济南长虹医院官网预约诊疗

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月16日 16:31:55
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If there was life of our kind, the organic kind, on the surface of Venus a long time ago, then what happened to that life?如果存在我们的生命种类,有机类,很久以前出现在金星,后来生命发生了什么?Well one possibility is that it just died out.好的一个可能性是,它可能刚刚灭绝。But theres another possibility thats a little more exotic, which is it may have migrated up into the clouds.但此外还有另外一个可能性更为异乎寻常,这可能迁移到天上的云。There is some speculation that Venus might actually still harbor life even though it is such a hostile place.有预测认为虽然金星是这样一个危险的地方,但仍然育着生命。And the reasoning is that at one time Venus was like the Earth in the first two billion years or so of its history.而理由是就像是金星在开始的二十亿年左右的历史中曾经像地球一样。So if life were to grab a hold, maybe life was able to stay ahead of the environmental disaster that befell Venus as the water basically left the planet.所以如果生命在于把握,也许当水基本离开这个星球的时候生命也能够在金星出现。Could life really exist in the clouds of Venus?生命真的能存在于金星的云中吗?The best way to know for sure is to float into the atmosphere and find out.可以确定的最好方法是进入大气中寻找。Right behind us is the Valor balloon which we intend to fly in the skies of Venus in a couple of years from now.就在我们的身后,我们的气球在现在的几年内打算飞入金星的天空。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/176677

Business Selling cars online The TrueCar challenge商业 网上卖车 TrueCar来势汹汹A price-comparison website causes ructions in the motor trade比价网站在汽车销售行业掀起争议AMERICANS looking for a new car nowadays often use online price-comparison sites such as AutoTrader, Edmunds and eBay to find the best deal.如今的美国人若要买辆新车,通常会上一些比价网站来淘最好的价格,诸如AutoTrader, Edmunds和eBay等。Most such sites charge dealers a small fee for passing on sales leads from shoppers who have submitted their details.这些网站多数将注册的经销商提供的销售线索展示在网页上,从中赚取小额报酬。TrueCar, a relative newcomer, does things differently.而TureCar,作为行业相对年轻的成员,却有着不同的经营方法。It charges dealers 0, but only when its introduction of a customer results in a sale, and it makes its dealers guarantee to honour their es, no excuses.它只在推荐的客户完成买卖后收取经销商300美元费用,前提是经销商无条件保履行其价格承诺。TrueCar taps into data from state vehicle-registration offices, car-loan providers and other sources to compile what it says are the most accurate figures available for what motorists pay for the same car locally. This can be several hundred dollars less than the sticker price, and is often below ;invoice;—the price that, according to the paperwork sent by the carmaker, represents the wholesale price the dealer paid.TureCar从车辆登记所、车贷机构和其他渠道得到的数据中总结出其所谓的最精准的当地最低车价,这个价格通常便宜几百美元,甚至经常低于;发票价;,即汽车厂商给予汽车经销商的纸面批发价。In fact dealers receive various rebates from carmakers, and make money from such things as loans and service contracts, so a modest profit is still possible.实际上经销商从厂商获取各种回扣,并通过像车贷及售后等务赚取利润,所以最低利润还是有的。But such heavy discounting alarms carmakers.但如此大幅度的折扣引起了厂商的警觉。Hondas American arm recently told dealers it would cut off their marketing allowances—which can be worth hundreds of dollars for each car sold—if they did not stop offering sub-invoice prices on TrueCar and other sites.本田的美国车厂近日告知其经销商,如果不停止向诸如TrueCar等比价网站提供;低票价;,车厂将削减其营销费用,每车大约几百美元。Honda insists dealers can sell at whatever price they wish, but it will not pay them to market its products as ;cheap; or ;low-end; cars.本田表示经销商可以自己定价销售,但厂商不会为了将其产品宣传成;便宜货;或是;低档货;而付费用。