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2019年09月23日 19:26:30 | 作者:58门户 | 来源:新华社
The 11,700-year-old Holocene epoch is over. We#39;re now living in the Anthropocene epoch.长达11700年的全新世结束啦。我们如今正生活在“人类世”纪元。You don’t need to be paying much attention to the world around you to know that humans are having a massive influence on the planet, but our influence is now on the way to being officially recognised in geologic terms.无需劳神费力,我们都能感受到人类对地球产生的巨大影响。如今,地质学界打算用地质术语来确认这些影响。The 11,700-year-old geological Holocene epoch has ended, scientists say, and we’re now living in the Anthropocene: an era defined by humanity’s influence on the world around us.科学家表示,长达11700年的全新世已结束,我们现在正生活在“人类世”:即人类活动对地球施加影响的时代。In fact, unless you’re over the age of 66, you’ve always been living in it. A 35-strong team of international researchers from the Working Group on the Anthropocene voted 30-3 (two were absent) in favour of the epoch shift, and the starting date is 1950.事实上,66岁以下的人自出生起就生活在这个纪元了。一由35位国际顶尖研究者组成的“人类世”工作小组开展了纪元更变与否的投票,投票结果以30比3(有两位研究人员缺席)的压倒性优势宣布地质纪元进入“人类世”,并将开始时间确定为1950年。The date isn’t random: it matches when the first nuclear tests created a new stratum in the planet’s surface.这个日期可不是随便定的:它与首批核试验对地质表面造成影响的时间相符。Actually, it won’t necessarily be nuclear tests that ended the Holocene. Humanity’s impact on the planet is so great that we’re left “spoiled for choice” in terms of which particular signal to choose.实际上,核试验并非结束全新世的唯一必要条件。人类活动对地球的影响是如此深刻,可供选择的因素简直多到让人“眼花缭乱”,很难定夺到底哪一因素起了决定性作用。Plastic pollution, soot from power plants, concrete and even domestic chicken bones were considered possible contenders.塑料污染,发电厂煤烟,钢筋混泥土,甚至是家养鸡的骨头都被列入可能的影响因素。“The radionuclides are probably the sharpest – they really come on with a bang,” said the Working Group’s chair Jan Zalasiewicz, of the University of Leicester. “But we are spoiled for choice. There are so many signals.”工作组主席、莱斯特大学的简#8226;扎拉斯维奇表示:“放射性核素大概是这其中最厉害的一个因素—— 放射性核素真是伴随着‘砰’声来临,但是可供选择的因素太多了,许多因素都对地质产生了巨大影响。”Now that the vote has been done, we’ll see a few years of site sampling to figure out the best Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA) to date the start of the Anthropocene, which will then be presented to the International Commission on Stratigraphy.纪元变更的投票结束后,工作组在未来几年会利用现场勘测数据计算出最佳的全球标准低层年龄(GSSA),并确定“人类世”的开始日期,届时会把研究结果呈递国际地层委员会。It will then need ratification from the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences.随后还需要国际地质科学联合会的执行委员会正式认可研究结果。So it’s not official yet, but Zalasiewicz believes the team has a “pretty good case” to present.所以现在官方其实还未正式承认人类世的开始,但扎拉斯维奇相信他的团队递交的案例非常棒。“The significance of the Anthropocene is that it sets a different trajectory for the Earth system, of which we of course are part,” he explained.他解释说:“‘人类世’的意义在于,它让地球体系步入了一个与众不同的轨道,在这个新纪元里,人类也参与其中。”“If our recommendation is accepted, the Anthropocene will have started just a little before I was born. We have lived most of our lives in something called the Anthropocene and are just realising the scale and permanence of the change.”“如果我们的提议通过审核,‘人类世’在我出生前不久就开始了。我们大半辈子都生活在‘人类世’中,而且刚意识到地质纪元变更的规模和持久性。”In other words, geologically at least, there will be no denying the influence mankind has had on the planet. And it’s a hard one to put a positive spin upon, no matter how you frame it.换句话来说,至少从地理的角度看,我们将无法否认人类对地球造成的影响。而且无论我们如何定义都很难将这个影响扭转成正面影响。 /201609/466794What#39;s the smart buy for a smartphone this summer? The choices are better than ever.