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郴州治疗男科疾病的医院郴州哪家医院男科好郴州人民医院包皮环切手术室在哪 Contemporary philosophy当代哲学Pump-primer“直觉泵”入门Tools for pondering imponderables用来思考难以解释的事物的工具Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.By Daniel Dennett.《思考的工具:直觉泵及其他》“THINKING is hard,” concedes Daniel Dennett. “Thinking about some problems is so hard that it can make your head ache just thinking about thinking about them.” Mr Dennett should know. A professor of philosophy at Tufts University, he has spent half a century pondering some of the knottiest problems around: the nature of meaning, the substance of minds and whether free will is possible. His latest book, “Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking”, is a precis of those 50 years, distilled into 77 able and mostly bite-sized chapters.丹尼尔·丹尼特承认:“思考是困难的。思考某些问题之难,几乎到了只要一想到要思考这些问题就会头疼的地步。”对此,丹尼特深有体会。作为塔夫斯大学的一名哲学教授,在过去半个世纪里,他一直在试图解开我们身边那些最难以解决的问题:语言含义的本质,人类心灵是由什么组成的以及自由意志是否可能等。日前,他把自己50年来的思考浓缩为77篇既有可读性又短小精悍的文章,汇集成册后取名为《思考的工具:直觉泵及其他》“Intuition pumps” are what Mr Dennett calls thought experiments that aim to get at the nub of concepts. He has devised plenty himself over the years, and shares some of them. But the aim of this book is not merely to show how the pumps work, but to deploy them to help ers think through some of the most profound conundrums.“直觉泵”是丹尼特用来称呼思想实验的一个词语。所谓思想实验就是一种意在探究概念核心内容的实验。在书中,他同读者一起分享了这些年来为自己所设计的许多此类实验。但是,他写作本书的目的不仅仅是要展示“直觉泵”的工作流程,更重要的是通过使用“直觉泵”,帮助读者去思考那些最深奥的难题。As an example, take the human mind. The time-honoured idea that the mind is essentially a little man, or homunculus, who sits in the brain doing clever things soon becomes problematic: who does all the clever things in the little mans brain? But Mr Dennett offers a way out of this infinite regress. Instead of a little man, what if the brain was a hierarchical system?下面,就让我们以“人类的心灵”为例来介绍一下丹尼特的“直觉泵”理论。传统的观点认为,从本质上说,心灵是一个住在人类大脑里从事智力活动小人,或者侏儒。不过,在丹尼特看来这种观点是站不住脚的:既然如此,那么,住在这个侏儒的大脑中,从事智力活动的人又是谁呢?对此,丹内特提供了一种走出此类无限回归的方法。在他看来,如果大脑不是一个侏儒,而是一个分级系统,情况会如何呢?This pump, which Mr Dennett calls a “cascade of homunculi”, was inspired by the field of artificial intelligence. An AI programmer begins by taking a problem a computer is meant to solve and breaking it down into smaller tasks, to be dealt with by particular subsystems. These, in turn, are composed of sub-subsystems, and so on. Crucially, at each level down in the cascade the virtual homunculi become a bit less clever, to a point where all it needs to do is, say, pick the larger of two numbers. Such homuncular functionalism replaces the infinite regress with a finite one that terminates at tasks so dull and simple that they can be done by machines.丹内特把这种泵称之为“级联侏儒”,其灵感自于人工智能领域。在人工智能领域,当一名程序员接受了一项准备交给计算机去解决的任务时,他首先会把这项任务分解为一些更小的任务,然后再把这些更小的任务交给一些特定的子系统去解决,而这些子系统又是由更小的子子系统组成的,以此类推。这一过程的关键在于,在这个串联在一起的每一个较低层次的子系统中,那个虚拟侏儒会渐渐地变得不再那么聪明,直至到达这样一个点为止。在这个点上,需要那个侏儒来做的全部事情就是在两个数字中选出较大的那一个。这样,这种侏儒技能主义就用有限回归代替了原来的无限回归,而这种有限回归能够在任务变得非常单调又非常简单以至于只需机器就可以完成的时候自动停止。Of course the AI system is designed from the top down, by an intelligent designer, to perform a specific task. But there is no reason why something similar couldnt be built up from the bottom. Start with nerve cells. They are certainly not conscious, at least in any interesting sense, and so invulnerable to further regress. Yet like the mindless single-cell organisms from which they have evolved, each is able to secure the energy and raw materials it needs to survive in the competitive environment of the brain. The nerve cells that thrive do so because they “network more effectively, contribute to more influential trends at the [higher] levels where large-scale human purposes and urges are discernible”.