It also suggests that some dealers use such sites to ;bait-and-switch;, offering tantalisingly cheap cars they do not have, to reel in suckers, a practice many states ban.本田更暗示说一些经销商利用网站进行诈骗,利用一些根本没有的超便宜车型吊顾客上钩再掉包销售,这在许多州都是被严令禁止的。TrueCar insists that the contracts it makes dealers sign commit them to deliver the cars they promise at the price ed.TrueCar坚称其要求经销商签订协议来保经销商按照约定的价格卖车。David Wilson, who recently told the 16 dealerships he owns in California to stop using TrueCar, says he has reason to share Hondas scepticism: he plays back to The Economist a voicemail from a rival dealer who had ed him an attractive price via TrueCar on a new Lexus, calling to say that they did not have it in stock but could try to find one for him.大卫。威尔森最近要求其在加利福尼亚州的16家经销商停止使用TrueCar,原因是他有理由相信本田对网站的质疑。他向《经济学人》杂志播放了一段音频,内容是对手经销商在TrueCar网站上给一款新雷克萨斯车型报了一个非常诱人的价格,但打电话过去后对方说没有该车库存并表示会尽力找一辆给他。TrueCar says there had been no hiding of the fact that the model concerned might no longer be available, and thus no question of ;bait-and-switch;; that this was a one-off case and that TrueCar has had few complaints so far.TrueCar表示就此事而言,如果经销商没有隐瞒网上展示的车型没有存货,也就不构成;掉包诱售;的罪名。上述的事情只是个案,TrueCar表示至今收到投诉寥寥。But it is awkward that a critic had so little trouble catching a dealer ing for a car it did not have.而且那么容易就能抓到经销商;诈骗;有些不太正常。Another big chain of dealers, Group 1, has also told its members not to use TrueCar, saying it had privacy worries over the websites requirement that it have access to showrooms computer systems so as to verify sales.另一个大经销商Group 1也已经通知其成员不要使用TrueCar,原因是该网站要求通过展厅电脑系统确认其销售情况的举动可能存在侵犯隐私的风险。Scott Painter, TrueCars founder, says that so far such publicity has only drawn dealers attention to the attractions of using the website.TrueCar的创始人Scott Painter解释到,至今这种公开化的做法只会增加经销商使用这个网站的兴趣,而网站所要做的就是把正在做的事情更加公开透明。All the site is doing, Mr Painter argues, is making more open what is aly going on. He says his data show that 23% of all the Hondas sold via TrueCar are below invoice price, only a little above the 22% sold below invoice for all Hondas in America.数据显示通过TrueCar售出的本田汽车中有23%是低于发票价的,只比本田在全美的比例22%高一点。Mr Painter says his website is proving so successful at shifting metal that Honda, and the doubting dealers, will eventually relent: ;The power of the market will change their mind.;Painter先生认为这个网站的成功,最终会使本田和一些质疑的经销商改变态度,他说;市场的力量会改变他们的想法;。However, several states regulators are looking into whether the website breaches their laws.然而已经有好几个州的监管官员在调查该网站是否有违法嫌疑,一些州严禁;指向性营销;(获取代销返佣)。Some states specifically ban ;bird-dogging;-taking commission for introducing a sale.然而已经有好几个州的监管官员在调查该网站是否有违法嫌疑,一些州严禁;指向性营销;(获取代销返佣)。Some also ban using the word ;invoice; in car ads, regarding it as potentially misleading.一些州则认为在车辆广告中使用;发票;的字样有潜在误导性而禁止此行为。Colorados regulator has warned dealers there that they will be held responsible for any rule-breaking in their TrueCar es.科罗拉多州的监管官员警告当地经销商,将为在TrueCar上销售过程中可能产生的违规负责。TrueCar says it will shortly make changes to its website to satisfy the regulators concerns.TrueCar表示很快会调整网站内容以符合监管规定。In September TrueCar raised 5m for expansion. On January 1st it began an exclusive tie-up with Yahoo! to provide car-buying services.11年9月TrueCar筹措2.45亿美元用于网站扩张,12年1月1日它开始为雅虎提供独家汽车销售务。It also provides such services for consumer groups such as the American Automobile Association and the ed Services Automobile Association.另外还为一些消费群提供该项务,如美国汽车行业协会,联合务汽车行业协会。It could look forward to a large slice of the billion a year American car dealers spend on advertising-if it can convince both regulators and dealers that it is operating within the law.TrueCar预计,如果能让监管部门和经销商相信其经营合法,那么它就有望从美国汽车经销商每年付的60亿美元广告费用中分一杯羹。 /201211/210738

  