夏天到了,哪款智能手机值得拥有呢?今年可选择的手机的品质要远胜以往。As smartphone shipment growth ebbs, sales of large models— the so-called phablets— are expected to be brisk, seeing double-digit growth over the next several years, according to market researcher IDC. Not surprisingly, topping our list is a large smartphone. Here#39;s a brief roundup of the hottest smartphones to consider this summer.市场研究机构IDC表示,智能手机的出货量增长放缓,大号智能手机,即所谓的平板手机的销量在未来几年中有望实现两位数的增长。在此背景下,平板手机荣登本榜榜首便不足为奇了。下面本文将对今夏几款大热机型进行盘点:1.Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge: Best premier smartphone1.最佳首发手机:三星Galaxy S7 EdgeThis is the high-end smartphone to beat this summer. If it was strictly a design race between Samsung and Apple, Samsung would be the easy winner. The South Korean giant#39;s Super AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) 5.5-inch display has curves on two sides, resulting in a stunning design. It has a practical side too: the wrap-around display delivers added real estate for ;edge; apps. The S7 Edge also has one of the best cameras going and the best battery life yet for a high-end Galaxy model.在这款高端手机面前,炎炎夏日似乎也失去了热度。如果苹果和三星进行一场设计竞赛,三星将轻松胜出。这家韩国巨头的超炫屏屏幕的大小为5.5英寸,使用的材料的是超级有源矩阵发光二极体面板,边缘采用双曲面设计,整体效果令人炫目。这款手机屏幕的实际使用效果也相当不错:环绕式处理技术令屏幕边缘的应用程序也有了展示的空间。S7 Edge配备了最好的摄像镜头,电池寿命在高端Galaxy系列中也是最长的。A blow-by-blow comparison with iPhone 6s Plus yields a bunch of upsides, including 4GB of RAM (vs 2GB on the iPhone), wireless charging, and a microSD slot for upgrading the standard 32GB storage with, for instance, a 128GB microSD card that can also be configured with dual SIM cards.如果把iPhone 6s和G7 Edge放在一起进行详细比较,后者的优点非常突出:G7 Edge的随机存取存储器容量达到4GB(而6s的这一数据为2GB);具备无线充电功能;手机内存为32GB,可插入128GB的SD卡进行拓展。The only downsides are fingerprint smears and Samsung#39;s user interface – but the latter is vastly improved over previous versions. Retail pricing typically starts at between 750 dollars and 790 dollars at major carriers.这款手机仅有的缺点是指纹识别系统和三星人机互动界面的设计--但是后者的性能在近几个版本中有了极大的提升。大型运营商处为这款手机提供的零售价在750美元到790美元之间。2.iPhone 6s: Best mainstream phone2.最佳主流手机:iPhone 6sApple still has a lock on the mid-range, mainstream smartphone. The 4.7-inch iPhone 6s has a stiffer chassis than the iPhone 6, excellent front and rear cameras, a novel ;3D Touch; pressure-sensitive display for previewing messages, photos, and related links, and the new A9 processor makes everything very snappy. But let#39;s face the facts: While Apple makes great, high-quality hardware, many consumers choose iPhones primarily because they know they#39;re buying into probably the greatest selection of apps in the world. It starts at 649 dollars.苹果仍然牢牢把持着中等尺寸和主流智能手机市场。4.7英寸屏幕的iPhone 6s的底盘比iPhone6的更加结实,前置和后置摄像头性能良好,屏幕配备了新奇的;3D触摸;压力传感器和A9处理器,人们在浏览信息、照片和相关链接时会觉得非常顺畅。然而事实却摆在眼前:虽然苹果手机配备的硬件质量极好,但是许多消费者选择苹果的原因在于,他们清楚苹果能为自己带来世上最好的手机应用。iPhone 6s售价为649美元。3.Nexus 6P: Best pure Android phone3.最佳原生安卓手机:Nexus 6PThe Nexus brand has a following that, while a lot smaller, is not that unlike the iPhone#39;s following. That#39;s because Nexus phones maintain high standards, are designed in conjunction with Google, and made by world-class phone suppliers. Huawei— the third-largest global smartphone manufacturer behind Samsung and Apple according to IDC— now makes the best Nexus phone. Those specs include an excellent (and extra-large) 5.7-inch very-high-resolution AMOLED display, a good 12-megapixel camera, 3GB of RAM, and a Qualcomm Snapdragon 810 processor. The only notable downsides are a sometimes less-than-snappy camera experience and unneeded bulk in the chassis. But the best part is the cost, with a manufacturer#39;s suggested retail price of 499 dollars. But the 6P can often be found for under 450 dollars at retailers and even under 400 dollars at some stores.Nexus品牌系列手机的规模虽不比苹果,但在质量上却不遑多让。