状像一个宽的,椭圆形碗,开口顶部大,底部小。If a female has had children, the pelvis will also show this.如果一位女性已经生育过,骨盆也将展现出这一点。The male pelvis is more narrow generally, and the opening at the bottom is more heart-shaped than oval.男性骨盆通常更窄,底部的开口呈现心形而非椭圆形。Experts also use this type of information during forensic investigations.专家也在法医调查中使用这种类型的信息。While the eyes may be the window to the soul, the skeleton offers experts a view into a human life. 虽然眼睛是心灵的窗户,但骨架帮助专家得以窥见人类的生命历程。 201311/266372 上海市第六人民医院打玻尿酸多少钱上海市长征医院韩式三点多少钱



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