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  The average life expectancy for Americans was 35 years when the country was founded, and has been rising steadily since then. As the workforce grew older, many Americans worked well into their 50s and 60s, usually retiring at age 65.建国初期,美国人的平均寿命是35岁,从此人均寿命便稳步上升。随着劳动力年龄的增长,许多美国人在五六十岁时仍然投入工作,往往在65岁之后才退休。By the 1960s, more and more people were able to continue working well beyond age 65. But these long-time employees became more expensive for employers to keep as they moved up the salary scale. Thousands of older workers and job seekers were victims of age discrimination.到了19世纪60年代,越来越多的人到65岁时仍能干好工作。然而,由于薪金级别上调,长期雇员的工资越涨越高,雇主就负担不起了。因此数千名大龄工人和求职者便成为年龄歧视的受害者。They were fired, forced to resign, passed over for promotions, and not hired simply because of their age. Reports of older workers being laid off just before their pension rights locked in, were common. Congress heard testimony from many victims of age discrimination, and recognized the need for a law to provide protection.他们被解雇,强迫辞职,在职位升迁中遭受冷落,或者因为年龄干脆不被雇用。报道中经常出现这样的事件,老龄员工在养老金落实之际被临时解雇。国会听过许多遭受年龄歧视的案例后,意识到了制定法律来保护老龄雇员的必要性。The Age Discrimination in Employment Act was enacted on December 15th, 1967, stating that all employment decisions—hiring, firing, lay-offs, and changes in benefit packages—must have a legitimate basis, and nothing to do with age.《雇员年龄歧视法》于1967年12月25日颁布,声明所有就业决策——雇佣,解雇,裁员以及福利计划的变更,都必须有法律依据,不得以年龄为原因。The 1976 amendment to this Act raised the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 70. A 1986 amendment eliminated mandatory retirement ages completely. The author of the 1986 amendment, Representative Claude Pepper, was 86 at that time, and it was signed into law by Ronald Reagan, who, at the age of 75, was the oldest man to have been President.1976年的这条法令修正案规定将法定退休年龄从65岁提高到70岁。1986年的修正案则彻底取消了法定退休年龄。参与修订1986年修正案的议员克劳德·派帕尔当时也是86岁高龄;这条法案被罗纳德·里根签署形成法律,他于75岁时当选总统,成为美国历史上在位时年龄最大的总统。原文译文属!201210/204026

  

  Fitch Ratings has dealt a blow to two of Japans most famous brands: Sony and Panasonic. Now their credit ratings have been downgraded to junk. Fitch says they are both facing weakness in their business.惠誉最近的评级着实是对索尼和松下这两大日本最著名品牌的沉重一击。现在他们的信用评级已降至垃圾级。惠誉称两家公司的经营都处于乏力期。First to Sony. And take a look at its share price. Since March of this year, its fallen 52%. Just look at the slide right here. Now in its last fiscal year, Sony lost 5.7 billion dollars and that is a record. Fitch released this statement to explain its decision earlier today saying that meaningful recovery will be slow, given the companys loss of technology leadership in key products, high competition, weak economic conditions in developed markets as well as the strong yen.首先看看索尼,看看它的股票价格。自从今年3月,股价已刻跌了52%。让我们看看这张幻灯片。2011财政年度,索尼损失额高达创纪录的57亿美元。惠誉公开了这一财政报表,以解释今早做出的决定。同时,索尼公司已失去了在几款关键产品上的技术优势,加上成熟市场中的激烈竞争和疲软的经济条件,以及日益走强的日元,惠誉并认为索尼公司实质性的经济恢复进程将较为缓慢。