Nexus出产的手机一向质量上佳,不仅Google鼎力持,世界级的手机供应商亦为其保驾护航。据IDC称,位列三星和苹果之后的第三大智能手机生产商华为生产的Nexus手机品质最佳。这款手机的屏幕尺寸达到了5.7英寸(又是超大屏幕),使用的材料是有超高分辨率的有源矩阵发光二极管面板,其他硬件还包括1200万像素的摄像头,3GB的随机存取存储器和高通Snapdragon 810处理器。拍照反应较慢,底盘进行加重处理是该机型较为显著的缺点。Nexus最吸引人的是价格,其建议零售价仅为499美元,而一些零售商给出的价格仅为450美元,在一些门店更是低至400美元。4.LG G5: Best modular phone4.最佳模块化智能手机:LG G5Though overshadowed by Samsung, the smaller South Korean phone supplier has come up with a pretty radical smartphone. The killer feature for the 5.3-inch phone is modularity. By pressing a button, the bottom of the phone slides out, which allows you to not only swap in a fresh battery but add upgrade modules too. And the camera is different too. The LG G5 has both 8- and 16-megapixel sensors on the back, located on either side of the LED flash. The secondary 8MP sensor allows wide-angle shots. At retail, it ranges between 575 dollars and 625 dollars.笼罩在三星阴影之下的LG最近终于推出了一款颠覆性的智能手机。这款屏幕尺寸为5.3英寸的机型的最大卖点在于其模块化的手机结构。按下相应按键,手机底部会自动滑出,不仅可以更换电池,也可以装载其他升级模块。LG G5的摄像头也与众不同,在手机背面有两个分列于LED闪光灯两侧的传感器,像素分别达到8001600万,而800万像素的传感器赋予了手机广角拍摄的功能。这款手机的零售价在575美元和625美元之间。5.iPhone SE: Best small phone5.最佳小型智能手机:iPhone SEThe 4-inch SE is the best deal Apple has ever offered on a new iPhone: It#39;s not only the cheapest iPhone, but has cutting-edge internals. This is a more advanced phone internally than the iPhone 6 or iPhone 6 Plus, and is on par with the iPhone 6s/6s Plus. And it has the same great rear-facing 12-megapixel camera of the 6s, with better battery life than both the 6 and 6s. The iPhone SE also excels at one-handed operation. It#39;s a cinch to do all sorts of things: thumb-scrolling, photo-taking, typing. The SE is also more pocketable than, let#39;s say, the large 5.5-inch 6s Plus. The icing on the cake is the price: it starts at 399 dollars for a 16GB version and 499 dollars for 64GB.屏幕大小仅为4英寸的iPhone SE是苹果公司出产过的最好的新手机。该机型是史上卖得最便宜的iPhone,内在配置也走在时代前沿。其配置令iPhone6和iPhone6 Plus相形见绌,与iPhone6s和iPhone6s Plus可谓旗鼓相当,1200万像素后置摄像头的配置与iPhone 6s相同,电池寿命却优于iPhone6和6s。iPhone SE的单手操作体验同样非常流畅,使用者能够非常轻松地用大拇指浏览网页,拍照,打字。相比5.5英寸的iPhone6s Plus,iPhone SE携带起来更加方便,价格更是该机型的加分项:16GB版本的售价仅为399美元,64GB版本的售价也仅需499美元。 /201607/452943China’s government has proposed strict new limits on car hailing apps’ use of migrants as drivers in major cities, in a blow to Didi Chuxing and potentially to other Chinese internet groups.中国政府针对网约车务在大城市使用外来务工人员作为驾驶员提议了严格的新限制,此举打击了滴滴出行(Didi Chuxing),潜在还将打击中国其他互联网集团。Migrants from rural China have fuelled the business models of some of the country’s largest internet companies including Alibaba, Meituan-Dianping, as well as Didi Chuxing. 来自中国农村及小城镇的务工人员一直推动中国一些最大的互联网公司的商业模式,包括阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、美团点评(Meituan-Dianping)以及滴滴出行。They all rely on low-paid drivers and couriers to provide services such as ecommerce, ride hailing and food delivery. 它们都依靠低薪的司机和快递员提供电子商务、网约车和送餐等务。Thanks to the proliferation of cheap online-to-offline offerings, Chinese smartphone users can order virtually any service delivered to their door, from taxis to takeout food, and this has helped drive rapid adoption of the mobile internet in China.