人工智能系统当然是由一位有智慧的设计师,为了完成某项特殊的任务,按照由上至下的原则设计出来的。既然如此,那么就没有理由不能按照从下至上的原则建造一个同样的系统。以神经细胞为例,这些细胞当然是没有意识的,他们几乎没有任何有趣的感觉,它们非常脆弱,再也经不起进一步的回归。然而,就像它们从中进化而来的、没有思维能力的单细胞器官一样,这些神经细胞中的每一个都具备获取所需的能量和原料的能力,这种能力确保它们能在互相竞争的大脑环境中生存下去。那些茁壮成长的神经细胞之所以这样做,是因为他们“串联在一起时的工作效率更高,对[更高]层次那些更有影响力的趋势做出了贡献,而这些更高的层次可以辨识大量的人类意识。”From this viewpoint, then, the human mind is not entirely unlike Deep Blue, the IBM computer that famously won a game of chess against Garry Kasparov, the world champion. The precise architecture of Mr Kasparovs brain certainly differs from Deep Blues. But it is still “a massively parallel search engine that has built up, over time, an outstanding array of heuristic pruning techniques that keep it from wasting time on unlikely branches”.由此来看,心灵并不是完全不同于“深蓝”的东西。“深蓝”是由IBM公司设计建造的一台计算机,它因在一场比赛中战胜了国际象棋世界冠军加里·卡斯帕罗夫而名噪一时。卡斯帕罗夫大脑的精确架构肯定有别于“深蓝”。不过,即便如此,“深蓝”的大脑仍旧是“人类到目前为止按照启发式剪枝技术阵列而建造的一台能够进行大规模并行运算的搜索引擎,启发式剪枝技术阵列是一种先进的技术,它能够让搜索引擎不把时间浪费在不可能的选择之上。“Those who insist Deep Blue and Mr Kasparovs mind must surely be substantially different will balk at this. They may well be right. But the burden of proof, Mr Dennett argues, is on them, for they are in effect claiming that the human mind is made up of “wonder tissue” with miraculous, mind-moulding properties that are, even in principle, beyond the reach of science—an old-fashioned homunculus in all but name.读到此处,那些坚持“深蓝”与卡斯帕罗夫的心灵一定是由不同物质构成的人定会咆哮不已。他们也许是对的。但是,丹内特指出,如果如此的话,那么明这一理论的重担就落在了这些人的身上。这是因为,他们的观点实际上是在宣称,人类心灵是由具有不可思议的、能够影响心灵的性能的“非同一般的组织”所组成的。但是,从理论上来说,这些组织已经超出了科学的认知范畴—实际上,它们不过是一种已经过时的侏儒而已。Mr Dennetts book is not a definitive solution to such mind-benders; it is philosophy in action. Like all good philosophy, it works by getting the er to examine deeply held but unspoken beliefs about some of our most fundamental concerns, like personal autonomy. It is not an easy : expect to pore over some passages more than once. But given the intellectual gratification Mr Dennetts clear, witty and mercifully jargon-free prose affords, that is a feature, not a bug.丹内特的书并不是对此类让头脑发晕的问题的终极。相反,他的书是对此类问题的终极思考。这就如同那些有意义的终极思考一样,该书通过让读者对那些深藏于我们内心却又无法言说的信念进行检讨,从而达到自己的目的。这不是一本容易读懂的书。因此,我们希望读者在阅读某些篇章时多读几遍。不过,考虑到丹内特那种明晰、诙谐以及充分为读者考虑而不使用术语的文风所带来的智力上的满足,多读几遍才能读懂正是本书的一大特色,而不是一个瑕疵。 /201404/289596郴州阳痿医院哪个比较好

资兴市人民中妇幼保健医院有泌尿科吗The People’s Bank of China lifted restrictions on commercial interest rates, leaving lenders free to set the price of credit for the first time. By removing the floor on rates, previously set at 70% of the central bank’s benchmark interest rate, officials hope to increase competition among banks and spur lending to private companies.中国人民全面放开贷款利率管制。首次允许金融机构自行设定贷款利率。取消金融机构贷款利率0.7倍下限,官方希望增加间的竞争力,刺激贷款流向私企。The EU’s controversial Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive came into force. The AIFMD, which will be phased in over a year, aims to change the way hedge funds, buy-out firms and other alternative-investment companies in Europe deal with risk, market their funds and pay staff. The industry fears that the new rules will serve mainly to raise costs to investors.欧盟富有争议的另类投资基金经理指令生效。此指令会在一年多的时间里逐渐施行,目的在于改变对冲基金,收购公司和其他另类投资公司在欧洲风险管理,规范自己基金以及员工工资的方式。欧洲金融业害怕新规则会增加投资者的花费。The Financial Stability Board, which co-ordinates financial regulation for the G20, named nine insurers, including Allianz, MetLife and Prudential, as “systemically important”. The designation, hitherto reserved for big banks, entails closer regulatory scrutiny and higher capital requirements. The insurers argue that lumping them with lenders is unfair because of their fundamentally different risk profiles.