Now its a similar picture for Panasonic. Since March, the companys share price has fallen by about 46%. And in its last fiscal year, Panasonic lost a record 9.7 billion dollars. Today Fitch said Panasonic isnt competitive in its core businesses, especially in its television and flat panel divisions, a once silver lining though. Fitch did say the company is on the right track in restructuring. The downgrades came, though, after the Tokyo Stock Exchange closed. We will see how investors react on Friday.现在来谈谈松下所呈现的相似情景。自从今年3月,股价已刻跌了近46%。2011财政年度,松下损失额高达创纪录的9.7亿美元。今天惠誉松下在其核心业务上,特别是电视及曾一度光耀夺目的平板电视业务,目前不具有竞争力。惠誉认为松下公司公司正在走结构重组的正确道路。然而,在东京券交易关闭后,其衰退还是不可避免。周末我们将看到投资者如何做出反应。 201212/213409IN A quiet spot in eastern Montana, on rolling golden prairies and under vast skies, 71 buffalo calves charge out of a corral. Kicking up dust as they run, they quickly join a herd of several hundred American buffalo of all ages. The calves had arrived by road from Elk Island reserve in Canada; they are pure descendants of the buffalo that once lived in this area. At the end of the 19th century just a few were saved from American hunters and bred, in peace, on the other side of the border.在美国蒙大拿州东部一块安静的草原上,天空广阔无垠,金色草原延绵起伏。71头刚从栅栏中被释放出来的小野牛,奔向草原,地上的尘土被他们跑动的蹄子卷到半空高。很快,他们就加入了一个由几百只美洲野牛组成的牛群中,这个牛群拥有不同年龄段的野牛。这些小野牛们是通过公路从加拿大鹿岛自然保护区运送到蒙大拿州的;他们是纯正的美洲野牛,其祖先曾经生活在这里。到上世纪19世纪末,只有一少部分野牛因在边境的另一边,幸免于美国狩人的猎杀,能够安然无恙的生活并幸存下来。Before Europeans arrived in North America as many as 60m buffalo are estimated to have ranged across the Great Plains. From around 1830, however, they were systematically killed until only a handful remained. Buffalo were taken for their hides, or simply because they were getting in the way of settlers. Men like Buffalo Bill slaughtered thousands.在欧洲人进入北美之前,估计有6000万头野牛分布于美洲大平原。从大约1830年起,它们就被有组织的捕猎,只有一小部分幸存了下来。当时,人们捕杀野牛的原因很简单,因为捕杀野牛可以获得野牛皮,或者仅仅是因为有些移民认为野牛妨碍了他们而杀掉它们,像类似于野牛比尔这样的屠杀者数以千计。At the end there was also a deliberate policy of wiping out the lumbering giants in order to remove the staple food source of Native Americans and to force them on to reservations. Last weekrsquo;s buffalo ;homecoming; was an emotional event for the Gros Ventre and Salish-Kootenai tribes who witnessed it.最后,为驱逐美洲原住民,当时的政府出台政策,鼓励人们杀掉这些动作缓慢的大型动物,阻断原住民的主要食物来源,从而迫使他们搬到到保留区去。上周,美国怀俄明州格若斯维崔和蒙大拿萨利希库特奈部落见了美洲野牛的;回乡之旅;,对于他们来说,心情百感交集。Ultimately it is logic and enormous ambition that lie behind the return of the buffalo to Montana. The idea, says Sean Gerrity, president of the American Prairie Reserve (APR), a charity, is to create the largest wildlife reserve anywhere in the contiguous 48 states. Mr Gerrity wants to rebuild a vast native prairie of 3.6m acres (9.9m hectares) where an enormous herd of wild buffalo can roam free once again.暨野牛回归蒙大拿活动之后,有一个更合乎自然逻辑和更为雄心勃勃的想法。这个想法,按照美国慈善组织--美国草原保护区协会主席肖恩.盖瑞蒂的说法,就是要创建一个遍布各地并将48个州连成一体的最大的野生保护区。盖瑞蒂先生想再造一个360万英亩(990万公顷)大的天然大草原,在那里,大群的野牛能再次自由的漫步、奔跑。Recreating Americarsquo;s version of Africarsquo;s Serengeti means thinking big. A sustainable ecosystem needs to be able to cope with fires, disease and icing over of parts of the ground in the winter. But such a reserve would be of international significance. Grasslands, which are economically valuable as farmland, are enormously underrepresented in nature reserves in America and worldwide. Temperate grasslands have the lowest level of protection of the worldrsquo;s 14 recognised ;biomes;, or habitats.