得益于廉价线上到线下(O2O)务的大量涌现,中国智能手机用户可以订购几乎任何送货上门的务,从出租车到外卖食品,这帮助推动了中国移动互联网的快速普及。But that practice has clashed with the central government’s recent efforts to limit urban migration. 但这种做法与中央政府最近限制城市移民的努力存在抵触。A new set of draft laws rolled out in China’s top-tier cities would require all drivers for car-hailing services to have a residency permit — known as a hukou — in the city where they drive.中国一线城市出台的一套新的法律草案将要求网约车务的所有驾驶员拥有本地户口。Didi has publicly called for a rethink of the regulations, saying the current draft will force the majority of cars and drivers currently serving the public on Didi Chuxing to quit. 滴滴公开呼吁重新思考这些规定,称目前的草案将使得绝大多数滴滴平台上目前务老百姓的车辆和司机被迫退出。The new rules would decimate the ranks of the more than 15m drivers currently registered on Didi and could presage similar limitations on migrants working for other internet industries.新规则将使目前在滴滴注册的1500多万驾驶员大批失去资格,并且可能预示在其他互联网行业打工的外来务工人员面临类似限制。Pang Kun, a lawyer based in Guangdong province who focuses on public interest and labour-related issues in China, says: The internet service industry as a whole relies heavily on migrant workers. 专注于中国公共利益和劳工问题的广东省律师庞琨表示:互联网务业整体上严重依赖外来务工人员。In Shenzhen, for example, more than 90 per cent of workers in such service industries are non-local migrant workers, he says.他表示,以深圳为例,此类务行业90%以上的劳动者是非本地的外来务工人员。So far the transport bureau in Beijing has refused to budge. 到目前为止,北京市交通委员会拒绝通融。It has said the new rules are intended to target what it calls urban diseases. 它表示,新规则旨在解决它所称的城市病。It cited disorderly and rapid increase of population and increased traffic congestion.它提到人口无序过快增长和交通拥堵加剧。Some analysts argue that serious amendments are unlikely. 一些分析人士认为,不太可能进行认真的修正。The central government is behind the new rules and they are serious about this, said one adviser to Didi Chuxing, China’s largest ride hailing app, which is set to be most affected by the new rules.中央政府是这些新规则的幕后推手,他们对这件事是当真的,滴滴出行的一位顾问表示。这家中国最大网约车务势必是受新规则影响最严重的。But China’s premier Li Keqiang muddied the picture late on Thursday by indicating that Beijing might be flexible in its approach to the rules. 但是,中国总理李克强在近日暗示北京方面可能灵活对待此类规则,这使整个局面更加模糊。China would listen to the views of all parties about rules governing the market, Mr Li told tech leaders at a meeting in the southern city of Shenzhen.李克强在华南城市深圳的一个会议上对科技行业领袖们表示,政府在市场规则上将听取各方面的意见。If implemented as is, the new rules would most likely hamper plans by Didi Chuxing for an initial public offering planned for as early as next year. 如果现有版本的规则付诸执行,新规则将很可能阻碍滴滴出行计划最早在明年就进行的首次公开发行(IPO)。Didi values itself at bn after buying the China operations of Uber in a deal in August that left the San Francisco-based company and its investors with a 20 per cent stake in its Chinese rival.滴滴在8月份收购优步(Uber)的中国业务后估值达到350亿美元,那笔交易使总部位于旧金山的优步及其投资者拥有滴滴20%的股份。Wang Jun, a professor at the China University of Political Science and Law, says the new rules are in line with the central government’s efforts to limit the growth of population in major cities. 中国政法大学教授王军表示,新规则与中央政府限制主要城市人口增长的努力相符。But if the goal is to limit migrant population in Beijing or Shanghai, why is the car-hailing industry the only one that’s receiving such treatment when many industries out there also have non-local workers?但如果目标是限制北京或上海的流动人口,那为什么网约车行业是唯一受到这种对待的行业,而其他许多行业也有非本地的劳动者? /201610/472493