协调G20金融管理的金融稳定委员会指名包括安联,大都会人寿和保诚集团在内的9个保险公司具有系统重要性。这个称号,迄今为止只有有,现在则意味着监管更加严格,资金要求更高。保险公司辩解道,将他们同相提并论对他们不公平,因为他们本质上截然不同的风险形象。The G20 endorsed a roadmap drawn up by the OECD, a rich-country club, for reforming the current patchwork of cross-border tax rules and treaties. Its 15 proposals should make it harder for companies to exploit the existing system’s many loopholes.G20签署了一个经合组织规划的路线图,经合组织是一个富国俱乐部,该路线图是为了改革现有拼凑起来的边境税规则。该路线图的15项提议会使得公司钻现有制度的空子变得困难。America’s Securities and Exchange Commission charged Steven Cohen in a probe centred on his hedge fund, SAC Capital. The SEC did not accuse Mr Cohen directly of insider trading, but filed a civil suit against him for failing “reasonably to supervise” two underlings, who now await criminal trial for it. SAC vowed to fight the charge.美国券交易委员会控告赛科资本的Steven Cohen,并对其对冲基金展开调查。券交易委员会并没有直接起诉Mr Cohen内幕交易,而是因其没能有效监督两位即将面临牢狱之灾的下属而对其提起民事诉讼。赛克资本说要应对诉讼。A federal appeals court upheld a verdict reached last year by a jury in Texas to invalidate two patents covering some of the internet’s basic interactive features. This put an end to a protracted legal battle which pitted a clutch of big web firms, including Amazon and Google, against the patents’ owner, Eolas Technologies, which was seeking damages of at least 0m.联邦上诉法庭对去年德州一名法官对两个涉及互联网基础交互的专利侵权宣告无效的判决予以肯定。这宣告了陷入官司的包括亚马逊和谷歌在内的网络巨头们同原告,即专利的拥有者Eolas Technologies的纠纷结束。Eolas Technologies公司索要至少6亿美元的赔偿。Yahoo said it will buy back 40m shares, valued at .2 billion, from Third Point, a hedge fund headed by Daniel Loeb. Shares in the internet giant have almost doubled in value since the activist investor helped to boot out Scott Thompson and install Marissa Mayer as boss a year ago. Third Point will keep a stake of less than 2% in Yahoo, worth around 0m, but Mr Loeb and two directors he nominated will leave the board.雅虎宣告要从Daniel Loeb领导的对冲基金Third Point回购4000万股股票,价值12亿美元。自从一年前维权投资者帮着解雇掉Scott Thompson,任命Marissa Mayer当老板以来,雅虎这一网络巨头的股价已经翻了一番。Third Point将持有雅虎不到2%的股份,价值5亿美元左右,但是Mr Loeb和他任命的两个主管将离开董事会。Michael Dell and Silver Lake Partners, a private-equity firm, raised their offer for the computer-maker Mr Dell founded by 10 cents, to .75 a share. A vote by Dell shareholders on whether to accept the buy-out bid, currently valued at .4 billion, was postponed for the second time.迈克尔·戴尔和私募公司银湖资本向戴尔公司提出收购提案。该电脑公司由戴尔先生创立,股价从每股10分增加到了现在的每股13.75美元。戴尔股东关于此次收购的投票再次推迟,此次收购金额达244亿美元。Apple made a profit of .9 billion in the second quarter, down from .8 billion last year but higher than many analysts had expected, thanks to soaring demand for iPhones. The gadget-maker shifted 31.2m smartphones in the three months to June, 5.2m more than a year ago. Sales of its tablet computers, though, were disappointing: only 14.6m iPads were sold between April and June, down from 17m last year.苹果第二季度利润达69亿美元,与去年同期的88亿美元相比有所下降,但高于很多分析师的预期。这得归功于iphone的强烈需求。该公司四到六月智能手机的销售量为3120万,比去年多520万。然而,其平板电脑的销售量则令人失望,同期只卖出了1460万台,相比去年的1700万有所下降。EasyJet flew 16.4m passengers in the three months to June, up 2.6% on last year. The budget airline’s revenue grew by 10.5% in the second quarter, to £1.14 billion (.75 billion), as frugal consumers snapped up cheap holiday flights well in advance.易捷航空二季度运送旅客达1640万人次,与去年同期相比增加了2.6%。