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2019年11月22日 13:46:13 | 作者:知道指南 | 来源:新华社
High Oil Prices Drive Search for New Fuels油价使人期待其它能源和交通工具   With rising oil prices inflating the cost of almost everything, people are looking for other ways to power vehicles, and even for alternatives to vehicles. 油价的上涨带动了成本的上扬,人们期待著其它能源能够替代汽车燃油,或者是代替汽车的其它交通工具。Ten or 20 years from now, the car you drive or the bus you ride may be powered by something other than gasoline. 10年或者20年之后,人们驾驶的车辆,或者搭乘的巴士,可能不再使用汽油。The soaring price of petroleum is adding new urgency to efforts to build vehicles that run on cheaper, cleaner fuel.  飙升的油价加重了制造使用廉价和清洁燃油车辆的紧迫性。Hybrids are one step in that direction. For example, the Toyota Prius runs on gasoline with help from an electric motor.  混合动力车是向这个方向迈进的一步。例如,丰田汽车公司的普锐斯汽车,除汽油动力外,还配置了一台电力马达。Ron Smith is a Toyota salesman in Los Angeles, where the Prius is especially popular. "We get two or three a day, and they are usually spoken for before they come in," said Smith. "And as soon as they come in, we have salesmen fighting for who is going to sell it to who. That is a good position to be in." 普锐斯车在洛杉矶非常风行,丰田公司在当地的推销员罗恩·史密斯说:“我们每天运来两、三辆普锐斯轿车,通常这些车还没有到,就已被人定走。新车一到,推销员就争抢著要把它们卖给自己的客户。这是一个销售热点。”Smith says the Prius has become a status symbol for people who want to show support for the environment. More than one million have been sold since 1997. But experts say the hybrid is just an interim step on the way to vehicles that use no petroleum-based fuel at all. 史密斯说,普锐斯车已经成为人们持环保的一种象征。从1997年到现在,已经售出了一百多万辆。但是专家们说,混合动力车只是一个过渡,最终的目标是生产出完全不使用石油燃料的汽车。General Motors is hoping that the Chevrolet Volt, powered mostly by electricity, will someday boost sales for its company. G.M. plans to put the Volt on the market in 2010, or as soon as an affordable lithium-ion battery can be developed. 通用汽车公司希望,以电力为主要动力的雪佛兰伏特车,终有一天会促进公司的销售。通用计划2010年将伏特车推向市场,或者,在大众买得起的锂离子电池研发成功后,立即上市。Some of that research is taking place at Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, where Don Hillebrand directs the Center for Transportation Research. 有些研究工作在芝加哥附近的阿贡国家研究室进行。负责那里交通研究中心的唐·希勒布兰德说:"This will have the effect of driving the cost of gasoline down, because the demand will go down," said Don Hillebrand. “这将使汽油价格下降,因为对汽油的需求降低了。”Cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells are another option. In Japan, Honda has begun the first commercial production of a hydrogen fuel-cell car, the FCX Clarity. Todd Mittleman of American Honda explains how it works. 氢燃料箱电池车是另一种选择。日本本田汽车公司已经推出了第一辆氢燃料箱电池车。本田公司在美国的负责人米特尔曼说:"It is a car that stores hydrogen on board, and, mixing the hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen in the fuel cell stack, creates electricity," said Mittleman. "So, in essence, it is an electric car." “这种汽车可以将氢储存在车上,然后将氢和大气中的氧气在电池箱中混合,产生电力。因此,这实际上是一种电力车。”There are very few places for drivers to refuel a hydrogen car, because there is no infrastructure yet for distributing hydrogen. But Mittleman says hydrogen cars are worth the wait. "It is zero emissions, there is no carbon," he said. "And hydrogen is the most plentiful element in the universe." 驾驶氢燃料车的难题是,能够加氢的地方不多,因为目前还没有输送氢的基础设施。但是米特尔曼说,氢燃料车值得等待。他说:“它的废气排放量是零,不排放碳,而且氢是宇宙中含量最丰富的物质。”Honda recently leased its first five hydrogen cars to celebrities in Los Angeles, and plans to put 200 more on the roads over three years.  本田最近把五辆氢燃料车租给了洛杉矶的名人,并计划在三年内再推出200辆。If new kinds of engines are one solution, new fuels are another. 如果新式引擎是解决问题的途径之一,那么,新型燃料就是另外一个途径。Biofuels like corn-based ethanol show promise. But corn farmers have been diverting their crops from food sales to ethanol production, and the price of corn-based food has spiked.  从玉米提炼的乙醇就很有前途。可是种植玉米的农民不再把玉米作为粮食出售,而是提供给乙醇生产,这导致使用玉米的食品价格飞涨。So scientists are looking for other sources of ethanol. One is a grass called sorghum. Bill Rooney runs the sorghum project at Texas Aamp;M University. "If we are talking about a sugar platform, one that is very similar to sugar cane, we can use sweet sorghums to do that in the very near future," said Rooney. 