In recent weeks, Yemen’s Houthi rebels have fired volleys of what are widely thought to be the Chinese-designed C-801 or C-802A anti-ship missiles at US warships in the Gulf of Aden.近几周,也门胡塞(Houthi)叛军向亚丁湾的美国军舰发动了炮火攻击,各方普遍认为,他们使用的是中国设计的C-801或C-802A反舰导弹。While no American vessel has been hit, one missile damaged a high-speed ferry operated by the ed Arab Emirates. No casualties have been reported.虽然没有美国船只被击中,但阿联酋一艘快速运输船被一枚导弹毁损,所幸没有人员伤亡报告。With Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen contributing to a humanitarian crisis and thousands aly dead, the Obama administration and other western governments are under pressure to halt arms sales to Riyadh.以沙特为首针对也门发起的空袭已造成数千人丧生,引发了一场人道主义危机,奥巴马(Obama)政府及其他西方政府受到了停止向利雅得出售武器的压力。Meanwhile, Chinese arms are playing an increasing role in the conflict. 与此同时,中国武器在这场冲突中派上了越来越大的用场。The missile attacks off Yemen have raised the profile of a new generation of Chinese strategic weapons, many of which are being used in combat for the first time in dirty wars throughout the Middle East and Africa.从也门方向发起的导弹攻击提升了中国新一代战略武器的名气——在中东和非洲各地的肮脏战争中,许多中国新式武器首次被用于战斗。While low-tech hardware such as the Type-56 assault rifle, a variant of the Russian AK-47, have been widely used for decades, the Middle East is becoming the proving ground for a new generation of advanced Chinese weapons such as missiles, aircraft and drones. 几十年来,诸如56式突击步(苏联AK-47突击步的中国仿制版)等低技术含量的中国武器就已被广泛使用,但目前中东正成为中国新一代先进武器如导弹、飞机和无人机等的试验场。The Chinese and many other navies would be quite impressed with the amount of destruction [the anti-ship missile] caused on the high-speed ferry, said Rick Fisher, senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center in Washington. 华盛顿国际评估和战略中心(International Strategy and Assessment Center)高级研究员里克.费舍尔(Rick Fisher)表示,And this is only the beginning of a greater use of Chinese weapons in the Middle East and elsewhere.中国及其他多国海军将会对那艘(被反舰导弹击中的)快速运输船的毁损程度感到印象深刻,而这只是开始,中国武器在中东及其他地区将得到越来越广泛的使用。In the five years to 2015, China overtook Germany to become the world’s third-largest arms trader as arms exports rose 143 per cent, according to data compiled by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 根据斯德哥尔国际和平研究所(Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)汇编数据,在截至2015年的五年里,中国超过德国成为全球第三大武器贸易国,期间其武器出口增长了143%。The US remains the biggest arms exporter.美国仍是最大武器出口国。The attack on the US warships was good advertising, said Col Yue Gang, a retired officer in the People’s Liberation Army. 中国人民解放军(PLA)退役上校岳刚表示,这次美国军舰遭受到的攻击是很好的广告。The China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation, which makes the missiles, declined to comment.制造这些导弹的中国航天科工集团公司(CASIC)对此不予置评。Gary Li, a Beijing-based consultant for APCO Worldwide, said Chinese arms makers had become used to seeing their weapons on YouTube s or TV news. 安可顾问公司(APCO Worldwide)驻北京的Gary Li表示,中国武器制造商已渐渐习惯在YouTube或电视新闻上看到他们的武器。The only way Chinese weapons can be tested in combat is in regional small wars, he said. 他说:中国武器获得实战检验的唯一途径是在地区性小规模战争中。If the weapons work, it’s a great advertisement. 如果这些武器管用,就是很棒的广告。If they don’t, this can be blamed on local operators. 如果没有,就可以归咎于当地战斗人员。This is something all arms manufacturers do. 所有武器制造商都这么干。The very fact Chinese kit is starting to appear in conflicts around the world is good publicity for them.中国武器开始在世界各地的冲突中亮相,这本身就能起到很好的宣传效果。Until now, China’s largest arms client has been Pakistan, which has used drones and a jointly produced fighter aircraft, the J-17, against Islamist militants in South Waziristan. 