打造美国版的非洲塞伦盖蒂大平原需要考虑很多事情。需要建立一个能应对火灾、疾病以及冬季局部寒冷气候的可持续的生态系统。但是,建立这样的一个野生保护区将具有国际性的重大意义。从经济层面上讲,草原的价值决不低于农田,但在世界各地以及美国,草原没有得到应有的重视,正大量的减少。在世界14个受保护的生物群落和栖息地中,温带草地的保护水平最低。APR is currently spending about m a year, largely on land. By autumn it will own or lease 270,000 acres. One of the first jobs APR has to do when it obtains land is to remove the fences. A single ranch can easily have more than 800 miles of barriers. APR will ultimately be able to stitch together a network of private and public land to create its reserve. But even though the land is cheap, at around 0 an acre, APR will need 0m to set up the reserve and a further 0m for an endowment to maintain it and pay for grazing rights.目前,美国草原保护区协会每年投入大约600万美元,主要用于购买土地。到今年秋天,该组织将通过购买或者租赁的方式获得270,000英亩土地。拿到地以后,首先要做的工作其中之一就是去掉围栏。一个农场一般都会有超过800里长的栅栏。该协会最终将把私有土地和公共的土地连成一片,建立起自己的保护区。但是即便土地很便宜,按照大约1亩450美元来计算,美国草原保护区协会要建立起保护区仍将需要330万美元;此外,为了维持草原和付放牧费,该协会还需要另外筹集120万元的资金才行。Buying land in eastern Montana is not difficult. Thanks to its lack of water, ranching in the area is hard work, often marginal and increasingly unpopular with the children of ranchers. Those ranches that are still in business are in effect subsidised by the government, which charges grazing fees of just .35 a month for each cow on federal land.购买土地在蒙大拿州东部并不难。由于缺乏雨水,经营牧场是一件很辛苦的事,越来越多的牧场主后代对此并不感兴趣,牧场经营业务正逐渐被边缘化。那些还在维持经营的牧场是因为有了政府的补贴才得以继续,当地政府对于本州土地上的每只牛,按照每月仅仅1.35美元来征收放牧费。In only 14 years from now, thanks largely to the buffalorsquo;s natural fecundity, APR will have over 5,000 buffalo, the largest conservation herd on the planet. Significantly, this herd will be entirely free of cattle genes;unlike most existing buffalo herds in America, which have interbred with domestic cattle. Officially, the American buffalo is now a type of livestock. But one day, if Mr Gerrity gets his way, his buffalo will be declared wild animals again.由于野牛的自然繁殖能力很强,只需要14年,美国草原保护区协会将拥有超过5000头野牛,成为全球最大的野牛自然保护区。更为重要的是,这个群体将完全是纯种野生基因,而非像美国现存的许多野牛群,是与驯养的家牛杂交的后代。在美国官方看来,现在的美洲野牛实际上就是家牛的一种,但是如果盖瑞蒂先生的方法可行,那么有一天,他的野牛将会被官方重新认可为野生野牛。Part of the restoration project requires the return of another crucial species: the prairie dog. This ;dog; is actually a small ground squirrel that forms large underground colonies. More important, it is the Chicken McNugget of the prairie;a convenient snack food for almost every creature, from burrowing owls and ferruginous hawks to foxes and even wolves.完成回归计划还需要一个重要的环节,那就是另外一个决定性物种的回归:草原野。这个;;实际上是一种较小的地面松鼠,它们能够在地下建造一个地下世界。更重要的是,它就像是草原的麦乐鸡,一种几乎可以为各种草原动物提供的方便小吃,从穴鸮和铁鹰到狐狸,甚至狼。Prairie dogs are hated by ranchers, who say their burrows pose a danger to cattle. So they are poisoned on a large scale. APR is in the early stages of developing a wildlife-friendly label for beef produced on ranches that are friendly to such prairie wildlife. In many parts of the world, such labels allow producers to command premiums for their produce.农场主们憎恨草原野,因为他们认为野们的洞穴会对牛构成威胁,所以对它们进行了大规模的毒杀。在早些时候,对那些友善对待这种草原野生动物的农场,美国草原保护区协会为他们的牛肉产品发放野生动物友好型标记。在世界的许多地方,拥有这样的标记,意味着生产商们可以对其产品提高价格。Mr Gerrity says that the reserve will take decades to complete. But one day, he says, Americans will be able to come on safari in their own country and roam across the prairies, unencumbered by fences, to view abundance rather than emptiness.盖瑞蒂先生说,建造保护区需要花上几十年的时间才能完成。但是他说,希望有一天,美国人能跨越大草原而不受到任何围栏的阻碍,在他们自己的国家自由的旅行,看到丰富而多样的世界而非空洞贫瘠的旷野。