因此,科学家们开始寻找其它原料制造乙醇,其中之一就是高粱。美国德克萨斯州农工大学高粱项目负责人比尔·鲁尼说: “如果谈到从糖提炼燃料这个问题,有一种植物和甘蔗非常类似,它就是甜高粱。我们很快就可以利用甜高粱提炼燃料了。”And then there is algae. Its oil can be used for fuel. Algae can also help eliminate greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, says David Baltensperger, who heads Texas Aamp;M's Department of Soil and Crop Sciences. "We can pump excess CO2 from manufacturing processes or whatever into the ponds, and the algae converts it because it needs it for photosynthesizing," said Baltensperger. 另外还有水藻,它的油质可以用做燃料。德州农工大学土壤及农作物学系主任巴尔汀伯格说,水藻还可以消除温室排放的废气,包括二氧化碳。他说:“我们可以将生产过程中产生的二氧化碳抽到水塘里,水藻可以把它转化,因为水藻需要二氧化碳进行光合作用。”And there are other ideas.Indonesian researcher Dibyo Pranomo is a supporter of a fast-growing weed called jatropha. The seed is poisonous for humans. But it can be blended with gasoline or diesel fuel to make biofuel. Indonesia plans to have 10 million hectares of jatropha plantations by . And Air New Zealand will test a jet fuel made from jatropha later this year.Of course, the cheapest alternative to gasoline may be to avoid burning fuel at all. Chuck Wilsker leads the Telework Coalition, a nonprofit organization in Washington. It supports people who use technology - like computers and telephones - to work from someplace other than the office. 当然,最省钱的替代方法就是根本不用油。查克·维尔斯克是华盛顿一家非营利组织“远程上班联盟”的负责人。这个组织提倡人们利用电脑、电话等技术设备,在家上班,而不必到办公室去。Wilsker has an office on Capitol Hill, but he conducts almost all of his business at his home 40 kilometers away. He says some 30 million Americans telecommute at least part-time, and that the number could reach 50 million within the next few years. 维尔斯克本人在国会山有一个办公室,但是他几乎在40公里以外的家中处理所有业务。他说,大约三千万美国人至少有一部分时间是远程上班。他说,这个数字在未来几年内还会增加到五千万。According to Wilsker, telework is an international movement. 维尔斯克说,远程上班是一个国际潮流。"I have had calls from Israel, from people who were putting together telework groups," said Chuck Wilsker. "I had e-mails from Brazil, have had calls from France, have had calls from Finland - people around the world who are actually taking a look." 他说:“我曾经接到来自以色列的电话,那里的人们也在推动远程上班。我也收到过来自巴西的电子邮件,以及从法国和芬兰打来的电话。世界各处的人们实际上已经注意到了这个问题。”So the ultimate solution to the high cost of fuel may be a hybrid of new ways to power vehicles and innovative approaches to conserving fuel. 所以,最终解决高油价的方法可能是混合动力车,以及节油新途径。200809/48433Clinton Links McCain to Bush希拉里把麦凯恩和布什联系在一起 Former U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton is continuing her party's push to link Republican candidate John McCain with an unpopular President George Bush. President Bush says campaigning for November elections should not block action on offshore oil drilling or new free trade agreements. 曾经竞选美国总统候选人提名的希拉里.克林顿继续推动美国民主党的竞选策略,争取把共和党总统候选人约翰.麦凯恩和不得人心的总统布什联系在一起。布什总统说,11月大选的竞选活动不应该妨碍近海油田的钻探或批准新的自由贸易协定。Mr. Bush wants Congress to finish-up work on free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea. He says campaigning for presidential and legislative elections should not block action on expanding U.S. oil production. 布什希望国会完成与哥伦比亚、巴拿马以及韩国等国的自由贸易协定工作。他说,总统以及国会竞选不应该妨碍扩大美国石油生产的行动。"In the coming months, it will be tempting for some in Congress to try to score political points instead of getting work done for the American people. Our citizens deserve better," said President Bush. "We still have time to accomplish important goals for our country. My administration remains hopeful that we can work with Democratic leaders in Congress on bipartisan measures to help Americans cope with this period of economic uncertainty." 布什说:“在接下来几个月里,对国会某些人来说,争取在政治上得分比真正为美国人民办事更有诱惑力。我们的国民应该得到更好的务。我们仍然有时间为我们的国家完成重要的任务。我的政府认为仍然有希望与国会民主党人合作,找到两党都赞同的方式,帮助美国人民应对这一段经济不稳定的时间。”In his weekly radio address, the president again called on opposition lawmakers to lift a ban on more off-shore oil drilling and make permanent his record tax cuts. 布什在每周例行广播讲话中再次呼吁反对党议员解除进一步开采近海油田的禁令,并且将他执政时期创记录的减税政策永久化。