到目前为止,巴基斯坦一直是中国出口武器的最大客户。在对南瓦济里斯坦(South Waziristan)伊斯兰武装分子的打击中,巴方使用了无人机和中巴联合生产的JF-17战斗机(中国称为枭龙,代号FC-1——译者注)。One attraction for Islamabad is reliability of supply. 对伊斯兰堡来说,中国武器的一个优点是供应的可靠性。This year alone, the US Congress cancelled 0m in subsidies for the purchase by Islamabad of eight F-16s, saying Pakistan had not done enough to fight militants. 仅在今年,美国国会就取消了为巴基斯坦购买8架F-16战机提供4.3亿美元补贴,理由是巴基斯坦没有采取足够有力的措施打击武装分子。The US has a congress but China doesn’t, said a senior Pakistani official. 美国有个国会,中国没有,一名巴基斯坦高官表示,The Chinese don’t interfere in other people’s internal affairs as the Americans do. 中国不干涉别国内政,但美国喜欢这样做。What good is American technology if they pull the rug from under your feet unexpectedly?美国技术有什么好的?——如果他们会出其不意给你来个釜底抽薪的话。China has not signed the 2014 Arms Trade Treaty, which supposedly limits transfer of arms to governments that could use them for war crimes. 中国目前没有签署联合国2014年生效的《武器贸易条约》(Arms Trade Treaty),该条约限制向可能将武器用于战争罪行的政府提供武器。The US has signed but not ratified the treaty.美国虽已签署,但尚未批准该条约。Another advantage for arms importers is in the price. 对武器进口方来说,中国武器的另一项优势是价格。Pakistan and China have not publicly disclosed the cost of a J-17, but western officials believe it is half the price of a similar western aircraft.中巴两国没有公开披露JF-17战机的价格,但西方官员认为其价格只有西方类似战机的一半。China has also sold its CH-4 drone — visually identical to the US General Atomics Reaper drone — to countries to which the US reportedly refuses to sell drones, such as Iraq, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.中国还将虹4无人机——外观神似美国通用原子公司(General Atomics)的死神(Reaper)无人机——出售给伊拉克、尼日利亚、沙特阿拉伯和巴基斯坦等国,据报道,美国拒绝向这些国家出售无人机。Questions about the combat effectiveness of Chinese weapons remain. 中国武器的战斗力仍然令人抱有疑问。Their combat record is so limited it is hard to make a comparison [with US weapons], said Peter Singer, an expert on drone warfare at the New America Foundation in Washington.华盛顿新美国基金会(New America Foundation)的无人机作战专家彼得.辛格(Peter Singer)说:它们的作战记录非常有限,很难(与美国武器)进行比较。While most Chinese arms are sold to governments, s suggest that some advanced weapons find their way into the hands of militant groups in Syria. 中国武器主要卖给政府,但有视频显示,部分先进武器会流入叙利亚武装组织的手中。While successes have been trumpeted by dealers, failures are still common. 虽然军火商吹嘘中国武器的威力,但失误却很常见。Chinese commentators are quick to say that what is being supplied to the Middle East is far from their best equipment.中国家很快回应称,目前为中东提供的武器远非他们最好的装备。 /201610/475110

The aptly-named SkunkLock is an ingenious bicycle lock that blasts would-be thieves with a disgusting cocktails of chemicals that most of the time causes them to vomit uncontrollably.臭锁是一种有创意的自行车锁,恰如其名,它会向想要偷车的贼喷一种令人恶心的气体,大多数时候会让他们控制不住地呕吐。When San Francisco-based Daniel Idzkowski learned that over 1.5 million bikes are being stolen across the ed States, every year, he decided it was up to him to come up with a more efficient means of theft prevention. 当美国旧金山人丹尼尔-伊兹柯夫斯基了解到每年美国有150万辆自行车被偷走之后,他决定想出更有效的防贼方法。After six months of work, he came up with the SkunkLock, a hollow steel U-lock system which houses presurized noxious chemical deterrent that’s even detectable through some of the most advanced gas masks. 经过六个月的辛苦努力,他做出了臭锁,这种空心钢U型锁中存有加压的有毒化学物质,即便某些最先进的防毒面具也无法抵抗它的威力。The proprietary formula, known as D_1, was developed by Idzkowski and his partner Yves Perrenoud, and is perfectly legal.这种名为D_1的专利配方由丹尼尔与他的合伙人伊夫斯-佩勒努共同研发,并且它符合美国法律规定。