When the explorers Lewis and Clark arrived in Montana in 1805 they found more wildlife than they had seen in any other part of their journey; elk, antelope, deer, beavers and grizzly bears. The buffalo came in ;gangues; of tens of thousands. Restoring the abundance seen by early explorers, and with nothing more than private money, is a worthy gift to any nation.1805年,当探险者刘易斯和克拉克抵达蒙大纳时,他们发现了很多野生动物,有麋鹿、羚羊、鹿、海狸和灰熊,比他们以往旅途中所到过的每个地方都多。数以万计的野牛进入蒙大拿州。对任何国家来说,利用私人资金,恢复早期探险者所看见的丰富而多样的世界,是一件极具价值的事情。201203/175130

  What Do Pupils Tell Us?The size of our pupils can give clues to our interest, emotions, attitudes, and thought processes.If you’ve seen a magician tell which card someone picked from a deck, you’ve probably been amazed. Well, the pupils often open up when the magician picks the right card,so one of the tricks they use is to look at the person’s eyes.The pupils tend to close in response to unpleasantness, and open in response to pleasure. For example, for those who find snakes loathsome, a picture of one will cause their pupils to close.For someone who likes snakes, the same picture will cause the pupils to open.The same thing happens to people with strong political preferences. A conservative’s pupils will close when shown a picture of a liberal.The liberal has the same reaction when shown a picture of a conservative. Their pupils open when looking at a picture of someone of their own persuasion. /201206/185224

  As the Sun Turns太阳也在自转?Everyone knows that the earth turns.大家都知道地球会自转。As a matter of fact, the sun turns too. Altough a lot of people dont realize it.实际上,太阳也会自转。尽管很多人并不知道。Im not talking about being in orbit, now the earth definitely orbits the sun and not the other way around. Im talking about the entire sun spinning on its axis, like a globe when you give it a push with your hand.我不是说在轨道上运转。地球当然是围绕太阳转,但不会反过来(太阳绕地球转)。我说的是太阳以自身为轴转动,就像地球仪你用手推它一下就会自己转动。The sun spins around its own axis with a period of about twenty-seven days. That means it takes twenty seven days for the same side to come around again. Back in the seventeenth century, Galileo was the first person to point out that sunspots move from day to day, giving him the idea that the whole sun might be rotating.太阳自转的周期大约为27天。这意味着要27天的时间同侧才会转回来。早在17世纪,伽利略是第一个指出太阳黑子是一天天地移动,由此给他启发太阳可能也在转动。Even today, a lot of people arent aware of the suns rotation, simply because you cant look directly at it. But Galileo was absolutely right, as our modern observations confirm.即使现在,很多人仍然感觉不到太阳的转动,那只是因为我们不能直视太阳。但经过我们现代的观察实伽利略是对的。 /201209/200497。

  

  Science and Technology The Neolithic Boom-time machine科技 新石器时代 时间机器解密:新石器时代的繁荣期A new technique lets archaeologists reconstruct the past in greater detail考古新技术让考古学家们能更加详尽地重构远古原貌THAT economic expansion leads to building booms seems to have been as true 6,000 years ago as it is now.在经济扩张时期,人们往往喜欢大兴土木。如今的这条经济定律在6000年前似乎也同样适用。When agriculture came to Britain, it led to a surge of construction as impressive—and rapid—as the one that followed the industrial revolution.随着农业在英国生根萌芽,建筑业也随之蓬勃兴旺,其发展速度之快,令人印象之深刻毫不逊色于英国工业革命之后的那次农业变革。Which is all a bit of a surprise to archaeologists, who had previously seen the arrival of the Neolithic as a rather gentle thing.这一切让考古学家们显得有些惊讶,他们之前一直认为新石器时代是经济发展较为和缓的时期。But that may be because of the tools they use.不过这可能是由于他们使用的考古技术方法还不够先进。