Public opinion polls show less than one-third of Americans approve of the way the president is doing his job. Democrats hope to link the unpopular president with his party's nominee, especially as Mr. Bush is the featured speaker at Monday's opening of the Republican convention. 民意调查显示,不到三分之一的美国人对布什的执政方式表示赞同。民主党人希望把这位不受欢迎的总统与他所在的共和党的总统候选人联系起来,特别是布什将作为重要人物在共和党全国代表大会开幕式上发表讲话。White House spokeswoman Dana Perino says the president's remarks are not about the Bush administration but rather focus on McCain's qualifications for meeting the economic and security challenges ahead. 白宫发言人佩里诺说,布什总统讲话的重点不是谈论布什政府,而是说明麦凯恩具有应对经济和安全挑战的资格。"Do not expect this speech to define the president's legacy," she said. "This is not an opportunity to recap accomplishments of the past seven-and-a-half years. It will not serve as a farewell to the American people and it certainly will not attack Barack Obama." 她说:“不要期待这次讲话是对布什政府政绩的总结。这不是回顾过去7年半政绩的时候。这不是向美国人民告别的时机,当然也不会是对奥巴马进行攻击的时候。”In the Democratic radio address, New York Senator Hillary Clinton said the Republican convention in the Midwest state of Minnesota will continue Bush administration efforts to privatize federal retirement benefits and cut corporate taxes. 来自纽约州的美国联邦参议员希拉里.克林顿在民主党的广播讲话中说,在中西部的明尼苏达州举行的共和党代表大会会继续推行布什政府将联邦退休福利私有化以及为大公司减税的政策。"It makes perfect sense that George Bush and John McCain will be together next week in the Twin Cities for the Republican convention because these days they are awfully hard to tell apart," she said. "The choice in this election is as clear as the stakes are high." 她说:“乔治.布什和约翰.麦凯恩下星期会同时出现在双子城举行的共和党代表大会上,这很有道理,因为这些天里,很难将他们区分开来。在这场选举中,你的选择非常明确,利害攸关。”Clinton narrowly lost her party's nomination to Obama, who did not choose her as his running mate. Clinton, and her husband the former president, are urging their supporters to back Obama. 希拉里.克林顿以微弱差距被奥巴马击败,输掉了民主党的总统候选人提名。奥巴马也没有提名希拉里作为他的副总统竞选夥伴。希拉里和她的丈夫、前总统克林顿敦促他们的持者投票持奥巴马。McCain is hoping to win over many Clinton supporters, especially older women. He has chosen the Republican Party's first female vice presidential candidate - Alaska Governor Sarah Palin. 麦凯恩希望争取希拉里的众多持者,特别是年纪大的女性选民。他选择阿拉斯加州州长佩林作为竞选夥伴,佩林因此成为第一位获得共和党副总统提名的女性候选人。200808/47014Katie Couric: Neil Bernstein is a teen psychologist and author of "How to Keep Your Teenager Out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can't". And Dr. Marilyn Maxwell is a professor of Internal Medicine, and Paediatrics at St. Louis University, and co-author of "Questions Kids Ask about SEX; Honest Answers for Every Age. Katie Couric: Good morning to both of you,(Good morning.) nice to see you both. So, let me just review the statistics, 55% of boys between the ages of 15 and 19 and 54% of girls between those same ages have, are, reported getting or giving oral sex. And the numbers were slightly lower for intercourse among these respondents. You're not surprised, are you? Both: No Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: No, I m not surprised. In my clinical practice, it's a very common phenomenon in talking to kids and they take it so casually. Katie Couric: And and why do you think that's the case? Do you think it's because this notion of being obsessed with technical virginity, you know, or in other words, all the lectures about safe sex and STDs may have resulted in this, and staying away from intercourse? Neil Bernstein: Well, that's part of it. We may have inadvertently created a monster, because what a lot of the kids think is, well, going all the way might not be OK, but oral sex is an acceptable alternative. That's not necessarily the message we'd like them to have, but that's the way a lot of teens view that. We have to change the basic message. Katie Couric: And that one thing we have to remember is there are definite hazards, health hazards, and STDs can be contracted through oral sex. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Yes, a lot of teens don't understand that you can get certain sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea. Those can be contracted through oral sex. Katie Couric: And the other thing that we have talked about is that this is not reciprocal. This is mostly girls doing this to boys, and that brings out a whole different subject about girls being submissive, subservient, demeaned by this act and girls are struggling with this, I understand. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: They are. There is an emotional toll associated with oral sex. Katie Couric: Have...have you found that as well? Neil Bernstein: Yeah, I, sometimes it depends. Certainly girls are more casual, but you know a lot of girls unfortunately view it as a way out of a difficult situation and satisfied with them. Katie Couric: And some we talked to and Dr. Bernstein participated in my Teen and Sex special. They actually thought it is empowering in a weird way, and a way that they could actually have controlled over the situation . Neil Bernstein: Yeah, I know. I've got something he wants how sad to feel that way. Katie Couric: Well, I guess the big question parents are struggling with, myself included, is: how do you talk to your kids about this, how do you convince them? You know, it's such a generational thing too, because people of my generation think, I believe, most of them, I can't speak for my entire generation, that this is a more intimate act in many ways than intercourse and that. . . Obviously, everything has been turned on its ear, but how do you talk to your daughters in particular and say: listen, I don't want you engage in this kind of behavior. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: The most important thing is that you do talk, and you talk and you talk. And parents should be real and they should tell their children what they would like from them, and they should discuss relationships and intimacy. With oral sex there is a disconnect between intimacy and relationship and the sexual act. Neil Bernstein: Yeah, it's about values and that's really the job of a good parent to convey decent morals to their kids. And the other thing I would stress to young people is there really are no shortcuts to intimacy. You just can't achieve it in a few days no matter what you do and a lot of kids don't get that. And a lot of kids get hurt very quickly and rebound etc, etc. And these attitudes are shaped over the course of time. And then parents have to be aware of the power of peer pressure and a good relationship with your son and daughter counteracts that power of peer pressure, certainly negative influences of it. Katie Couric: So, certainly staying close to your kids in all areas of life, you know, you have to develop that connection to them. So, and also what about a little healthy fear? I always think that's helpful. Neil Bernstein: Uhhh....Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Katie. I agree with that. very complete for that.Katie Couric: No. I mean I stayed, I stayed pretty straight narrow because I was afraid of not only my parents' rough, not that they weren't great parents, but I was always so terrified of disappointing them. (Yeah)So, you do have to set high standard and make them fearful about when they go against these standards, don't you? Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Katie. I think that's so important what you said setting high standards. Some parents are fearful of telling kids what they want and the standards that they'd like them to have. So they need to enforce that...Katie Couric: They want to be their friends (Yes.)instead of a parental, you know, authority figure. Neil Bernstein: Yeah, but there's a difference between fear and guilt and there's some confusion about that. (Yeah.)Fear is what will happen to you; guilt is how you will make another person feel. Katie Couric: I think all those things should be (You know that...)considered even when they are making a distinction of that. Neil Bernstein: When I was a kid, they were telling us that if you masturbate, your hand would fall off.Katie Couric: Anyway, well, thank you so much for the advice. It's a tough subject to deal with in five minutes. But thanks so much for trying. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Thank you. 200807/44759US Secretary of State Visits India to Discuss Nuclear Accord赖斯访问印度磋商核协议 U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice is arriving in India to discuss the U.S.-India civilian nuclear agreement, which has received approval in the U.S Congress. India's communist parties, who oppose the deal, plan to hold protest demonstrations during the visit.美国国务卿赖斯前往印度,就美国与印度的民用核能合作协议与印方会谈。该协议已经获得美国国会批准。Secretary Rice will hold talks Saturday with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee on the civilian nuclear pact, which the U.S. Congress approved this week. 美国国务卿赖斯定于星期六同印度总理辛格和外长慕克吉就印美民用核协议举行会谈,美国国会本周批准了这项协议。The agreement ends a ban on sale of civilian nuclear technology and equipment to New Delhi, which was imposed in 1974 when India first conducted nuclear tests. India has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.该协议解除了不准向印度出售民用核技术和设备的禁令,这一禁令是1974年印度首次进行核试验之后开始实施的。印度一直没有签署《核不扩散条约》。Former Indian foreign secretary and former Indian ambassador to the ed States Lalit Mansingh says the pact represents a "big step forward" for India.印度前外交秘书和印度前驻美国大使曼辛格表示,该协议对印度来说是前进了“一大步”。"Its real significance lies in the fact that the entire key to unlocking the three-and-a-half decades of technological isolation, these keys were in the hands of the ed States," he said. "So, finally, the U.S. has come around to giving us the opening. Historically, it is very significant. Americans who took the leadership in imposing sanctions on India have finally helped India get out of it."曼辛格说:“它的真正意义在于,提供了打开35年技术封锁的全部钥匙,这些钥匙掌握在美国手中。所以,最终是美国转变了态度,给我们开禁。从历史上看,这非常重要。在制裁印度方面居主导地位的美国最终帮助印度解除禁令。”Mansingh says the pact will also enhance India's stature by allowing it to trade in civilian nuclear commerce, while retaining its nuclear weapons. "On the one hand, it enhances India's stature," he said. "On the other hand, it recognizes India's enhanced stature. India is getting into the higher league. India is going to be globally more active."U.S. Secretary Rice hailed the agreement Thursday, before departing for India. "It is an agreement that cements an effort that we've been making for some time to bring together the world's largest democracy with the world's oldest continuous democracy," she said. "And we believe that the relationship between the ed States and India is on a very firm footing, and that can only be good for democracy and it can only be good for the world."美国国务卿赖斯星期四在离开华盛顿前往印度之前赞扬了这一协议。赖斯说:“这项协议标志着我们的努力终获成效。我们在一段时间里一直在促进世界最大的民主国家与世界上持续时间最久的民主国家之间的合作。我们认为美国和印度之间的关系有非常坚实的基础。这对民主和整个世界来说都只能是有利的。”Both India and Washington have been building closer ties in recent years.印度和华盛顿最近几年来都在发展更密切的关系。However, Indian Communist parties continue to staunchly oppose the deal. They say the government has surrendered the country's sovereignty to U.S. imperialism, and plan to hold demonstrations on Saturday to protest the agreement. The largest opposition party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, also says the agreement is not in India's interests.The pact will effectively open a huge market worth billions of dollars to companies from Western countries to build civilian nuclear reactors in India.这项协议将有效地为西方公司打开一个价值数十亿美元的巨大的市场,在印度修建民用核反应堆。Earlier this week, India signed an atomic energy pact with France during a visit by the Indian prime minister to Paris. Companies from France, Russia and the ed States are expected to be on top of the list for engaging in nuclear commerce with India.本星期早些时候,在印度总理访问巴黎期间,印度与法国签署了一项核能协议。法国、俄罗斯和美国公司预计将是与印度从事核贸易的主要公司。200810/51631

Chinese Stocks Drop After Central Bank Raises Reserve Ratio中国央行准备金率创记录股市暴跌   Chinese stocks have dropped nearly eight percent after China's central bank announced it would raise the amount of cash banks must keep on hand to a record high. China has be