The SkunkLock is made out of hardened medium-carbon steel that exceeds 450 brinell, and is painted in black and white stripes reminiscent of a skunk. 臭锁由硬化中碳钢制作而成,其硬度超出450布氏硬度,臭锁的黑白花纹会让人联想到臭鼬。They hope that the pattern and SkunLock logo will scare away thieves, but if they insist on cutting through it, they will be in for a nasty surprise. 他们希望这种花纹和臭锁的商标能够吓走偷车贼,但如果偷车贼坚持要剪断车锁,那么他们就会收到难闻的惊喜。The smell is apparently so bad that it will stun perpetrators and cause them to either run in disgust or vomit almost instantly. 车锁里面化学物质的味道如此难闻,它会把偷车贼臭晕,并让他们恶心地逃走或者立即呕吐。And if they somehow find away to avoid the smell, it will certainly catch the attention of passers-by and increase the chances of preventing the theft.即便偷车贼不知怎的找到了避开难闻气味的方法,这种臭味也会引起路人的注意,增加偷车贼偷车的难度。No lock can guarantee someone will not go the extra mile to steal your bike or motorcycle, especially if it’s expensive and worth the risk, the SkunkLock team claims. 制作臭锁的团队表示:没有锁能够保自行车和托车不会被偷走,当车子非常昂贵且值得冒险的时候尤为如此。However, the SkunkLock does provide you the best chance of deterring theft by being the least attractive lock to compromise on your block. 然而,安装了臭锁,你的车就成为街区中贼最不愿去偷的车,是防止车辆被盗的最好办法。Thieves will generally take a slightly less profitable bike if the risk is significantly less. 通常情况下,如果风险能大幅降低,偷车贼就会去偷盗一辆获利略微减少的自行车。If a thief compromises the SkunkLock, not only are they exposing themselves to noxious chemicals, someone nearby may be asking what that smell is.如果偷车贼决定对付臭锁,那么他们不仅要闻有毒化学物质的气味,还必须接受路人的盘问。In case you’re afraid the SkunkLock might malfunction and accidentally release the gas in your face, its creators assure us that the only way to puncture the hollow chamber inside is by attempting to cut through it. 为免你担心臭锁失灵并意外将臭气喷到你的脸上,其创造者们向我们保只有剪断车锁,里面的臭气才会跑出来。And just so you never have to do that yourself, they are issuing a standard unique code for each unit sold that can be used to request additional keys in case you misplace the original. 为了防止你不得不因为丢失车钥匙而自己剪断臭锁,他们还会给每把锁配备唯一识别码,你可以借此找他们要备用钥匙。The company even offers an overnight key shipping option.该公司甚至提供隔夜邮寄务。Bike thieves will be relieved to hear that they won’t need to worry about the SkunkLock about another year. 偷车贼们听说这种臭锁不会很快面市的消息后,肯定都松了一口气。Their goal is ,000, of which they’ve only managed to raise ,598, with a month left to go. 最近丹尼尔和伊夫斯正在Indiegogo上众筹,他们的目标是两万美元,但他们现在只筹集到了5598美元,筹集时间只剩一个月了。If the campaign is successful, they estimate SkunkLock will be available in June 2017.如果众筹成功的话,他们估计臭锁将在2017年6月面市。 /201610/474602

Early African American: Jumping the Broom In the times of slavery in this country, African American couples were not allowed to formally marry and live together. To make a public declaration of their love and commitment, a man and woman jumped over a broom into matrimony, to the beat of drums. (The broom has long held significant meaning for the various Africans, symbolizing, the start of home- making for the newlywed couple. In Southern Africa, the day after the wedding, the bride assisted the other women in the family in sweeping the courtyard, indicating her dutiful willing ness to help her in-laws with housework till the newlyweds could move to their new home.) Some African-American couples today are choosing to include this symbolic rite in their wedding ceremony.   Armenia: Two white doves may be released to signify love and happiness. The bride may dress in red silk and may wear cardboard wings with feathers on her head. Small coins may be thrown at her.  