时间:2019年10月18日 12:19:28

Where the steel industry is involved, especially in rich countries, shuttered plants, job losses and complaints about unfair competition are rarely far away.但凡涉及钢铁行业,尤其是在富裕国家,工厂倒闭、工作岗位流失和对不公平竞争的抱怨几乎从未远去。Having seen global steel prices halve over the past year, European steel-makers are ratcheting up their choruses of complaint. Yesterday they demanded blocks on cheap steel imports, particularly from China, and lower energy input prices.过去一年,全球钢铁价格下跌了一半,欧洲钢铁制造商正一同加大抗议的声音。昨日,它们要求阻止进口廉价的钢铁(尤其是来自中国的钢铁),并降低能源投入的价格。The impact of steel plant closures can be devastating for local communities. The recent closure of the Sahaviriya Steel Industries (SSI) plant at Redcar in north-east England was a severe blow to a town with few other job opportunities. But resorting to wide-scale protectionism is only likely to displace job losses elsewhere. And while there is certainly a case for the EU to revisit the cost of power to energy- intensive industries, it is not clear that would do much to mitigate the damage the steel industry is sustaining.钢铁厂倒闭对当地社区的影响可能是毁灭性的。近来,泰国伟成发钢铁工业(SSI)在英格兰东北部雷德卡(Redcar)的工厂倒闭,对这个几乎没有其他工作机会的小城造成了重创。但诉诸大规模贸易保护主义只有可能将失业转至别处。尽管欧盟的确有理由重新考虑能源密集型产业的能源成本,但目前还不清楚这能否大大减轻钢铁行业正在遭受的损害。Steel has long been a battleground for trade disputes. With high fixed costs of production, and exposed to large swings in demand from the economic cycle, the industry goes through repeated phases of overcapacity, glut and falling prices, with governments implored to intervene to keep production going and preserve jobs.长期以来,钢铁一直是贸易争端的战场。钢铁行业固定生产成本高,经济周期导致的需求大幅波动还容易对它造成冲击,因此这个行业一次次重复经历产能过剩、供过于求、价格下跌的阶段,政府被恳求进行干预,以维持生产并保留工作机会。European steelmakers have frequently had recourse to antidumping and antisubsidy tariffs to tackle low-cost products entering the EU market. A larger-scale use of such “trade defence” measures is likely to do more harm than good. Not only does it risk inflaming EU-China trade tensions more generally, but raising the price of steel in Europe will merely disadvantage other manufacturers.欧洲钢铁制造商时常诉诸反倾销和反补贴关税,以应对进入欧盟市场的低成本产品。更大规模地使用这种“贸易防卫”措施,可能会弊大于利。这不仅有可能在更大范围内激化欧盟和中国紧张的贸易关系,且抬高欧洲钢铁的价格只会对欧洲其他行业的制造商不利。Steelmaking is of great importance to local communities, but it employs only about 1 per cent of the 30m total manufacturing workers in Europe. Since steel is a vital input to large parts of manufacturing, holding prices in the EU above the global level merely sps international uncompetitiveness more widely through the sector. The future for European manufacturing is in high value-added production, such as Germany’s successful machine tools sector, not in churning out basic commodities in a fickle global market.钢铁制造对当地社区十分重要,但这个行业雇佣的劳动者仅占欧洲3000万制造业工人的1%左右。由于钢铁对于更广泛的制造业是一种重要原料,将欧洲钢铁价格维持在高于全球价格的水平,只会让欧洲更多制造业行业在国际上失去竞争力。欧洲制造业的未来在于高附加值制造(比如德国成功的机床业),而不在于在变化无常的全球市场中生产基础大宗商品。The industry, or at least parts of it, is on somewhat firmer ground when it complains about energy costs. Successive iterations of energy taxes and levies aimed at combating climate change have undoubtedly made industrial electricity more expensive. But that is often a bigger problem between different EU states than it is between the EU and the rest of the world.这个行业(或者至少这个行业的一部分)在抱怨能源成本的时候理由更充分一些。为对抗气候变化而不断增收的能源税费无疑使工业用电更加昂贵。但这个问题往往在不同欧盟国家之间(而非欧盟和世界其他地区之间)更为突出。UK producers, for example, complain their electricity is more than 50 per cent more costly than for competitors in France or Germany. But the European Commission last year found that while electricity prices for EU companies as a whole were twice those in the US and 20 per cent higher than in China, the differential with the US disappeared once tax and levy exemptions for European energy-intensive industries were taken into account.比如,英国钢铁制造商抱怨,它们的电力价格比法国或者德国竞争对手高50%以上。但欧盟委员会(European Commission)去年发现,尽管欧盟境内企业的整体电力价格是美国的两倍,也比中国高出20%,但一旦算上欧洲能源密集型工业税费的减免,欧盟和美国之间的差距就不复存在了。Moreover, energy inputs are on average only about 5 per cent of total production costs for the EU iron and steel industry. Electricity prices relative to those elsewhere would have to change spectacularly to have a decisive effect. 此外,能源投入平均只占欧盟钢铁产业总生产成本的约5%。只有用电价格相对于欧盟以外地区出现明显变化,才会有决定性效果。 /201511/409334