由于节俭的旅客提前抢订假期机票,其二季度应收增加了10.5%,达到了11.4亿英镑,也就是17.5亿美元.SAP announced that it will not replace Jim Hagemann Snabe, one of its two joint chief executives, when he moves to the supervisory board in May 2014. That will leave Bill McDermott, an American, alone at the helm of the German software giant.SAP公司宣布在Jim Hagemann Snabe于2014年五月调任到监事会后,将不会有人接任其首席执行官的职务。这意味着美国人Bill McDermott将会自己掌控德国软件巨头。Caterpillar’s second-quarter sales fell to .6 billion, from .3 billion a year earlier, and profits sank by 43%, to 0m. The world’s biggest maker of earth-moving equipment benefited from a decade of insatiable demand for diggers in places like China but feels the pinch as growth in emerging markets slows.卡特皮勒二季度销售额从去年同期的173亿美元下降到了今年的146亿,利润也减少了43%,只有9.6亿美元。这个世界上最大的土方挖掘机械公司在受益于像中国这种地方对挖掘机的猛烈需求之后感到了新兴市场增长的放缓。Bentley Motors announced that it would invest £800m (.2 billion) in its factory in Crewe. The high-end carmaker, based in Britain but owned by Germany’s Volkswagen, plans to expand the plant to build its first sport-utility vehicle, which it says will be the “most luxurious and most powerful”, and probably most expensive, in the world.宾利汽车宣布将在其克鲁郡的工厂增加8亿英镑(12亿美元)的投资。这个高端汽车生产商位于英国,但是隶属于德国的大众,计划扩建工厂开发第一款SUV,这会是世界上最奢华动力最强劲,可能也是最贵的汽车。Mark Carney, the Bank of England’s Canadian governor, picked Jane Austen, the inventor of chick lit, as the next face to appear on the back of new £10 notes.英格兰的加拿大主管Mark Carney选了小妞文学的创造者,简奥斯丁作为新的10英镑的背面图案。201308/251079郴州市治疗性功能障碍哪家医院最好 Stretching and toning are certainly important, but their benefitsare different from that of aerobic exercise.伸展和拉伸显然很重要,但是,对身体的益处有别于有氧运动。Surprisingly,aerobic exercise isnt just beneficial to your heart, it alsosharpens your mind.意想不到的是有氧运动不仅仅有益身心,还能灵活大脑。You dont have to be a jock to enjoy the brain benefits of aerobic exercise.享受有氧运动对于大脑健康的福利,并不一定要向运动员般剧烈运动。Moderateaerobic exercise is plenty.适度有氧运动就获益颇多了。Several studies involving older adultsdemonstrated that simply walking a mile or so three times a week,increases blood flow in the brainand strengthens connections between neurons, resulting in improved mental performance ontasks requiring attention.一些有关老年人的研究实,只需每周三次散步一英里左右就能促进大脑血液循环;增强神经元间的“互动”,提高注意力,从而提升智力。One of the studies divided a group of seniors into two different six-month exercise coursesonecourse consisting of aerobic exercise,the other consisting of stretching and toning.一项研究将老人们分为两组:一组做有氧运动;另一组做伸展和无氧拉伸半年的时间。Again, werenot talking about marathon-training here.但是,运动量都是适度的而非马拉松式。The aerobic-training course gradually built itsparticipants up to walking 45 minutes at a moderate pace three times a week.有氧运动组让老人们养成了每周三次45分钟正常步伐走路。At the end of the course, the people who completed the aerobic training showed significantimprovements in attention-related mental tasks.有氧运动训练完后,参加者在注意力相关的智能测试有显著提升。The stretching and toning group showed littleimprovement.而后一组受训前后并无明显差异。 201405/295948郴州割包皮哪个医院最好

湖南省郴州泌尿外科 Most distinctive at the parks prominent domes of granite, 在公园里最有特色的是突出的穹顶花岗岩,whether in chemical erode the domes in layers, 无论是在化学侵蚀穹顶层,like the skin of an onion, making ideal retreats for the parks local rock residents.就像洋葱的皮肤,为当地居民提供了理想的休息场所。The biggest of them all is called Moon Rock.其中最大的被称为月球岩石。So Ive come from all the way over there beyond these mountains, and follow the river, snaking through here to Moon Rock, and what you can make out just there. 所以我跋山涉水来到那里,越过这些山脉,沿着河走,蜿蜒穿过月球岩石,你到达后会有惊奇的发现。Its Riemvasmaak Gorge which cause all the way to that point. 这是莱马萨克·乔治到达的地方。Then everything on the south, those flashes of green.然后南方的一切,那些都闪烁着绿色的光辉。201310/261995郴州桂东县人民医院妇幼保健阳痿早泄价格郴州市治疗前列腺增生最好的医院

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