早期非洲裔美国人:跳扫帚在美国的黑奴时代,黑人男女是不允许正式结婚生活在一起的。为了向世人宣布他们的爱情和婚约,一对黑人男女和着鼓声的节奏,一起跳过一把扫帚。(扫帚对各种非洲人长期来都具有很重要的意义,因为它意味着新婚夫妇组成家庭的开始。在南部非洲,新娘在婚后的第一天要帮助夫家的其他女性清扫院子,以此表明在住进自己的新家前,她愿意尽职地帮助丈夫的家人承担家务劳动。)直至今日,一些美国黑人还在他们的婚礼上举行这种象征性的仪式。  亚美尼亚:人们放飞两只白鸽,以示爱情和幸福。新娘穿着红色丝绸的装,头戴饰有羽毛的纸翼。人们还可向新娘投掷硬币。  Belgium: The bride may still embroider her name on her handkerchief, carry it on the wedding day, then frame it and keep it until the next family bride marries.  Bermuda: Islanders top their tiered wedding cakes with a tiny sapling. The newlyweds plant the tree at their home, where they can watch it grow, as their marriage grows.  Bohemia: The groom gives the bride a rosary, a prayer book, a girdle with three keys (to guard her virtue), a fur cap, and a silver wedding ring. The bride gives the groom a shirt sewn with gold th blended with colored silks and a wedding ring. Before the ceremony, the groomsman wraps the groom in the bride‘s cloak to keep evil spirits from creeping in and dividing their two hearts.  比利时:新娘可以将其姓名绣在手帕上,在婚礼举行日随身带上它。婚礼后将手帕装入镜框保存,直到家里的另外一个姑娘结婚。  百慕大:百慕大岛民在他们的多层婚礼蛋糕的顶层插上一株小树苗,新婚夫妇要将这株树苗种在家中,这样他们可以目睹树苗伴随着他们的婚姻一起长大。  波黑人:新郎向新娘赠送一串念珠,一本祈祷文,一根上面串着三把钥匙的腰带(用以保护她的贞洁),一顶毛皮帽,一个银的结婚戒指。新娘则向新郎赠送一件用金线和色丝绸缝制的衬衣和结婚戒指。婚礼前,伴郎将新郎裹进新娘的斗篷里,以防恶魔侵入,拆散他们相爱的心。  Caribbean: A rich black cake baked with dried fruits and rum is especially popular on the islands of Barbados, Grenada and St. Lucia. The recipe, handed down from mother to daughter, is embellished by each. It is considered a "pound" cake--with the recipe calling for a pound each of flour, dark brown sugar, butter, glace cherries, raisins, prunes, currants, plus a dozen eggs and flavorings. The dried fruits are soaked in rum and kept in a crock anywhere from two weeks to six months.  Croatia: Married female relatives remove the bride‘s veil and replace it with a kerchief and apron, symbols of her new married status. She is then serenaded by all the married women. Following the wedding ceremony, those assembled walk three times around the well (symbolizing the Holy Trinity,) and throw apples into it (symbolizing fertility).  加勒比地区:在巴巴多斯,格林纳达和圣卢西亚,用干果和朗姆酒制作的味道浓郁的蛋糕十分常见。蛋糕的制作方法,由母亲亲手传给女儿,并且各自对其加以修饰。人们把这种蛋糕叫作“一磅”蛋糕,因为制作这种蛋糕需要面粉、棕糖、黄油、糖霜樱桃、葡萄干、李子、红醋栗各一磅,加上一打鸡蛋和调味品。制作蛋糕的干果要在朗姆酒中浸泡并在瓦罐中保存两个星期至6个月。  克罗地亚:由已婚的女性亲戚摘下新娘的面纱,换上一块头巾和一条围裙,意味着新娘的已婚新身份。然后由所有的已婚妇女为新娘唱小夜曲。婚礼之后,所有来宾围绕着井走三圈(象征着圣三位一体),并向井中扔苹果(象征着生育)。  The Czech Republic: Friends would sneak into the bride‘s yard to plant a tree, then deco rate it with ribbons and painted eggshells. Legend said she would live as long as the tree. Brides in the countryside carry on the very old custom of wearing a wreath of rosemary, which symbolizes remembrance. The wreath is woven for each bride on her wedding eve by her friends as a wish for wisdom, love, and loyalty.  Egypt: Families, rather than grooms, propose to the bride. In Egypt, many marriages are arranged. The zaffa, or wedding march, is a musical procession of drums, bagpipes, horns, belly dancers, and men carrying flaming swords; it announces that the marriage is about to begin.  England: Traditionally, the village bride and her wedding party always walk together to the church. Leading the procession: a small girl strewing, blossoms along the road, so the bride‘s path through life will always be happy and laden with flowers. /200803/29060

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