The first regular red-eye bullet train running from Shanghai to Beijing will start operation on May 15, Shanghai railway police authority said on last Wednesday, the city#39;s local news paper Xinmin Evening News reported.据上海当地媒体《新民晚报》报道,上海铁路警方于上周三表示,今年5月15日,上海至北京的“红眼高铁”将首次开通。Shanghai railway police said that the red-eye bullet train, G8, will leave Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station at 7 pm and arrive at Beijing South Railway Station at 11:48 pm.上海铁路警方表示,此次开通的“红眼高铁”G8次列车,将于晚上7点从上海虹桥站出发,在23点48分抵达北京南站。It will be the first time that a bullet train running from Shanghai to Beijing will operate after 6 pm. The train will return to Shanghai the next day. The ticket prices will be 933 yuan (3.68) and 553 yuan, the same like the daytime ones.这也将是首次于晚上6点之后运行的从上海开往北京的高铁列车。该车次将于次日返回。此趟高铁的票价和白天的一样:一等座933元(约143.68美元),二等座553元。The authorities said more police officers will be onboard on the red-eye bullet train to ensure safety at night.上海铁路警方表示,将会部署更多的警力,以确保首趟夜间京沪高铁的安全运行。Another bullet train with sleeping cars, D312, which ran from Shanghai Railway Station to Beijing South Railway Station temporarily during the Spring Festival holiday, will also start regular operation later. It will leave Shanghai at 7:10 pm and arrive at Beijing at 7:07 am the next day.此外,还将增开一趟夜间动卧高铁D312次列车,它以前只是作为上海站至北京南站春运时的临时列车,以后则将开始常规运行。该列车将于晚上7点10分从上海站出发,次日清晨7点7分到达北京南站。China Railway Corp, the country#39;s railroad operator, said earlier this year that it would add ;red-eye; bullet trains to its fixed operation schedule to cater for a growing demand.今年初,中国铁路总公司就表示,将在常规运行线路的基础上加开“红眼高铁”,以满足不断增长的需求。China has seen a massive increase in train passengers in the past decade. Some 2.5 billion passengers took trains in 2015, up 6.07 percent from a year earlier.在过去10年里,中国铁路旅客数量大幅上升。2015年我国铁路旅客发送量达25亿人次,比前一年增长了6.07%。 /201605/443444

The universal two-child policy ;should not be the end of the family-planning policy adjustment;, and further relaxation is expected to ease the population challenges China is facing, according to experts.有关专家近日声称,全面二孩政策“不应该成为生育政策调整的终点”,要缓解我国面临的人口挑战,政策还需进一步放宽。;A dwindling workforce population and an aging population are inevitable in China, and a further adjustment of the family-planning policy is needed, based on consistent monitoring of births,; according to the Green Book of Population and Labor 2016, which was released by the Population and Labor Economics Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences last Wednesday.中国社科院人口与劳动经济研究所上周三发布的《2016人口与劳动绿皮书》指出:“我国劳动力人口数量萎缩和人口老龄化问题不可避免,需要持续监测生育行为,进一步调整生育政策。”The latest family-planning policy, which allows all couples to have two children, will not result in a big population increase, due to reasons such as a reduced willingness to give birth and the increased ages of eligible women, said Zhang Chewei, director of the institute and an author of the book.中国社科院人口与劳动经济研究所所长、该书作者张车伟称,由于符合政策的妇女生育意愿降低、年龄上升等原因,近年出台的全面二孩政策并不会带来人口数量的大幅增加。As a result, the universal two-child policy will not effectively ease the social and economic challenges China is facing, such as a reduced workforce and a population that is rapidly aging, he said.他表示,结果就是全面二孩政策不能有效地缓解我国面临的如劳动力人口萎缩和人口迅速老龄化等社会和经济方面的挑战。;Judging from the experiences of some other countries, with people continuously delaying marriage and pregnancy, it is possible that Chinese people#39;s willingness to give birth will continue to decrease,; Zhang said.张车伟说道:“从其他国家以往的经验来看,随着人们婚姻和怀的不断推迟,中国人生育意愿有可能仍将继续降低。”;China may need to further relax its family-planning policy in the future, and it may even abolish restrictions on birth.;“我国可能在未来需要进一步放宽计划生育政策,甚至可能取消关于生育的诸多限制。” /201612/482740

文章编辑: 百姓中文