Radiocarbon dating provides a range, often spanning 200 years or more, rather than an exact date for a site.采用放射性碳技术来测定一处考古遗址的年代,得到的并不是一个准确日期,而是一个时间跨度范围通常为200年或更久远的数值。Stratigraphy, which looks at the soil layers in which artefacts are found, tells you only which ones are older and which younger.而地层学采用的方法是通过对已发现古代文物的土壤层进行探测分析,从而判断土壤年代的远近。None of these data is precise.这种方法得出的数据也都不精确。They do, however, limit the possible range of dates.然而它们确实缩短了可推算的时间跨度。And by using a statistical technique called Bayesian analysis it is possible to combine such disparate pieces of information to produce a consolidated estimate that is more accurate than any of its components.通过贝叶斯分析的统计方法,这些分散孤立的信息可能被整合成一个可靠详实的估计数值,这比单一研究其中的任何一条信息都更为精确。That results in a range that spans decades, not centuries.采用地层学断代推算出的时间范围是几十年,而不是几百年。A team led by Alex Bayliss, from English Heritage, a British government agency, has just used this technique to examine digs from hundreds of sites around Britain.Alex Bayliss领导的研究小组来自于英国政府机构的古迹署,他们刚刚采用这项技术对英国周围几百处的人工挖凿遗址进行了研究。The results have caused them to reinterpret the Neolithic past quite radically.这些成果可以让他们更为彻底地重新诠释新石器时代。Agriculture seems to have arrived fully formed in what is now Kent, in the south-east, around 4050.大约在公元前4050年,在现今的英国东南部的肯特郡(Kent),那里的农业时代似乎已经到来并发展成熟。The new culture sp slowly at first, taking 200 years to reach modern-day Cheltenham, in the west, but over the following five decades it penetrated as far north as Aberdeen.起初这种新文化传播缓慢,用了200年的时间才到达今天英国西部的切尔滕纳姆(Cheltenham),但是在后续的50年中,它迅速东扩到了北部的阿伯丁(Aberdeen)。Soon afterwards, causewayed enclosures (circular arrangements of banks and ditches hundreds of metres across—see picture) began springing up all over the country.随后,筑有堤道的围场(其格局为几百米跨度的环形堤岸与沟渠)开始在全国遍地开花。Until now, archaeologists had assumed that these were built over the course of centuries.现在,考古学家断定这些建筑物是在几百年间陆续建成的。Dr Baylisss work suggests they were the product of two booms, each just a few decades long—for the Neolithic seems to have seen its share of busts, too.Bayliss士的考古研究表明它们是两个繁荣期的产物,每个繁荣期的持续时间仅为几十年,可见新时器时代似乎也存在过衰落的萧条期。The teams work offers such a sharp picture of the past that it is possible to trace the histories even of individual communities, such as one in Essex whose inhabitants built, used and then abandoned an enclosure within the span of a single generation.考古研究小组为我们展示了清晰的远古画面,让我们可以追溯到更远的历史甚至小的个体群落,例如在埃塞克斯(Essex)考古遗址,考古人员发现了当时原始居民修建,使用和后来废弃的围场,它伴随了一代人的成长。English Heritage now plans to apply the technique to another murky era of British history, the early Anglo-Saxon period between 400AD and 700AD.现在英国古迹署计划将此技术应用于英国另一段有着模糊记载的历史年代,即介于公元400年至公元700年的早期盎格鲁-撒克逊时期。In principle, the method can be applied to any archaeological site, and several groups of researchers around the world are working on similar projects.理论上,此种方法可以应用于任何一个考古遗址,现在全世界已经有几组考古人员运用此方法进行着类似的考古项目。But, fittingly for a discipline that deals in centuries and millennia, the revolution will be a slow one.但是恰当地说,对一门牵涉几百年和上千年的学科,它的发展将是一个漫长的过程。Unlike traditional radiocarbon dating, which can be bought off the shelf, Dr Bayliss reckons it takes between three and four years to train a graduate researcher to use the new technique properly.传统的放射碳断代法是一种现学现卖的技术,但地层学与之不同,Bayliss士认为培养一名完全掌握此项新技术且具有硕士学位的研究人员得需要三到四年的时间。 /201212/211896

  

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